Publications by authors named "Peter D Burbelo"

119 Publications

SARS-CoV-2 infection of the oral cavity and saliva.

Nat Med 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Division of Oral & Craniofacial Health Sciences, University of North Carolina Adams School of Dentistry, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Despite signs of infection-including taste loss, dry mouth and mucosal lesions such as ulcerations, enanthema and macules-the involvement of the oral cavity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is poorly understood. To address this, we generated and analyzed two single-cell RNA sequencing datasets of the human minor salivary glands and gingiva (9 samples, 13,824 cells), identifying 50 cell clusters. Using integrated cell normalization and annotation, we classified 34 unique cell subpopulations between glands and gingiva. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral entry factors such as ACE2 and TMPRSS members were broadly enriched in epithelial cells of the glands and oral mucosae. Using orthogonal RNA and protein expression assessments, we confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the glands and mucosae. Saliva from SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals harbored epithelial cells exhibiting ACE2 and TMPRSS expression and sustained SARS-CoV-2 infection. Acellular and cellular salivary fractions from asymptomatic individuals were found to transmit SARS-CoV-2 ex vivo. Matched nasopharyngeal and saliva samples displayed distinct viral shedding dynamics, and salivary viral burden correlated with COVID-19 symptoms, including taste loss. Upon recovery, this asymptomatic cohort exhibited sustained salivary IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Collectively, these data show that the oral cavity is an important site for SARS-CoV-2 infection and implicate saliva as a potential route of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01296-8DOI Listing
March 2021

Autoantibodies Targeting Intracellular and Extracellular Proteins in Autoimmunity.

Front Immunol 2021 8;12:548469. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Salivary Disorders Unit, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Detecting autoantibodies provides foundational information for the diagnosis of most autoimmune diseases. An important pathophysiological distinction is whether autoantibodies are directed against extracellular or intracellular proteins. Autoantibodies targeting extracellular domains of proteins, such as membrane receptors, channels or secreted molecules are often directly pathogenic, whereby autoantibody binding to the autoantigen disrupts the normal function of a critical protein or pathway, and/or triggers antibody-dependent cell surface complement killing. By comparison, autoantibodies directed against intracellular proteins are recognized as useful diagnostic biomarkers of abnormal autoimmune activity, but the link between antigenicity and pathogenicity is less straightforward. Because intracellular autoantigens are generally inaccessible to autoantibody binding, for the most part, they do not directly contribute to pathogenesis. In a few diseases, autoantibodies to intracellular targets cause damage indirectly by immune complex formation, immune activation, and other processes. In this review, the general features of and differences between autoimmune diseases segregated on the basis of intracellular or extracellular autoantigens are explored using over twenty examples. Expression profiles of autoantigens in relation to the tissues targeted by autoimmune disease and the temporal appearance of autoantibodies before clinical diagnosis often correlate with whether the respective autoantibodies mostly recognize either intracellular or extracellular autoantigens. In addition, current therapeutic strategies are discussed from this vantage point. One drug, rituximab, depletes CD20+ B-cells and is highly effective for autoimmune disorders associated with autoantibodies against extracellular autoantigens. In contrast, diseases associated with autoantibodies directed predominately against intracellular autoantigens show much more complex immune cell involvement, such as T-cell mediated tissue damage, and require different strategies for optimal therapeutic benefit. Understanding the clinical ramifications of autoimmunity derived by autoantibodies against either intracellular or extracellular autoantigens, or a spectrum of both, has practical implications for guiding drug development, generating monitoring tools, stratification of patient interventions, and designing trials based on predictive autoantibody profiles for autoimmune diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.548469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982651PMC
March 2021

Time-resolved systems immunology reveals a late juncture linked to fatal COVID-19.

Cell 2021 04 10;184(7):1836-1857.e22. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Multiscale Systems Biology Section, Laboratory of Immune System Biology, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA; NIH Center for Human Immunology, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

COVID-19 exhibits extensive patient-to-patient heterogeneity. To link immune response variation to disease severity and outcome over time, we longitudinally assessed circulating proteins as well as 188 surface protein markers, transcriptome, and T cell receptor sequence simultaneously in single peripheral immune cells from COVID-19 patients. Conditional-independence network analysis revealed primary correlates of disease severity, including gene expression signatures of apoptosis in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and attenuated inflammation but increased fatty acid metabolism in CD56CD16 NK cells linked positively to circulating interleukin (IL)-15. CD8 T cell activation was apparent without signs of exhaustion. Although cellular inflammation was depressed in severe patients early after hospitalization, it became elevated by days 17-23 post symptom onset, suggestive of a late wave of inflammatory responses. Furthermore, circulating protein trajectories at this time were divergent between and predictive of recovery versus fatal outcomes. Our findings stress the importance of timing in the analysis, clinical monitoring, and therapeutic intervention of COVID-19.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.02.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7874909PMC
April 2021

SARS-CoV-2 antibody magnitude and detectability are driven by disease severity, timing, and assay.

medRxiv 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Serosurveillance studies are critical for estimating SARS-CoV-2 transmission and immunity, but interpretation of results is currently limited by poorly defined variability in the performance of antibody assays to detect seroreactivity over time in individuals with different clinical presentations. We measured longitudinal antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in plasma samples from a diverse cohort of 128 individuals over 160 days using 14 binding and neutralization assays. For all assays, we found a consistent and strong effect of disease severity on antibody magnitude, with fever, cough, hospitalization, and oxygen requirement explaining much of this variation. We found that binding assays measuring responses to spike protein had consistently higher correlation with neutralization than those measuring responses to nucleocapsid, regardless of assay format and sample timing. However, assays varied substantially with respect to sensitivity during early convalescence and in time to seroreversion. Variations in sensitivity and durability were particularly dramatic for individuals with mild infection, who had consistently lower antibody titers and represent the majority of the infected population, with sensitivities often differing substantially from reported test characteristics (e.g., amongst commercial assays, sensitivity at 6 months ranged from 33% for ARCHITECT IgG to 98% for VITROS Total Ig). Thus, the ability to detect previous infection by SARS-CoV-2 is highly dependent on the severity of the initial infection, timing relative to infection, and the assay used. These findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of SARS-CoV-2 serosurveillance studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.03.21251639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941652PMC
March 2021

Prolonged Posttreatment Virologic Control and Complete Seroreversion After Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jan 15;8(1):ofaa613. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: Possible human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 clearance has rarely been reported. In this study, we describe a unique case of an HIV-positive, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-experienced woman with prior acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who has not experienced viral rebound for over 12 years since discontinuing cART.

Methods: Leukapheresis, colonoscopy, and lymph node excision were performed for detailed examination of virologic (including HIV reservoir) and immunologic features. Comparisons were made with chronically infected patients and healthy controls.

Results: No HIV-specific antibodies were detected in serum. Plasma HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) levels were <0.2 copies/mL, and, except for low-frequency HIV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) cells in lymph node tissue (1 copy/3 × 10 cells), HIV antigen could not be detected by quantitative virus outgrowth (<0.0025 infectious units/10 CD4 T cells) or by most measurements of HIV RNA or DNA in blood, lymph node, or gut-associated mononuclear cells. Human immunodeficiency virus-specific T-cell responses were detectable but low. Brain imaging revealed a prior biopsy site and persistent white matter disease since 1996. Human immunodeficiency virus DNA cells in the 1996 brain biopsy specimen confirmed her identity and initial HIV diagnosis.

Conclusions: This represents the first report of complete seroreversion, prolonged posttreatment virus suppression, a profoundly small HIV reservoir, and persistent HIV-specific T cells in an adult with prior AIDS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824876PMC
January 2021

Reinfection with SARS-CoV-2: Implications for Vaccines.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Dec 18. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 has become pandemic and the duration of protective immunity to the virus is unknown. Cases of persons reinfected with the virus are being reported with increasing frequency. At present it is unclear how common reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 is and how long serum antibodies and virus-specific T cells persist after infection. For many other respiratory virus infections, including influenza and the seasonal coronaviruses that cause colds, serum antibodies persist for only months to a few years and reinfections are very common. Here we review what is known about the duration of immunity and reinfection with coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and well as the duration of immunity to other viruses and virus vaccines. These findings have implications for the need of continued protective measures and for vaccines for persons previously infected with SARS-CoV-2.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1866DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799323PMC
December 2020

SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells are rapidly expanded for therapeutic use and target conserved regions of the membrane protein.

Blood 2020 12;136(25):2905-2917

Center for Cancer and Immunology Research and.

T-cell responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been described in recovered patients, and may be important for immunity following infection and vaccination as well as for the development of an adoptive immunotherapy for the treatment of immunocompromised individuals. In this report, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells can be expanded from convalescent donors and recognize immunodominant viral epitopes in conserved regions of membrane, spike, and nucleocapsid. Following in vitro expansion using a good manufacturing practice-compliant methodology (designed to allow the rapid translation of this novel SARS-CoV-2 T-cell therapy to the clinic), membrane, spike, and nucleocapsid peptides elicited interferon-γ production, in 27 (59%), 12 (26%), and 10 (22%) convalescent donors (respectively), as well as in 2 of 15 unexposed controls. We identified multiple polyfunctional CD4-restricted T-cell epitopes within a highly conserved region of membrane protein, which induced polyfunctional T-cell responses, which may be critical for the development of effective vaccine and T-cell therapies. Hence, our study shows that SARS-CoV-2 directed T-cell immunotherapy targeting structural proteins, most importantly membrane protein, should be feasible for the prevention or early treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised patients with blood disorders or after bone marrow transplantation to achieve antiviral control while mitigating uncontrolled inflammation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020008488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7746091PMC
December 2020

An immune-based biomarker signature is associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients.

JCI Insight 2021 01 11;6(1). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Immune and inflammatory responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contribute to disease severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the utility of specific immune-based biomarkers to predict clinical outcome remains elusive. Here, we analyzed levels of 66 soluble biomarkers in 175 Italian patients with COVID-19 ranging from mild/moderate to critical severity and assessed type I IFN-, type II IFN-, and NF-κB-dependent whole-blood transcriptional signatures. A broad inflammatory signature was observed, implicating activation of various immune and nonhematopoietic cell subsets. Discordance between IFN-α2a protein and IFNA2 transcript levels in blood suggests that type I IFNs during COVID-19 may be primarily produced by tissue-resident cells. Multivariable analysis of patients' first samples revealed 12 biomarkers (CCL2, IL-15, soluble ST2 [sST2], NGAL, sTNFRSF1A, ferritin, IL-6, S100A9, MMP-9, IL-2, sVEGFR1, IL-10) that when increased were independently associated with mortality. Multivariate analyses of longitudinal biomarker trajectories identified 8 of the aforementioned biomarkers (IL-15, IL-2, NGAL, CCL2, MMP-9, sTNFRSF1A, sST2, IL-10) and 2 additional biomarkers (lactoferrin, CXCL9) that were substantially associated with mortality when increased, while IL-1α was associated with mortality when decreased. Among these, sST2, sTNFRSF1A, IL-10, and IL-15 were consistently higher throughout the hospitalization in patients who died versus those who recovered, suggesting that these biomarkers may provide an early warning of eventual disease outcome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.144455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7821609PMC
January 2021

Integrated Single-Cell Atlases Reveal an Oral SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Transmission Axis.

medRxiv 2020 Oct 27. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Despite signs of infection, the involvement of the oral cavity in COVID-19 is poorly understood. To address this, single-cell RNA sequencing data-sets were integrated from human minor salivary glands and gingiva to identify 11 epithelial, 7 mesenchymal, and 15 immune cell clusters. Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry factor expression showed enrichment in epithelia including the ducts and acini of the salivary glands and the suprabasal cells of the mucosae. COVID-19 autopsy tissues confirmed in vivo SARS-CoV-2 infection in the salivary glands and mucosa. Saliva from SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals harbored epithelial cells exhibiting expression and SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Matched nasopharyngeal and saliva samples found distinct viral shedding dynamics and viral burden in saliva correlated with COVID-19 symptoms including taste loss. Upon recovery, this cohort exhibited salivary antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Collectively, the oral cavity represents a robust site for COVID-19 infection and implicates saliva in viral transmission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.26.20219089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7605572PMC
October 2020

SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cells Are Rapidly Expanded for Therapeutic Use and Target Conserved Regions of Membrane Protein.

Blood 2020 Oct 26. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

The George Washington University, United States.

T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 have been described in recovered patients, and may be important for immunity following infection and vaccination as well as for the development of an adoptive immunotherapy for the treatment of immunocompromised individuals. In this report, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cells can be expanded from convalescent donors, and recognize immunodominant viral epitopes in conserved regions of membrane, spike, and nucleocapsid. Following in vitro expansion using a GMP-compliant methodology (designed to allow the rapid translation of this novel SARS-CoV-2 T-cell therapy to the clinic), membrane, spike, and nucleocapsid peptides elicited IFN-γ production, in 27 (59%), 12 (26%), and 10 (22%) convalescent donors (respectively), as well as in 2 of 15 unexposed controls. We identified multiple polyfunctional CD4-restricted T-cell epitopes within a highly conserved region of membrane protein, which induced polyfunctional T cell responses, which may be critical for the development of effective vaccine and T cell therapies. Hence, our study shows that SARS-CoV-2 directed T-cell immunotherapy targeting structural proteins, most importantly membrane protein, should be feasible for the prevention or early treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised patients with blood disorders or after bone marrow transplantation to achieve anti-viral control while mitigating uncontrolled inflammation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020008488DOI Listing
October 2020

Autoantibodies against type I IFNs in patients with life-threatening COVID-19.

Authors:
Paul Bastard Lindsey B Rosen Qian Zhang Eleftherios Michailidis Hans-Heinrich Hoffmann Yu Zhang Karim Dorgham Quentin Philippot Jérémie Rosain Vivien Béziat Jérémy Manry Elana Shaw Liis Haljasmägi Pärt Peterson Lazaro Lorenzo Lucy Bizien Sophie Trouillet-Assant Kerry Dobbs Adriana Almeida de Jesus Alexandre Belot Anne Kallaste Emilie Catherinot Yacine Tandjaoui-Lambiotte Jeremie Le Pen Gaspard Kerner Benedetta Bigio Yoann Seeleuthner Rui Yang Alexandre Bolze András N Spaan Ottavia M Delmonte Michael S Abers Alessandro Aiuti Giorgio Casari Vito Lampasona Lorenzo Piemonti Fabio Ciceri Kaya Bilguvar Richard P Lifton Marc Vasse David M Smadja Mélanie Migaud Jérome Hadjadj Benjamin Terrier Darragh Duffy Lluis Quintana-Murci Diederik van de Beek Lucie Roussel Donald C Vinh Stuart G Tangye Filomeen Haerynck David Dalmau Javier Martinez-Picado Petter Brodin Michel C Nussenzweig Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis Carlos Rodríguez-Gallego Guillaume Vogt Trine H Mogensen Andrew J Oler Jingwen Gu Peter D Burbelo Jeffrey I Cohen Andrea Biondi Laura Rachele Bettini Mariella D'Angio Paolo Bonfanti Patrick Rossignol Julien Mayaux Frédéric Rieux-Laucat Eystein S Husebye Francesca Fusco Matilde Valeria Ursini Luisa Imberti Alessandra Sottini Simone Paghera Eugenia Quiros-Roldan Camillo Rossi Riccardo Castagnoli Daniela Montagna Amelia Licari Gian Luigi Marseglia Xavier Duval Jade Ghosn John S Tsang Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky Kai Kisand Michail S Lionakis Anne Puel Shen-Ying Zhang Steven M Holland Guy Gorochov Emmanuelle Jouanguy Charles M Rice Aurélie Cobat Luigi D Notarangelo Laurent Abel Helen C Su Jean-Laurent Casanova

Science 2020 10 24;370(6515). Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM U1163, Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Paris, France.

Interindividual clinical variability in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is vast. We report that at least 101 of 987 patients with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia had neutralizing immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies (auto-Abs) against interferon-ω (IFN-ω) (13 patients), against the 13 types of IFN-α (36), or against both (52) at the onset of critical disease; a few also had auto-Abs against the other three type I IFNs. The auto-Abs neutralize the ability of the corresponding type I IFNs to block SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. These auto-Abs were not found in 663 individuals with asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and were present in only 4 of 1227 healthy individuals. Patients with auto-Abs were aged 25 to 87 years and 95 of the 101 were men. A B cell autoimmune phenocopy of inborn errors of type I IFN immunity accounts for life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in at least 2.6% of women and 12.5% of men.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abd4585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857397PMC
October 2020

Distinct viral reservoirs in individuals with spontaneous control of HIV-1.

Nature 2020 09 26;585(7824):261-267. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Sustained, drug-free control of HIV-1 replication is naturally achieved in less than 0.5% of infected individuals (here termed 'elite controllers'), despite the presence of a replication-competent viral reservoir. Inducing such an ability to spontaneously maintain undetectable plasma viraemia is a major objective of HIV-1 cure research, but the characteristics of proviral reservoirs in elite controllers remain to be determined. Here, using next-generation sequencing of near-full-length single HIV-1 genomes and corresponding chromosomal integration sites, we show that the proviral reservoirs of elite controllers frequently consist of oligoclonal to near-monoclonal clusters of intact proviral sequences. In contrast to individuals treated with long-term antiretroviral therapy, intact proviral sequences from elite controllers were integrated at highly distinct sites in the human genome and were preferentially located in centromeric satellite DNA or in Krüppel-associated box domain-containing zinc finger genes on chromosome 19, both of which are associated with heterochromatin features. Moreover, the integration sites of intact proviral sequences from elite controllers showed an increased distance to transcriptional start sites and accessible chromatin of the host genome and were enriched in repressive chromatin marks. These data suggest that a distinct configuration of the proviral reservoir represents a structural correlate of natural viral control, and that the quality, rather than the quantity, of viral reservoirs can be an important distinguishing feature for a functional cure of HIV-1 infection. Moreover, in one elite controller, we were unable to detect intact proviral sequences despite analysing more than 1.5 billion peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which raises the possibility that a sterilizing cure of HIV-1 infection, which has previously been observed only following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, may be feasible in rare instances.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2651-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7837306PMC
September 2020

Detection of Nucleocapsid Antibody to SARS-CoV-2 is More Sensitive than Antibody to Spike Protein in COVID-19 Patients.

medRxiv 2020 Apr 24. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: SARS-CoV-2, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is associated with respiratory-related morbidity and mortality. Assays to detect virus-specific antibodies are important to understand the prevalence of infection and the course of the immune response.

Methodology: Quantitative measurements of plasma or serum antibodies by luciferase immunoprecipitation assay systems (LIPS) to the nucleocapsid and spike proteins were analyzed in 100 cross-sectional or longitudinal samples from SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. A subset of samples was tested with and without heat inactivation.

Results: Fifteen or more days after symptom onset, antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, while antibodies to spike protein were detected with 91% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Neither antibody levels nor the rate of seropositivity were significantly reduced by heat inactivation of samples. Analysis of daily samples from six patients with COVID-19 showed anti-nucleocapsid and spike antibodies appearing between day 8 to day 14 after initial symptoms. Immunocompromised patients generally had a delayed antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 compared to immunocompetent patients.

Conclusions: Antibody to the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 is more sensitive than spike protein antibody for detecting early infection. Analyzing heat-inactivated samples by LIPS is a safe and sensitive method for detecting SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.20.20071423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239070PMC
April 2020

Sensitivity in Detection of Antibodies to Nucleocapsid and Spike Proteins of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019.

J Infect Dis 2020 06;222(2):206-213

Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is associated with respiratory-related disease and death. Assays to detect virus-specific antibodies are important to understand the prevalence of infection and the course of the immune response.

Methods: Quantitative measurements of plasma or serum antibodies to the nucleocapsid and spike proteins were analyzed using luciferase immunoprecipitation system assays in 100 cross-sectional or longitudinal samples from patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. A subset of samples was tested both with and without heat inactivation.

Results: At >14 days after symptom onset, antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, whereas antibodies to spike protein were detected with 91% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Neither antibody levels nor the rate of seropositivity were significantly reduced by heat inactivation of samples. Analysis of daily samples from 6 patients with COVID-19 showed anti-nucleocapsid and spike protein antibodies appearing between days 8 and 14 after initial symptoms. Immunocompromised patients generally had a delayed antibody response to SARS-CoV-2, compared with immunocompetent patients.

Conclusions: Antibody to the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 is more sensitive than spike protein antibody for detecting early infection. Analyzing heat-inactivated samples with a luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay is a safe and sensitive method for detecting SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7313936PMC
June 2020

Tropism, pathology, and transmission of equine parvovirus-hepatitis.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 20;9(1):651-663. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Baker Institute for Animal Health, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) has recently been associated with cases of Theiler's disease, a form of fulminant hepatic necrosis in horses. To assess whether EqPV-H is the cause of Theiler's disease, we first demonstrated hepatotropism by PCR on tissues from acutely infected horses. We then experimentally inoculated horses with EqPV-H and 8 of 10 horses developed hepatitis. One horse showed clinical signs of liver failure. The onset of hepatitis was temporally associated with seroconversion and a decline in viremia. Liver histology and hybridization showed lymphocytic infiltrates and necrotic EqPV-H-infected hepatocytes. We next investigated potential modes of transmission. Iatrogenic transmission via allogeneic stem cell therapy for orthopedic injuries was previously suggested in a case series of Theiler's disease, and was demonstrated here for the first time. Vertical transmission and mechanical vectoring by horse fly bites could not be demonstrated in this study, potentially due to limited sample size. We found EqPV-H shedding in oral and nasal secretions, and in feces. Importantly, we could demonstrate EqPV-H transmission via oral inoculation with viremic serum. Together, our findings provide additional information that EqPV-H is the likely cause of Theiler's disease and that transmission of EqPV-H occurs via both iatrogenic and natural routes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1741326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7144241PMC
March 2020

Emerging technologies for the detection of viral infections.

Future Virol 2019 Jan 14;14(1):39-49. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Dental Clinical Research Core, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Viruses represent one of the major environmental agents that cause human illness and disease. However, the ability to diagnose viral infections is limited by detection capability and scope. Here we describe several emerging technologies that provide rapid and/or high-quality viral diagnostic information. Two technologies, novel CRISPR-based diagnostics and a portable DNA sequencing instrument, are uniquely suited to increase the number of viral agents analyzed, even in point of care settings. We also discuss a phage-based method for generating comprehensive viral profiles of previous exposure/infection and a fluid-phase immunoassay that yields highly quantitative viral antibody analyses. Future applications of these approaches will accelerate on-site clinical diagnosis of viral infections and provide insights into the role viruses play in complex diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fvl-2018-0145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6956246PMC
January 2019

Detection of PLA2R Autoantibodies before the Diagnosis of Membranous Nephropathy.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 01 16;31(1):208-217. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Nephrology Department, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland; and

Background: Circulating serum autoantibodies against the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R-AB) are a key biomarker in the diagnosis and monitoring of primary membranous nephropathy (MN). However, little is known about the appearance and trajectory of PLA2R-AB before the clinical diagnosis of MN.

Methods: Using the Department of Defense Serum Repository, we analyzed PLA2R-AB in multiple, 1054 longitudinal serum samples collected before diagnosis of MN from 134 individuals with primary MN, 35 individuals with secondary MN, and 134 healthy volunteers. We evaluated the presence and timing of non-nephrotic range proteinuria (NNRP) and serum albumin measurements in relation to PLA2R-AB status.

Results: Analysis of PLA2R-AB in longitudinal serum samples revealed seropositivity in 44% (59 out of 134) of primary MN cases, 3% (one out of 35) of secondary MN cases, and in 0% of healthy controls. Among patients with MN, PLA2R-AB were detectable at a median of 274 days before renal biopsy diagnosis (interquartile range, 71-821 days). Approximately one third of the participants became seropositive within 3 months of MN diagnosis. Of the 21 individuals with documented prediagnostic NNRP, 43% (nine out of 21) were seropositive before NNRP was first documented and 28.5% (six out of 21) were seropositive at the same time as NNRP; 66% (39 out of 59) of those seropositive for PLA2R-AB had hypoalbuminemia present at the time antibody was initially detected. Twelve participants (20%) were seropositive before hypoalbuminemia became apparent, and eight participants (14%) were seropositive after hypoalbuminemia became apparent.

Conclusions: Circulating PLA2R-AB are detectable months to years before documented NNRP and biopsy-proven diagnosis in patients with MN.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2019050538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934991PMC
January 2020

Lethal Hemorrhagic Disease and Clinical Illness Associated with Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus 1 Are Caused by Primary Infection: Implications for the Detection of Diagnostic Proteins.

J Virol 2020 01 17;94(3). Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants, both in captivity and in the wild. Most deaths associated with the virus are caused by two chimeric variants of EEHV1 (EEHV1A and EEHV1B), while two other EEHVs endemic within Asian elephants (EEHV4 and EEHV5) have been recognized but cause death less often. Whether lethal EEHV infections are due to primary infection or reactivation of latent virus remains unknown, and knowledge of the anti-EEHV antibody levels in young elephants is limited. To close these gaps, we sought to develop a serologic assay capable of distinguishing among infections with different EEHVs using a luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) for antibody profiling and a panel of conserved EEHV recombinant proteins and proteins unique to EEHV1. The results showed that elephants dying from EEHV1 hemorrhagic disease or ill from EEHV infection were seronegative for the EEHV species that caused the disease or illness, indicating that the events were associated with primary infection rather than reactivation of latent virus. We also demonstrated that waning of EEHV1-specific antibodies can occur in the first 2 years of life, when a threshold protective level of antibody may be needed to prevent severe EEHV1-related disease. Use of the LIPS assay to identify putative "diagnostic" proteins would be a valuable asset in determining the EEHV immune status of young elephants and responses to candidate EEHV vaccines in the future. Whether clinical illness and deaths associated with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) infection result from primary infection or reactivation of latent virus is a longstanding question in the field. By applying a relatively new assay, the luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS), combined with the genomic sequences of the viruses, we gained the insights and tools needed to resolve this issue. Our EEHV1-specific LIPS assay should be useful for assessing the vulnerability of elephant calves to infection with different EEHVs and evaluating antibody responses to anti-EEHV vaccines. A significant proportion of the Asian elephant population is under some form of human care. Hence, the ability to screen for EEHV immune status in elephant calves should have a major impact on the management of these animals worldwide.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01528-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7000966PMC
January 2020

Luciferase-Based Detection of Antibodies for the Diagnosis of HPV-Associated Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2019 Aug 6;9(3). Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Experimental Medicine Section, National Institutes of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Point-of-care tests are needed for the screening of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and other malignancies. Luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS), employing light-emitting proteins, were used to examine serum antibodies against several cancer-associated targets in blood donor controls and subjects with colon cancer (CC) and HNSCC. The assessment of antibodies against the wild type p53 tumor antigen showed that approximately 25% of the CC and 20% of the HNSCC patients were seropositive. In addition, humoral responses against two p53 mutants, p53-R175H and p53-R273H, generally tracked the antibody responses seen against wild type p53. Analysis of antibodies against highly specific biomarkers of HPV-16-associated malignancy, E2, E6, and E7 oncoproteins, revealed no seropositivity in blood donors and CC patients. However, 45% (9/20) of the HNSCC patients showed E6 seropositivity, which overlapped all the detectable E2 (40%; 8/20) and E7 seropositive subjects (35%; 7/20). Using neodymium magnets, ultrarapid LIPSTICKS testing of HPV-16 E6 antibodies in <60 s per HNSCC sample demonstrated almost the same diagnostic performance (40% sensitivity and 100% specificity) as LIPS testing in 2.5 h. While additional improvements and standardization are needed, these results highlight the possibility of using these approaches for the diagnosis of HPV-16-associated HNSCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9030089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6787723PMC
August 2019

Corrigendum: Paradoxical CD4 Lymphopenia in Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS).

Front Immunol 2019;10:1552. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, United States.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01193.].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6624452PMC
July 2019

Paradoxical CD4 Lymphopenia in Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS).

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:1193. Epub 2019 May 29.

Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, United States.

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is caused by germline or somatic loss of function mutations resulting in impaired apoptosis and consequent expansion of T-lymphocytes causing organomegaly and autoimmune anemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Herein, we report on a case of disseminated varicella zoster infection after post-partum vaccination in a patient found to have CD4 lymphopenia and eventually diagnosed with ALPS caused by a novel germline missense mutation in death-domain. A subsequent retrospective analysis of 169 patients of the NIH ALPS-FAS cohort, revealed that CD4-T-cells lymphopenia (< 300 cells/μl) may occur in 5% of ALPS-FAS patients irrespectively of the underlying genetic defect, organomegaly or immunosuppressive treatment. Although immunophenotyping did not show depletion of specific CD4-T-cells subpopulations, CD4-lymphopenic ALPS-FAS subjects had an expansion of a subset of circulating T-follicular-helper (cTfh) cells, associated with autoantibody production (CCR7PD-1). Furthermore, autoantibodies binding on CD4-T-cells were detected in 50% of the CD4-lymphopenic ALPS-FAS patients and caused cytotoxicity in a natural killer (NK)-mediated antibody-dependent-cellular cytotoxicity assay. Such autoantibodies can therefore be associated with CD4-T-cell death, impaired activation induced proliferation or impaired trafficking. The expansion of autoreactive T-cells in ALPS-FAS is known to be associated with autoimmune clinical manifestations, however our study reveals that ALPS-FAS can also be associated with a paradoxical depletion of CD4-T-cells due to the presence of autoantibodies on the surface of CD4-T-cells which can in turn result in increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. These novel findings have implications for the diagnosis, clinical monitoring, and management of patients with ALPS-FAS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6549489PMC
July 2020

Lymphocyte-driven regional immunopathology in pneumonitis caused by impaired central immune tolerance.

Sci Transl Med 2019 06;11(495)

Fungal Pathogenesis Section, LCIM, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a monogenic disorder caused by mutations, presents with several autoimmune diseases. Among these, endocrine organ failure is widely recognized, but the prevalence, immunopathogenesis, and treatment of non-endocrine manifestations such as pneumonitis remain poorly characterized. We enrolled 50 patients with APECED in a prospective observational study and comprehensively examined their clinical and radiographic findings, performed pulmonary function tests, and analyzed immunological characteristics in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and endobronchial and lung biopsies. Pneumonitis was found in >40% of our patients, presented early in life, was misdiagnosed despite chronic respiratory symptoms and accompanying radiographic and pulmonary function abnormalities, and caused hypoxemic respiratory failure and death. Autoantibodies against BPIFB1 and KCNRG and the homozygous c.967_979del13 mutation are associated with pneumonitis development. APECED pneumonitis features compartmentalized immunopathology, with accumulation of activated neutrophils in the airways and lymphocytic infiltration in intraepithelial, submucosal, peribronchiolar, and interstitial areas. Beyond APECED, we extend these observations to lung disease seen in other conditions with secondary AIRE deficiency (thymoma and RAG deficiency). Aire-deficient mice had similar compartmentalized cellular immune responses in the airways and lung tissue, which was ameliorated by deficiency of T and B lymphocytes. Accordingly, T and B lymphocyte-directed immunomodulation controlled symptoms and radiographic abnormalities and improved pulmonary function in patients with APECED pneumonitis. Collectively, our findings unveil lung autoimmunity as a common, early, and unrecognized manifestation of APECED and provide insights into the immunopathogenesis and treatment of pulmonary autoimmunity associated with impaired central immune tolerance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aav5597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6647037PMC
June 2019

Identification of rare HIV-1-infected patients with extreme CD4+ T cell decline despite ART-mediated viral suppression.

JCI Insight 2019 04 18;4(8). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Laboratory of Immunoregulation, HIV Pathogenesis Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: The goal of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is to suppress HIV-1 replication and reconstitute CD4+ T cells. Here, we report on HIV-infected individuals who had a paradoxical decline in CD4+ T cells despite ART-mediated suppression of plasma HIV-1 load (pVL). We defined such an immunological outcome as extreme immune decline (EXID).

Methods: EXID's clinical and immunological characteristics were compared to immunological responders (IRs), immunological nonresponders (INRs), healthy controls (HCs), and idiopathic CD4+ lymphopenia (ICL) patients. T cell immunophenotyping and assembly/activation of inflammasomes were evaluated by flow cytometry. PBMC transcriptome analysis and genetic screening for pathogenic variants were performed. Levels of cytokines/chemokines were measured by electrochemiluminescence. Luciferase immunoprecipitation system and NK-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays were used to identify anti-lymphocyte autoantibodies.

Results: EXIDs were infected with non-B HIV-1 subtypes and after 192 weeks of consistent ART-mediated pVL suppression had a median CD4+ decrease of 157 cells/μl, compared with CD4+ increases of 193 cells/μl and 427 cells/μl in INR and IR, respectively. EXID had reduced naive CD4+ T cells, but similar proportions of cycling CD4+ T cells and HLA-DR+CD38+CD8+ T cells compared with IR and INR. Levels of inflammatory cytokines were also similar in EXID and INR, but the IL-7 axis was profoundly perturbed compared with HC, IR, INR, and ICL. Genes involved in T cell and monocyte/macrophage function, autophagy, and cell migration were differentially expressed in EXID. Two of the 5 EXIDs had autoantibodies causing ADCC, while 2 different EXIDs had an increased inflammasome/caspase-1 activation despite consistently ART-suppressed pVL.

Conclusions: EXID is a distinct immunological outcome compared with previously described INR. Anti-CD4+ T cell autoantibodies and aberrant inflammasome/caspase-1 activation despite suppressed HIV-1 viremia are among the mechanisms responsible for EXID.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.127113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6538352PMC
April 2019

Autoantibodies are present before the clinical diagnosis of systemic sclerosis.

PLoS One 2019 26;14(3):e0214202. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Nephrology Department, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, United States of America.

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disorder associated with vascular dysfunction and fibrotic changes in the skin, vasculature and internal organs. Although serologic abnormalities are an important diagnostic tool for SSc, little is known about whether autoantibodies precede clinical diagnosis. Here we investigated the presence of autoantibodies before SSc diagnosis and assessed whether certain autoantibodies might associate with the future onset of scleroderma renal crisis (SRC), a potentially fatal complication of the disease. Using the Department of Defense Serum Repository, autoantibodies were analyzed from archived, prospectively collected, longitudinal serum samples from sixteen individuals with SRC (SSc/SRC) and thirty cases of SSc without SRC (SSc/no SRC), matched for age, sex, and race. Seventy five percent (12/16) of the SSc/SRC and 40% (12/30) of the SSc/no SRC were seropositive for at least one autoantibody prior to clinical diagnosis (up to 27.1 years earlier, mean = -7.4 years). Although both disease groups demonstrated a heterogeneous immunoreactivity profile against the autoantigen panel, the SSc/SRC subjects showed two enriched clusters with one featuring elevated levels of autoantibodies against Ro52 and/or Ro60 and another with high levels of immunoreactivity against the RNA polymerase complex. Consistent with larger spectrum of immunoreactivity and the elevated levels of autoantibodies in SSc/SRC, the total response against the autoantigen panel from the last time point of the seropositive subjects revealed that the SSc/SRC cohort harbored higher antibody levels (p = 0.02) compared to SSc/no SRC. Overall, our findings demonstrate that relevant seropositive autoantibodies often precede the clinical diagnosis of SSc/no SRC and SSc/SRC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214202PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6435159PMC
December 2019

Clinical features of Sjögren's syndrome patients with autoantibodies against interferons.

Clin Transl Med 2019 Jan 3;8(1). Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Sjögren's Syndrome and Salivary Gland Dysfunction Unit, NIDCR, NIH, Bethesda, USA.

Background: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by immune attack on the salivary and lacrimal glands. Given the known cytokine activation and type I interferon gene expression signature found in SS, we hypothesized that anticytokine autoantibodies might be detectable by Luciferase immunoprecipitation systems in some SS patients and correlate with clinical symptoms.

Results: Luciferase immunoprecipitation systems was used to screen for serum anti-cytokine autoantibodies in 57 primary SS patients and 25 healthy volunteers. Autoantibodies were detected against GMCSF, interferon-γ, -α and, -ω in one, two, two and six patients with SS, respectively. None of the healthy volunteers showed anticytokine autoantibodies and none of the SS or control subjects showed autoantibodies against interferon-λ. One 51-year old female SS subject with the highest anti-interferon-α and -ω autoantibody levels had stable autoantibody levels over the course of a year. In vitro functional testing of serum autoantibodies from this subject demonstrated partially neutralizing activity for interferon-α signaling. Clinical information on this individual revealed a low focus score and high levels of unstimulated salivary flow, suggesting the possibility that interferon-α autoantibody neutralizing activity may have contributed to the milder sicca symptoms.

Conclusion: Overall, these findings demonstrate that a subset of SS patients (16%) harbor autoantibodies against GMCSF, interferon-γ, interferon-ω, and interferon-α. These data support the observation that high levels of interferon-α autoantibodies may attenuate disease symptoms in SS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40169-018-0218-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6314934PMC
January 2019

Autoimmune hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis in a patient with FGF23 autoantibodies.

J Clin Invest 2018 12 29;128(12):5368-5373. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Skeletal Disorders and Mineral Homeostasis Section, and.

Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC)/hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome (HHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder of ectopic calcification due to deficiency of or resistance to intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (iFGF23). Inactivating mutations in FGF23, N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3), or KLOTHO (KL) have been reported as causing HFTC/HHS. We present what we believe is the first identified case of autoimmune hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis in an 8-year-old boy. In addition to the classical clinical and biochemical features of hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis, the patient exhibited markedly elevated intact and C-terminal FGF23 levels, suggestive of FGF23 resistance. However, no mutations in FGF23, KL, or FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) were identified. He subsequently developed type 1 diabetes mellitus, which raised the possibility of an autoimmune cause for hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis. Luciferase immunoprecipitation systems revealed markedly elevated FGF23 autoantibodies without detectable FGFR1 or Klotho autoantibodies. Using an in vitro FGF23 functional assay, we found that the FGF23 autoantibodies in the patient's plasma blocked downstream signaling via the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, this report describes the first case, to our knowledge, of autoimmune hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis with pathogenic autoantibodies targeting FGF23. Identification of this pathophysiology extends the etiologic spectrum of hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis and suggests that immunomodulatory therapy may be an effective treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI122004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6264742PMC
December 2018

Autoantibodies against the Immunoglobulin-Binding Region of Ro52 Link its Autoantigenicity with Pathogen Neutralization.

Sci Rep 2018 02 20;8(1):3345. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Sjögren's Syndrome and Salivary Gland Dysfunction Unit, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Ro52/TRIM21 plays a key role in antibody-dependent pathogen neutralization and is a major autoantigen in systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome (SS), and other autoimmune diseases. Here we evaluated immunoreactivity against Ro52-related molecules in SS and healthy volunteers. Although most proteins examined were not antigenic, several TRIM paralogs, including TRIM22, and TRIM38, showed sporadic immunoreactivity in SS. In contrast, the murine Ro52 ortholog with limited linear homology demonstrated high levels of autoantibodies implicating the importance of shared conformational epitopes. To further explore the autoantigencity of Ro52, deletion and point mutant analyses were employed revealing previously hidden, robust autoantibodies directed against its C-terminal immunoglobulin-binding domain. Another autoantibody, rheumatoid factor, targeting the Fc region of IgG, strongly overlapped with Ro52 seropositivity (odds ratio 14; P < 0.0001). These convergent mechanistic findings support a model whereby intracellular Ro52-bound antibody-coated pathogen complexes, released or misprocessed from infected cells, drive autoantigenicity against Ro52 and the Fc region of IgG.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-21522-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5820281PMC
February 2018

Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibodies in the Cerebrospinal Fluid: Evidence of Early Treatment Impact on Central Nervous System Reservoir?

J Infect Dis 2018 03;217(7):1024-1032

Department of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) likely persists in the central nervous system (CNS) in treated individuals. We examined anti-HIV antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood as markers of persistence.

Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus antibodies were measured in paired CSF and serum before and after long-term treatment of chronic (n = 10) and early infection (n = 12), along with untreated early infection (n = 10).

Results: Treatment of chronic infection resulted in small reductions of anti-HIV antibodies in CSF and serum despite >10 years of suppressive ART. In untreated early infection, anti-HIV antibodies emerged in blood by day 30, whereas CSF antibodies reached similar levels 2 weeks later. Compared with long-term treatment of chronic infection, early ART initiation reduced CSF antibodies by 43-fold (P > .0001) and blood antibodies by 7-fold (P = .0003). Two individuals receiving pre-exposure prophylaxis and then ART early after infection failed to develop antibodies in CSF or blood, whereas CSF antibodies were markedly reduced in the Berlin patient.

Conclusions: To the extent that differential CSF and blood antibodies indicate HIV persistence, these data suggest a relative delay in establishment of the CNS compared with the systemic HIV reservoir that provides an opportunity for early treatment to have a greater impact on the magnitude of long-term CNS infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jix662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5939835PMC
March 2018

New Parvovirus Associated with Serum Hepatitis in Horses after Inoculation of Common Biological Product.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 02;24(2):303-310

Equine serum hepatitis (i.e., Theiler's disease) is a serious and often life-threatening disease of unknown etiology that affects horses. A horse in Nebraska, USA, with serum hepatitis died 65 days after treatment with equine-origin tetanus antitoxin. We identified an unknown parvovirus in serum and liver of the dead horse and in the administered antitoxin. The equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) shares <50% protein identity with its phylogenetic relatives of the genus Copiparvovirus. Next, we experimentally infected 2 horses using a tetanus antitoxin contaminated with EqPV-H. Viremia developed, the horses seroconverted, and acute hepatitis developed that was confirmed by clinical, biochemical, and histopathologic testing. We also determined that EqPV-H is an endemic infection because, in a cohort of 100 clinically normal adult horses, 13 were viremic and 15 were seropositive. We identified a new virus associated with equine serum hepatitis and confirmed its pathogenicity and transmissibility through contaminated biological products.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2402.171031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5782890PMC
February 2018