Publications by authors named "Peter Almgren"

154 Publications

Methodological considerations for identifying multiple plasma proteins associated with all-cause mortality in a population-based prospective cohort.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 24;11(1):6734. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease-Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University, Clinical Research Centre House 60 Floor 13, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, 205 02, Malmö, Sweden.

Novel methods to characterize the plasma proteome has made it possible to examine a wide range of proteins in large longitudinal cohort studies, but the complexity of the human proteome makes it difficult to identify robust protein-disease associations. Nevertheless, identification of individuals at high risk of early mortality is a central issue in clinical decision making and novel biomarkers may be useful to improve risk stratification. With adjustment for established risk factors, we examined the associations between 138 plasma proteins measured using two proximity extension assays and long-term risk of all-cause mortality in 3,918 participants of the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. To examine the reproducibility of protein-mortality associations we used a two-step random-split approach to simulate a discovery and replication cohort and conducted analyses using four different methods: Cox regression, stepwise Cox regression, Lasso-Cox regression, and random survival forest (RSF). In the total study population, we identified eight proteins that associated with all-cause mortality after adjustment for established risk factors and with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. In the two-step analyses, the number of proteins selected for model inclusion in both random samples ranged from 6 to 21 depending on the method used. However, only three proteins were consistently included in both samples across all four methods (growth/differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and epididymal secretory protein E4). Using the total study population, the C-statistic for a model including established risk factors was 0.7222 and increased to 0.7284 with inclusion of the most predictive protein (GDF-15; P < 0.0001). All multiple protein models showed additional improvement in the C-statistic compared to the single protein model (all P < 0.0001). We identified several plasma proteins associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality independently of established risk factors. Further investigation into the putatively causal role of these proteins for longevity is needed. In addition, the examined methods for identifying multiple proteins showed tendencies for overfitting by including several putatively false positive findings. Thus, the reproducibility of findings using such approaches may be limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85991-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990913PMC
March 2021

Tralokinumab does not impact vaccine-induced immune responses: Results from a 30-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Jul 17;85(1):71-78. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Division of Dermatology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Interleukin (IL) 13 is a type 2 cytokine that is key to the inflammation underlying AD. Tralokinumab is a first-in-class, fully human, monoclonal antibody that specifically binds with high affinity to IL-13, neutralizing it in AD. Immunomodulatory treatments may impair vaccine-induced immune responses.

Objective: Assess the immune responses to standard vaccines in adults with moderate-to-severe AD who are undergoing treatment with tralokinumab.

Methods: ECZema TRAlokinumab Trial No. 5 (ECZTRA 5; NCT03562377) was a phase 2, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial taking place over 30 weeks. Eligible adults were randomized 1:1, with 107 patients receiving tralokinumab 300 mg and 108 patients receiving a placebo every 2 weeks for 16 weeks. All patients received Tdap (tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis) and meningococcal vaccines at week 12. The primary end points were positive antitetanus and antimeningococcal responses between weeks 12 and 16 (noninferiority margin, -25%; responder, >3-fold increase in IgG).

Results: The noninferiority of tralokinumab versus placebo for immune response to Tdap (91.9% vs 96.1%) and meningococcal (86.0% vs 84.2%) vaccines was demonstrated at week 16. During treatment, the rates of adverse events were lower for tralokinumab than for the placebo, with most events being mild or moderate.

Limitations: Responses to other vaccines (including influenza) were not examined.

Conclusions: Treatment with tralokinumab 300 mg every 2 weeks did not affect immune responses to Tdap and meningococcal vaccines. Treatment was well tolerated when administered concomitantly with the vaccines and demonstrated a safety profile comparable to phase 3 trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2021.03.032DOI Listing
July 2021

[The pediatric population as a whole, and those with special health care needs especially, is increasing.]

Lakartidningen 2020 12 16;117. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

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In this investigation performed in pediatric patients in Västra Götalandsregionen in Sweden we concluded that as many as 20 % of the children had long-term and/or more extensive contact with the health care system. We used two different methods, combining professional clinical judgement with data from the health care production register in Västra Götalandsregionen, to define the incidence of chronic diseases among the pediatric population. The spectrum of diseases observed is broad, spanning up to 20 different diagnostic areas. Furthermore, the number of children with special health care needs increases over time. The high incidence and definition of chronic illness and complex needs amongst our children and adolescents need to be taken into consideration.
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December 2020

Discovery of rare variants associated with blood pressure regulation through meta-analysis of 1.3 million individuals.

Nat Genet 2020 12 23;52(12):1314-1332. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00713-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610439PMC
December 2020

Meta-analysis uncovers genome-wide significant variants for rapid kidney function decline.

Kidney Int 2021 04 31;99(4):926-939. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Division of Nephrology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; Kidney Research Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Rapid decline of glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine (eGFRcrea) is associated with severe clinical endpoints. In contrast to cross-sectionally assessed eGFRcrea, the genetic basis for rapid eGFRcrea decline is largely unknown. To help define this, we meta-analyzed 42 genome-wide association studies from the Chronic Kidney Diseases Genetics Consortium and United Kingdom Biobank to identify genetic loci for rapid eGFRcrea decline. Two definitions of eGFRcrea decline were used: 3 mL/min/1.73m/year or more ("Rapid3"; encompassing 34,874 cases, 107,090 controls) and eGFRcrea decline 25% or more and eGFRcrea under 60 mL/min/1.73m at follow-up among those with eGFRcrea 60 mL/min/1.73m or more at baseline ("CKDi25"; encompassing 19,901 cases, 175,244 controls). Seven independent variants were identified across six loci for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25: consisting of five variants at four loci with genome-wide significance (near UMOD-PDILT (2), PRKAG2, WDR72, OR2S2) and two variants among 265 known eGFRcrea variants (near GATM, LARP4B). All these loci were novel for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25 and our bioinformatic follow-up prioritized variants and genes underneath these loci. The OR2S2 locus is novel for any eGFRcrea trait including interesting candidates. For the five genome-wide significant lead variants, we found supporting effects for annual change in blood urea nitrogen or cystatin-based eGFR, but not for GATM or LARP4B. Individuals at high compared to those at low genetic risk (8-14 vs. 0-5 adverse alleles) had a 1.20-fold increased risk of acute kidney injury (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.33). Thus, our identified loci for rapid kidney function decline may help prioritize therapeutic targets and identify mechanisms and individuals at risk for sustained deterioration of kidney function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.09.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010357PMC
April 2021

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and risk of cardiovascular events and mortality: a prospective study.

Diabetologia 2020 05 23;63(5):1043-1054. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Clinical Research Centre, Hämtställe HS 36, Box 50332, 202 13, Malmö, Sweden.

Aims/hypothesis: Evidence that glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and/or the GIP receptor (GIPR) are involved in cardiovascular biology is emerging. We hypothesised that GIP has untoward effects on cardiovascular biology, in contrast to glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and therefore investigated the effects of GIP and GLP-1 concentrations on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality risk.

Methods: GIP concentrations were successfully measured during OGTTs in two independent populations (Malmö Diet Cancer-Cardiovascular Cohort [MDC-CC] and Prevalence, Prediction and Prevention of Diabetes in Botnia [PPP-Botnia]) in a total of 8044 subjects. GLP-1 (n = 3625) was measured in MDC-CC. The incidence of CVD and mortality was assessed via national/regional registers or questionnaires. Further, a two-sample Mendelian randomisation (2SMR) analysis between the GIP pathway and outcomes (coronary artery disease [CAD] and myocardial infarction) was carried out using a GIP-associated genetic variant, rs1800437, as instrumental variable. An additional reverse 2SMR was performed with CAD as exposure variable and GIP as outcome variable, with the instrumental variables constructed from 114 known genetic risk variants for CAD.

Results: In meta-analyses, higher fasting levels of GIP were associated with risk of higher total mortality (HR[95% CI] = 1.22 [1.11, 1.35]; p = 4.5 × 10) and death from CVD (HR[95% CI] 1.30 [1.11, 1.52]; p = 0.001). In accordance, 2SMR analysis revealed that increasing GIP concentrations were associated with CAD and myocardial infarction, and an additional reverse 2SMR revealed no significant effect of CAD on GIP levels, thus confirming a possible effect solely of GIP on CAD.

Conclusions/interpretation: In two prospective, community-based studies, elevated levels of GIP were associated with greater risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality within 5-9 years of follow-up, whereas GLP-1 levels were not associated with excess risk. Further studies are warranted to determine the cardiovascular effects of GIP per se.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-020-05093-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7145777PMC
May 2020

Genome-wide association and Mendelian randomisation analysis provide insights into the pathogenesis of heart failure.

Nat Commun 2020 01 9;11(1):163. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A small proportion of HF cases are attributable to monogenic cardiomyopathies and existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have yielded only limited insights, leaving the observed heritability of HF largely unexplained. We report results from a GWAS meta-analysis of HF comprising 47,309 cases and 930,014 controls. Twelve independent variants at 11 genomic loci are associated with HF, all of which demonstrate one or more associations with coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial fibrillation, or reduced left ventricular function, suggesting shared genetic aetiology. Functional analysis of non-CAD-associated loci implicate genes involved in cardiac development (MYOZ1, SYNPO2L), protein homoeostasis (BAG3), and cellular senescence (CDKN1A). Mendelian randomisation analysis supports causal roles for several HF risk factors, and demonstrates CAD-independent effects for atrial fibrillation, body mass index, and hypertension. These findings extend our knowledge of the pathways underlying HF and may inform new therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13690-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6952380PMC
January 2020

Dimethylguanidino Valerate: A Lifestyle-Related Metabolite Associated With Future Coronary Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Mortality.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 10 19;8(19):e012846. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Department of Clinical Sciences Lund University Malmö Sweden.

Background Identification of lifestyle modifiable metabolic pathways related to cardiometabolic disease risk is essential for improvement of primary prevention in susceptible individuals. It was recently shown that plasma dimethylguanidino valerate (DMGV) levels are associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our aims were to investigate whether plasma DMGV is related to risk of future coronary artery disease and with cardiovascular mortality and to replicate the association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and pinpoint candidate lifestyle interventions susceptible to modulate DMGV levels. Methods and Results Plasma DMGV levels were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in a total of 5768 participants from the MDC (Malmö Diet and Cancer Study-Cardiovascular Cohort), MPP (Malmö Preventive Project), and MOS (Malmö Offspring Study). Dietary intake assessment was performed in the MOS. Baseline levels of DMGV associated with incident coronary artery disease in both the MDC (hazard ratio=1.29; CI=1.16-1.43; <0.001) and MPP (odds ratio=1.25; CI=1.08-1.44; =2.4e-3). In the MDC, DMGV was associated with cardiovascular mortality and incident coronary artery disease, independently of traditional risk factors. Furthermore, the association between DMGV and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus was replicated in both the MDC (hazard ratio=1.83; CI=1.63-2.05; <0.001) and MPP (odds ratio=1.65; CI=1.38-1.98; <0.001). Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with increased levels of DMGV, whereas intake of vegetables and level of physical activity was associated with lower DMGV. Conclusions We discovered novel independent associations between plasma DMGV and incident coronary artery disease and cardiovascular mortality, while replicating the previously reported association with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. Additionally, strong associations with sugar-sweetened beverages, vegetable intake, and physical activity suggest the potential to modify DMGV levels using lifestyle interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.012846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6806048PMC
October 2019

Polygenetic risk for coronary artery disease increases hospitalization burden and mortality.

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc 2019 Sep 16;24:100391. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Sweden.

Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death worldwide and increasing cost for society. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants associated with CAD. Combining single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) into a genetic risk score (GRS) can estimate an individual's genetic burden.

Objectives: To investigate whether GRS for CAD can predict hospitalization and mortality.

Methods: 23,594 individuals without CAD at baseline and with full data for all covariates from the population based prospective study Malmö diet and cancer study were investigated. The association between hospitalizations was calculated by negative binomial regression and risk of mortality was calculated by Cox proportional hazards regression. The GRS was constructed from 50 SNPs.

Results: The study population was divided into quintiles according to the value of GRS. During the mean follow-up time of 17.8 years, 17,254 individuals were hospitalized at least once. Individuals in the highest quintile of GRS were hospitalized 10% more often than individuals in the lowest quintile (IRR: 1.10 [95% CI 1.04-1.16],  = 0.001), mainly for cardiovascular reasons (IRR: 1.31 [95% CI 1.20-1.43],  = 5.17 × 10). These individuals had highly increased risk of CVD mortality (HR: 1.44 [1.25-1.66],  = 6.56 × 10) but not the risk of mortality due to other causes.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that genetic predisposition for CAD can predict hospitalization burden and mortality, especially due to cardiovascular causes, independently of traditional risk factors. As the risk conferred by the GRS is partially modifiable, our results may help to reduce societal costs, individual suffering and prolong life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2019.100391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6639589PMC
September 2019

A catalog of genetic loci associated with kidney function from analyses of a million individuals.

Nat Genet 2019 06 31;51(6):957-972. Epub 2019 May 31.

Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease-Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Clincial Sciences in Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0407-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698888PMC
June 2019

Association of Chromosome 9p21 With Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease Events.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2019 04 21;12(4):e002471. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital (M.H.).

Background: Genetic variation at chromosome 9p21 is a recognized risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, its effect on disease progression and subsequent events is unclear, raising questions about its value for stratification of residual risk.

Methods: A variant at chromosome 9p21 (rs1333049) was tested for association with subsequent events during follow-up in 103 357 Europeans with established CHD at baseline from the GENIUS-CHD (Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease) Consortium (73.1% male, mean age 62.9 years). The primary outcome, subsequent CHD death or myocardial infarction (CHD death/myocardial infarction), occurred in 13 040 of the 93 115 participants with available outcome data. Effect estimates were compared with case/control risk obtained from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium (Coronary Artery Disease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis [CARDIoGRAM] plus The Coronary Artery Disease [C4D] Genetics) including 47 222 CHD cases and 122 264 controls free of CHD.

Results: Meta-analyses revealed no significant association between chromosome 9p21 and the primary outcome of CHD death/myocardial infarction among those with established CHD at baseline (GENIUS-CHD odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.99-1.05). This contrasted with a strong association in CARDIoGRAMPlusC4D odds ratio 1.20; 95% CI, 1.18-1.22; P for interaction <0.001 compared with the GENIUS-CHD estimate. Similarly, no clear associations were identified for additional subsequent outcomes, including all-cause death, although we found a modest positive association between chromosome 9p21 and subsequent revascularization (odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.09).

Conclusions: In contrast to studies comparing individuals with CHD to disease-free controls, we found no clear association between genetic variation at chromosome 9p21 and risk of subsequent acute CHD events when all individuals had CHD at baseline. However, the association with subsequent revascularization may support the postulated mechanism of chromosome 9p21 for promoting atheroma development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6625876PMC
April 2019

Subsequent Event Risk in Individuals With Established Coronary Heart Disease.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2019 04 21;12(4):e002470. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, Centre for Pharmacogenomics (Y.G., R.M.C.-D., J.A.J.), University of Florida, Gainesville.

Background: The Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease (GENIUS-CHD) consortium was established to facilitate discovery and validation of genetic variants and biomarkers for risk of subsequent CHD events, in individuals with established CHD.

Methods: The consortium currently includes 57 studies from 18 countries, recruiting 185 614 participants with either acute coronary syndrome, stable CHD, or a mixture of both at baseline. All studies collected biological samples and followed-up study participants prospectively for subsequent events.

Results: Enrollment into the individual studies took place between 1985 to present day with a duration of follow-up ranging from 9 months to 15 years. Within each study, participants with CHD are predominantly of self-reported European descent (38%-100%), mostly male (44%-91%) with mean ages at recruitment ranging from 40 to 75 years. Initial feasibility analyses, using a federated analysis approach, yielded expected associations between age (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.14-1.16) per 5-year increase, male sex (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.13-1.21) and smoking (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.35-1.51) with risk of subsequent CHD death or myocardial infarction and differing associations with other individual and composite cardiovascular endpoints.

Conclusions: GENIUS-CHD is a global collaboration seeking to elucidate genetic and nongenetic determinants of subsequent event risk in individuals with established CHD, to improve residual risk prediction and identify novel drug targets for secondary prevention. Initial analyses demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of a federated analysis approach. The consortium now plans to initiate and test novel hypotheses as well as supporting replication and validation analyses for other investigators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6629546PMC
April 2019

Plasma kidney injury molecule-1 (p-KIM-1) levels and deterioration of kidney function over 16 years.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2020 02;35(2):265-273

Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: The kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) has previously been associated with kidney function in rodents and humans. Yet its role as a predictive marker for future decline in kidney function has remained less clear.

Methods: At baseline (1991-1994), fasting plasma KIM-1 (p-KIM-1) was measured in 4739 participants of the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Creatinine and cystatin C were used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) according to Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) Collaboration 2012 creatinine-cystatin C equation at baseline and follow-up examination (2007-2012). Incident CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at follow-up.

Results: During a mean follow-up time of 16.6 years, high p-KIM-1 levels were associated with a greater decline in eGFR (quartile 1 -1.36 versus quartile 4 -1.54 mL/min/1.73 m2; P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, the risk for incident CKD at the follow-up examination was higher among participants with baseline p-KIM-1 levels in the highest quartile {odds ratio [OR] 1.45 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.92]} compared with those within the lowest quartile. The relative impact of baseline p-KIM-1 on incidence of CKD [OR 1.20 (95% CI 1.08-1.33) per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in p-KIM-1] was comparable to those of age and systolic blood pressure (SBP) [OR 1.55 (95% CI 1.38-1.74) and OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.09-1.35) per 1 SD increase, respectively]. Adding p-KIM-1 to a conventional risk model resulted in significantly improved C-statistics (P = 0.04) and reclassified 9% of the individuals into the correct risk direction (continuous net reclassification improvement P = 0.02). Furthermore, the risk for hospitalization due to impaired renal function increased with increasing baseline p-KIM-1 [hazard ratio per 1 SD 1.43; (95% CI 1.18-1.74)] during a mean follow-up time of 19.2 years.

Conclusion: Our results show that p-KIM-1 predicts the future decline of eGFR and risk of CKD in healthy middle-aged participants. Whether p-KIM-1 can be used to prioritize preventive action that needs to be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfy382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7049260PMC
February 2020

Trans-ethnic association study of blood pressure determinants in over 750,000 individuals.

Nat Genet 2019 01 21;51(1):51-62. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, UK.

In this trans-ethnic multi-omic study, we reinterpret the genetic architecture of blood pressure to identify genes, tissues, phenomes and medication contexts of blood pressure homeostasis. We discovered 208 novel common blood pressure SNPs and 53 rare variants in genome-wide association studies of systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure in up to 776,078 participants from the Million Veteran Program (MVP) and collaborating studies, with analysis of the blood pressure clinical phenome in MVP. Our transcriptome-wide association study detected 4,043 blood pressure associations with genetically predicted gene expression of 840 genes in 45 tissues, and mouse renal single-cell RNA sequencing identified upregulated blood pressure genes in kidney tubule cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0303-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6365102PMC
January 2019

A novel rare CUBN variant and three additional genes identified in Europeans with and without diabetes: results from an exome-wide association study of albuminuria.

Diabetologia 2019 02 13;62(2):292-305. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Aims/hypothesis: Identifying rare coding variants associated with albuminuria may open new avenues for preventing chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, which are highly prevalent in individuals with diabetes. Efforts to identify genetic susceptibility variants for albuminuria have so far been limited, with the majority of studies focusing on common variants.

Methods: We performed an exome-wide association study to identify coding variants in a two-stage (discovery and replication) approach. Data from 33,985 individuals of European ancestry (15,872 with and 18,113 without diabetes) and 2605 Greenlanders were included.

Results: We identified a rare (minor allele frequency [MAF]: 0.8%) missense (A1690V) variant in CUBN (rs141640975, β = 0.27, p = 1.3 × 10) associated with albuminuria as a continuous measure in the combined European meta-analysis. The presence of each rare allele of the variant was associated with a 6.4% increase in albuminuria. The rare CUBN variant had an effect that was three times stronger in individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with those without (p = 7.0 × 10, β with diabetes = 0.69, β without diabetes = 0.20) in the discovery meta-analysis. Gene-aggregate tests based on rare and common variants identified three additional genes associated with albuminuria (HES1, CDC73 and GRM5) after multiple testing correction (p < 2.7 × 10).

Conclusions/interpretation: The current study identifies a rare coding variant in the CUBN locus and other potential genes associated with albuminuria in individuals with and without diabetes. These genes have been implicated in renal and cardiovascular dysfunction. The findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of albuminuria and highlight target genes and pathways for the prevention of diabetes-related kidney disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-018-4783-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323095PMC
February 2019

Genetic analysis of over 1 million people identifies 535 new loci associated with blood pressure traits.

Nat Genet 2018 10 17;50(10):1412-1425. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Laboratory of Genetics and Genomics, NIA/NIH, Baltimore, MD, USA.

High blood pressure is a highly heritable and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We report the largest genetic association study of blood pressure traits (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) to date in over 1 million people of European ancestry. We identify 535 novel blood pressure loci that not only offer new biological insights into blood pressure regulation but also highlight shared genetic architecture between blood pressure and lifestyle exposures. Our findings identify new biological pathways for blood pressure regulation with potential for improved cardiovascular disease prevention in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0205-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6284793PMC
October 2018

Association between genetic risk variants and glucose intolerance during pregnancy in north Indian women.

BMC Med Genomics 2018 Aug 8;11(1):64. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a more common problem in India than in many other parts of the world but it is not known whether this is due to unique environmental factors or a unique genetic background. To address this question we examined whether the same genetic variants associated with GDM and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) in Caucasians also were associated with GDM in North Indian women.

Methods: Five thousand one hundred pregnant women of gestational age 24-28 weeks from Punjab were studied by a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). GDM was diagnosed by both WHO1999 and 2013 criteria. 79 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with T2D and glycemic traits (12 of them also with GDM) and 6 SNPs from previous T2D associations based on Indian population (some also with European) were genotyped on a Sequenom platform or using Taqman assays in DNA from 4018 women.

Results: In support of previous findings in Caucasian GDM, SNPs at KCJN11 and GRB14 loci were nominally associated with GDM1999 risk in Indian women (both p = 0.02). Notably, T2D risk alleles of the variant rs1552224 near CENTD2, rs11708067 in ADCY5 and rs11605924 in CRY2 genes associated with protection from GDM regardless of criteria applied (p < 0.025). SNPs rs7607980 near COBLL1 (p = 0.0001), rs13389219 near GRB14 (p = 0.026) and rs10423928 in the GIPR gene (p = 0.012) as well as the genetic risk score (GRS) for these previously shown insulin resistance loci here associated with insulin resistance defined by HOMA2-IR and showed a trend towards GDM. GRS comprised of 3 insulin secretion loci here associated with insulin secretion but not GDM.

Conclusions: GDM in women from Punjab in Northern India shows a genetic component, seemingly driven by insulin resistance and secretion and partly shared with GDM in other parts of the world. Most previous T2D loci discovered in European studies did not associate with GDM in North India, indicative of different genetic etiology or alternately, differences in the linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure between populations in which the associated SNPs were identified and Northern Indian women. Interestingly some T2D risk variants were in fact indicative of being protective for GDM in these Indian women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12920-018-0380-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6083526PMC
August 2018

Multi-ethnic genome-wide association study for atrial fibrillation.

Nat Genet 2018 06 11;50(9):1225-1233. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Program in Medical and Population Genetics, The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects more than 33 million individuals worldwide and has a complex heritability. We conducted the largest meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for AF to date, consisting of more than half a million individuals, including 65,446 with AF. In total, we identified 97 loci significantly associated with AF, including 67 that were novel in a combined-ancestry analysis, and 3 that were novel in a European-specific analysis. We sought to identify AF-associated genes at the GWAS loci by performing RNA-sequencing and expression quantitative trait locus analyses in 101 left atrial samples, the most relevant tissue for AF. We also performed transcriptome-wide analyses that identified 57 AF-associated genes, 42 of which overlap with GWAS loci. The identified loci implicate genes enriched within cardiac developmental, electrophysiological, contractile and structural pathways. These results extend our understanding of the biological pathways underlying AF and may facilitate the development of therapeutics for AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0133-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6136836PMC
June 2018

Polygenic Risk Score for Coronary Heart Disease Modifies the Elevated Risk by Cigarette Smoking for Disease Incidence.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2018 01 12;11(1):e001856. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

From the Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University, Sweden (G.H., F.W., P.A., O.M., M.O.-M.); and Program in Medical and Population Genetics, The Broad Institute, Cambridge, MA (G.H.).

Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a multifactorial disease with both genetic and environmental components. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for CHD. Our aim was to test whether the increased CHD incidence by smoking is modified by genetic predisposition to CHD.

Methods And Results: Our study included 24 443 individuals from the MDCS (Malmö Diet and Cancer Study). A weighted polygenic risk score (PRS) was created by summing the number of risk alleles for 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CHD. Individuals were classified as current, former, or never smokers. Interactions were primarily tested between smoking status and PRS and secondarily with individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Then, the predictive use of PRS for CHD incidence was tested among different smoking categories. During a median follow-up time of 19.4 years, 3217 incident CHD cases were recorded. The association between smoking and CHD was modified by the PRS (=0.005). The magnitude of increased incidence of CHD by smoking was highest among individuals in the lowest tertile of PRS (odds ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.56 per smoking risk category) compared with the highest tertile (odds ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.30 per smoking risk category). This interaction was stronger among men (=0.001) compared with women (=0.44). The PRS provided a significantly better net reclassification and discrimination on top of traditional risk factors among never smokers compared with current smokers (<0.001).

Conclusions: Genetic predisposition to CHD modifies the associated increased CHD risk by smoking. The PRS has a better predictive use among never smokers compared with smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.117.001856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319562PMC
January 2018

Dietary and genetic risk scores and incidence of type 2 diabetes.

Genes Nutr 2018 16;13:13. Epub 2018 May 16.

1Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease, Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: Both lifestyle and genetic predisposition determine the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and studies have indicated interactions between specific dietary components and individual genetic variants. However, it is unclear whether the importance of overall dietary habits, including T2D-related food intakes, differs depending on genetic predisposition to T2D. We examined interaction between a genetic risk score for T2D, constructed from 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies, and a diet risk score of four foods consistently associated with T2D in epidemiological studies (processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, whole grain and coffee). In total, 25,069 individuals aged 45-74 years with genotype information and without prevalent diabetes from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort (1991-1996) were included. Diet data were collected with a modified diet history method.

Results: During 17-year follow-up, 3588 incident T2D cases were identified. Both the diet risk score (HR in the highest risk category 1.40; 95% CI 1.26, 1.58; trend = 6 × 10) and the genetic risk score (HR in the highest tertile of the genetic risk score 1.67; 95% CI 1.54, 1.81; trend = 7 × 10) were associated with increased incidence of T2D. No significant interaction between the genetic risk score and the diet risk score ( = 0.83) or its food components was observed. The highest risk was seen among the 6% of the individuals with both high genetic and dietary risk scores (HR 2.49; 95% CI 2.06, 3.01).

Conclusions: The findings thus show that both genetic heredity and dietary habits previously associated with T2D add to the risk of T2D, but they seem to act in an independent fashion, with the consequence that all individuals, whether at high or low genetic risk, would benefit from favourable food choices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12263-018-0599-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5956794PMC
May 2018

A Genome-Wide Association Study of Diabetic Kidney Disease in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes.

Diabetes 2018 07 27;67(7):1414-1427. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Identification of sequence variants robustly associated with predisposition to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has the potential to provide insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of DKD in type 2 diabetes (T2D) using eight complementary dichotomous and quantitative DKD phenotypes: the principal dichotomous analysis involved 5,717 T2D subjects, 3,345 with DKD. Promising association signals were evaluated in up to 26,827 subjects with T2D (12,710 with DKD). A combined T1D+T2D GWAS was performed using complementary data available for subjects with T1D, which, with replication samples, involved up to 40,340 subjects with diabetes (18,582 with DKD). Analysis of specific DKD phenotypes identified a novel signal near (rs9942471, = 4.5 × 10) associated with microalbuminuria in European T2D case subjects. However, no replication of this signal was observed in Asian subjects with T2D or in the equivalent T1D analysis. There was only limited support, in this substantially enlarged analysis, for association at previously reported DKD signals, except for those at and , both associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. We conclude that, despite challenges in addressing phenotypic heterogeneity, access to increased sample sizes will continue to provide more robust inference regarding risk variant discovery for DKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db17-0914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6014557PMC
July 2018

Commonly consumed beverages associate with different lifestyle and dietary intakes.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2019 Feb 26;70(1):88-97. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

a Department of Clinical Sciences , Lund University , Malmö , Sweden.

Sugar sweetened beverages (SSB), artificially sweetened beverages (ASB), juice, coffee and tea has been associated with risk of metabolic disease. High consumption of these beverages may be associated with certain characteristics of the overall diet that would be important to take into account when analysing beverage-disease associations. Here, we investigate five beverages and their association with lifestyle and diet in 25,112 individuals from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort. We observed that high consumption of SSB was associated with lower intakes of foods perceived as healthy. However, high consumption of both tea and juice was associated with higher intakes of foods perceived as healthy. Further, high consumption of ASB was associated with higher intakes of low-fat products. High consumption of coffee was associated with higher intakes of meat and high-fat margarine, and lower intake of breakfast cereals. We observe five beverages to associate with different lifestyle and dietary patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2018.1466272DOI Listing
February 2019

Refining the accuracy of validated target identification through coding variant fine-mapping in type 2 diabetes.

Nat Genet 2018 04 9;50(4):559-571. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

We aggregated coding variant data for 81,412 type 2 diabetes cases and 370,832 controls of diverse ancestry, identifying 40 coding variant association signals (P < 2.2 × 10); of these, 16 map outside known risk-associated loci. We make two important observations. First, only five of these signals are driven by low-frequency variants: even for these, effect sizes are modest (odds ratio ≤1.29). Second, when we used large-scale genome-wide association data to fine-map the associated variants in their regional context, accounting for the global enrichment of complex trait associations in coding sequence, compelling evidence for coding variant causality was obtained for only 16 signals. At 13 others, the associated coding variants clearly represent 'false leads' with potential to generate erroneous mechanistic inference. Coding variant associations offer a direct route to biological insight for complex diseases and identification of validated therapeutic targets; however, appropriate mechanistic inference requires careful specification of their causal contribution to disease predisposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0084-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5898373PMC
April 2018

First trimester enterovirus IgM and beta cell autoantibodies in mothers to children affected by type 1 diabetes autoimmunity before 7 years of age.

J Reprod Immunol 2018 06 2;127:1-6. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University Clinical Research Center, Skåne University Hospital, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Autoimmune (type 1) diabetes (T1D) is a frequent chronic disease in children and adolescents globally. Gestational enterovirus (EV) infections have been associated with an increased risk for T1D in the offspring. We test the hypothesis that EV infections during the first trimester were associated with beta cell autoantibodies in mothers of children who developed islet autoantibodies before 7 years of age.

Materials And Methods: Local registries were used to identify mothers to children born 2000-2007 who developed either beta cell autoantibodies or T1D during follow up. Serum samples from the first trimester were located in the Biobank. A total of 448 index mothers were identified and compared to 891 matched control mothers. EV-IgM was determined in a capture enzyme immunoassay. Beta cell autoantibodies were analyzed in standard radio binding assays.

Results: The frequency of EV-IgM in index mothers was 20% (89/448), which did not differ from the control mothers 20% (175/891) (p = 0.922). Index mothers had multiple beta cell autoantibodies more often than control mothers (p = 0.037). Beta cell autoantibodies were increased during the November-April winter months in index compared to control mothers (p = 0.022). The observed difference was possibly explained by the months of February-April (p = 0.014). Concomitant EV-IgM and beta cell autoantibodies tended to be more common among index compared to control mothers (p = 0.039).

Conclusion: EV-IgM during the first trimester may be associated with beta cell autoantibodies in mothers to children who developed either beta cell autoantibodies or T1D before 7 years of age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jri.2018.02.004DOI Listing
June 2018

A genome-wide association study of IgM antibody against phosphorylcholine: shared genetics and phenotypic relationship to chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Hum Mol Genet 2018 05;27(10):1809-1818

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Phosphorylcholine (PC) is an epitope on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), apoptotic cells and several pathogens like Streptococcus pneumoniae. Immunoglobulin M against PC (IgM anti-PC) has the ability to inhibit uptake of oxLDL by macrophages and increase clearance of apoptotic cells. From our genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in four European-ancestry cohorts, six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11q24.1 were discovered (in 3002 individuals) and replicated (in 646 individuals) to be associated with serum level of IgM anti-PC (the leading SNP rs35923643-G, combined β = 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.24, P = 4.3 × 10-11). The haplotype tagged by rs35923643-G (or its proxy SNP rs735665-A) is also known as the top risk allele for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and a main increasing allele for general IgM. By using summary GWAS results of IgM anti-PC and CLL in the polygenic risk score (PRS) analysis, PRS on the basis of IgM anti-PC risk alleles positively associated with CLL risk (explained 0.6% of CLL variance, P = 1.2 × 10-15). Functional prediction suggested that rs35923643-G might impede the binding of Runt-related transcription factor 3, a tumor suppressor playing a central role in the immune regulation of cancers. Contrary to the expectations from the shared genetics between IgM anti-PC and CLL, an inverse relationship at the phenotypic level was found in a nested case-control study (30 CLL cases with 90 age- and sex-matched controls), potentially reflecting reverse causation. The suggested function of the top variant as well as the phenotypic association between IgM anti-PC and CLL risk needs replication and motivates further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116597PMC
May 2018

Multiancestry genome-wide association study of 520,000 subjects identifies 32 loci associated with stroke and stroke subtypes.

Nat Genet 2018 04 12;50(4):524-537. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Royal Holloway University of London, London, UK, and Ashford and St Peters Hospital, Surrey, UK.

Stroke has multiple etiologies, but the underlying genes and pathways are largely unknown. We conducted a multiancestry genome-wide-association meta-analysis in 521,612 individuals (67,162 cases and 454,450 controls) and discovered 22 new stroke risk loci, bringing the total to 32. We further found shared genetic variation with related vascular traits, including blood pressure, cardiac traits, and venous thromboembolism, at individual loci (n = 18), and using genetic risk scores and linkage-disequilibrium-score regression. Several loci exhibited distinct association and pleiotropy patterns for etiological stroke subtypes. Eleven new susceptibility loci indicate mechanisms not previously implicated in stroke pathophysiology, with prioritization of risk variants and genes accomplished through bioinformatics analyses using extensive functional datasets. Stroke risk loci were significantly enriched in drug targets for antithrombotic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0058-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5968830PMC
April 2018

Genome-wide analysis yields new loci associating with aortic valve stenosis.

Nat Commun 2018 03 7;9(1):987. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, 77030, TX, USA.

Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular heart disease, and valve replacement is the only definitive treatment. Here we report a large genome-wide association (GWA) study of 2,457 Icelandic AS cases and 349,342 controls with a follow-up in up to 4,850 cases and 451,731 controls of European ancestry. We identify two new AS loci, on chromosome 1p21 near PALMD (rs7543130; odds ratio (OR) = 1.20, P = 1.2 × 10) and on chromosome 2q22 in TEX41 (rs1830321; OR = 1.15, P = 1.8 × 10). Rs7543130 also associates with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) (OR = 1.28, P = 6.6 × 10) and aortic root diameter (P = 1.30 × 10), and rs1830321 associates with BAV (OR = 1.12, P = 5.3 × 10) and coronary artery disease (OR = 1.05, P = 9.3 × 10). The results implicate both cardiac developmental abnormalities and atherosclerosis-like processes in the pathogenesis of AS. We show that several pathways are shared by CAD and AS. Causal analysis suggests that the shared risk factors of Lp(a) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol contribute substantially to the frequent co-occurence of these diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-03252-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5840367PMC
March 2018
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