Publications by authors named "Peter A Passmore"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Alleles that increase risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus are not associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease.

Neurobiol Aging 2014 Dec 24;35(12):2883.e3-2883.e10. Epub 2014 Jul 24.

King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, London, UK.

Although epidemiological studies suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), the biological basis of this relationship is not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic comorbidity between the 2 disorders and to investigate whether genetic liability to T2DM, estimated by a genotype risk scores based on T2DM associated loci, is associated with increased risk of LOAD. This study was performed in 2 stages. In stage 1, we combined genotypes for the top 15 T2DM-associated polymorphisms drawn from approximately 3000 individuals (1349 cases and 1351 control subjects) with extracted and/or imputed data from 6 genome-wide studies (>10,000 individuals; 4507 cases, 2183 controls, 4989 population controls) to form a genotype risk score and examined if this was associated with increased LOAD risk in a combined meta-analysis. In stage 2, we investigated the association of LOAD with an expanded T2DM score made of 45 well-established variants drawn from the 6 genome-wide studies. Results were combined in a meta-analysis. Both stage 1 and stage 2 T2DM risk scores were not associated with LOAD risk (odds ratio = 0.988; 95% confidence interval, 0.972-1.004; p = 0.144 and odds ratio = 0.993; 95% confidence interval, 0.983-1.003; p = 0.149 per allele, respectively). Contrary to expectation, genotype risk scores based on established T2DM candidates were not associated with increased risk of LOAD. The observed epidemiological associations between T2DM and LOAD could therefore be a consequence of secondary disease processes, pleiotropic mechanisms, and/or common environmental risk factors. Future work should focus on well-characterized longitudinal cohorts with extensive phenotypic and genetic data relevant to both LOAD and T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.07.023DOI Listing
December 2014

Genetic variation in MME in relation to neprilysin protein and enzyme activity, Aβ levels, and Alzheimer's disease risk.

Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet 2012 5;3(1):30-8. Epub 2012 Feb 5.

Dementia Research Group, University of Bristol, Institute of Clinical Neurosciences, Frenchay Hospital, Bristol, UK.

Neprilysin (NEP), also known as membrane metalloendopeptidase (MME), is considered amongst the most important β-amyloid (Aβ)-degrading enzymes with regard to prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Variation in the NEP gene (MME) has been suggested as a risk factor for AD. We conducted a genetic association study of 7MME SNPs - rs1836914, rs989692, rs9827586, rs6797911, rs61760379, rs3736187, rs701109 - with respect to AD risk in a cohort of 1057 probable and confirmed AD cases and 424 age-matched non-demented controls from the United Kingdom, Italy and Sweden. We also examined the association of these MME SNPs with NEP protein level and enzyme activity, and on biochemical measures of Aβ accumulation in frontal cortex - levels of total soluble Aβ, oligomeric Aβ(1-42), and guanidine-extractable (insoluble) Aβ - in a sub-group of AD and control cases with post-mortem brain tissue. On multivariate logistic regression analysis one of the MME variants (rs6797911) was associated with AD risk (P = 0.00052, Odds Ratio (O.R. = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (1.16-1.70)). None of the SNPs had any association with Aβ levels; however, rs9827586 was significantly associated with NEP protein level (p=0.014) and enzyme activity (p=0.006). Association was also found between rs701109 and NEP protein level (p=0.026) and a marginally non-significant association was found for rs989692 (p=0.055). These data suggest that MME variation may be associated with AD risk but we have not found evidence that this is mediated through modification of NEP protein level or activity.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3316445PMC
May 2012

The renin-angiotensin system and antihypertensive drugs in Alzheimer's disease: current standing of the angiotensin hypothesis?

J Alzheimers Dis 2012 ;30 Suppl 2:S251-68

Dementia Research Group, John James Laboratories, Frenchay Hospital, Institute of Clinical Neurosciences, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

There is an urgent need to improve upon Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatments. Limitations of existing drugs are that they target specific downstream neurochemical abnormalities while the upstream underlying pathology continues unchecked. Preferable treatments would be those that can target a number of the broad range of molecular and cellular abnormalities that occur in AD such as amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau-mediated damage, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction, as well more systemic abnormalities such as brain atrophy, impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebrovascular disease. Recent pre-clinical, epidemiological, and a limited number of clinical investigations have shown that prevention of the signaling of the multifunctional and potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (Ang II) may offer broad benefits in AD. In addition to helping to ameliorate co-morbid hypertension, these drugs also likely improve diminished CBF which is common in AD and can contribute to focal Aβ pathology. These drugs, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor antagonists (ARAs) may also help deteriorating cognitive function by preventing Ang II-mediated inhibition of acetylcholine release as well as interrupt the upregulation of deleterious inflammatory pathways that are widely recognized in AD. Given the current urgency to find better treatments for AD and the relatively immediate availability of drugs that are already widely prescribed for the treatment of hypertension, one of the largest modifiable risk factors for AD, this article reviews current knowledge as to the eligibility of ACE-inhibitors and ARAs for consideration in future clinical trials in AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2012-111376DOI Listing
December 2012

Alzheimer's disease and age-related macular degeneration have different genetic models for complement gene variation.

Neurobiol Aging 2012 Aug 1;33(8):1843.e9-17. Epub 2012 Feb 1.

King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London, UK.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are both neurodegenerative disorders which share common pathological and biochemical features of the complement pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between well replicated AMD genetic risk factors and AD. A large cohort of AD (n = 3898) patients and controls were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the complement factor H (CFH), the Age-related maculopathy susceptibility protein 2 (ARMS2) the complement component 2 (C2), the complement factor B (CFB), and the complement component 3 (C3) genes. While significant but modest associations were identified between the complement factor H, the age-related maculopathy susceptibility protein 2, and the complement component 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms and AD, these were different in direction or genetic model to that observed in AMD. In addition the multilocus genetic model that predicts around a half of the sibling risk for AMD does not predict risk for AD. Our study provides further support to the hypothesis that while activation of the alternative complement pathway is central to AMD pathogenesis, it is less involved in AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.12.036DOI Listing
August 2012

The role of variation at AβPP, PSEN1, PSEN2, and MAPT in late onset Alzheimer's disease.

J Alzheimers Dis 2012 ;28(2):377-87

MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Department of Psychological Medicine and Neurology, School of Medicine, Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Rare mutations in AβPP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 cause uncommon early onset forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and common variants in MAPT are associated with risk of other neurodegenerative disorders. We sought to establish whether common genetic variation in these genes confer risk to the common form of AD which occurs later in life (>65 years). We therefore tested single-nucleotide polymorphisms at these loci for association with late-onset AD (LOAD) in a large case-control sample consisting of 3,940 cases and 13,373 controls. Single-marker analysis did not identify any variants that reached genome-wide significance, a result which is supported by other recent genome-wide association studies. However, we did observe a significant association at the MAPT locus using a gene-wide approach (p = 0.009). We also observed suggestive association between AD and the marker rs9468, which defines the H1 haplotype, an extended haplotype that spans the MAPT gene and has previously been implicated in other neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration. In summary common variants at AβPP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 and MAPT are unlikely to make strong contributions to susceptibility for LOAD. However, the gene-wide effect observed at MAPT indicates a possible contribution to disease risk which requires further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2011-110824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4118466PMC
May 2012

No evidence that extended tracts of homozygosity are associated with Alzheimer's disease.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2011 Dec 2;156B(7):764-71. Epub 2011 Aug 2.

MRC Centre for Neuropyschiatric Genetics and Genomics, Department of Psychological Medicine and Neurology, Cardiff University, Heath Park.

We sought to investigate the contribution of extended runs of homozygosity in a genome-wide association dataset of 1,955 Alzheimer's disease cases and 955 elderly screened controls genotyped for 529,205 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms. Tracts of homozygosity may mark regions inherited from a common ancestor and could reflect disease loci if observed more frequently in cases than controls. We found no excess of homozygous tracts in Alzheimer's disease cases compared to controls and no individual run of homozygosity showed association to Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.31216DOI Listing
December 2011

Common variants at ABCA7, MS4A6A/MS4A4E, EPHA1, CD33 and CD2AP are associated with Alzheimer's disease.

Nat Genet 2011 May 3;43(5):429-35. Epub 2011 Apr 3.

Medical Research Council Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Neurosciences and Mental Health Research Institute, Department of Psychological Medicine and Neurology, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

We sought to identify new susceptibility loci for Alzheimer's disease through a staged association study (GERAD+) and by testing suggestive loci reported by the Alzheimer's Disease Genetic Consortium (ADGC) in a companion paper. We undertook a combined analysis of four genome-wide association datasets (stage 1) and identified ten newly associated variants with P ≤ 1 × 10(-5). We tested these variants for association in an independent sample (stage 2). Three SNPs at two loci replicated and showed evidence for association in a further sample (stage 3). Meta-analyses of all data provided compelling evidence that ABCA7 (rs3764650, meta P = 4.5 × 10(-17); including ADGC data, meta P = 5.0 × 10(-21)) and the MS4A gene cluster (rs610932, meta P = 1.8 × 10(-14); including ADGC data, meta P = 1.2 × 10(-16)) are new Alzheimer's disease susceptibility loci. We also found independent evidence for association for three loci reported by the ADGC, which, when combined, showed genome-wide significance: CD2AP (GERAD+, P = 8.0 × 10(-4); including ADGC data, meta P = 8.6 × 10(-9)), CD33 (GERAD+, P = 2.2 × 10(-4); including ADGC data, meta P = 1.6 × 10(-9)) and EPHA1 (GERAD+, P = 3.4 × 10(-4); including ADGC data, meta P = 6.0 × 10(-10)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3084173PMC
May 2011

Genetic evidence implicates the immune system and cholesterol metabolism in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease.

PLoS One 2010 Nov 15;5(11):e13950. Epub 2010 Nov 15.

Department of Psychological Medicine and Neurology, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Medical Research Council Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Cardiff, United Kingdom.

Background: Late Onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is the leading cause of dementia. Recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified the first strongly supported LOAD susceptibility genes since the discovery of the involvement of APOE in the early 1990s. We have now exploited these GWAS datasets to uncover key LOAD pathophysiological processes.

Methodology: We applied a recently developed tool for mining GWAS data for biologically meaningful information to a LOAD GWAS dataset. The principal findings were then tested in an independent GWAS dataset.

Principal Findings: We found a significant overrepresentation of association signals in pathways related to cholesterol metabolism and the immune response in both of the two largest genome-wide association studies for LOAD.

Significance: Processes related to cholesterol metabolism and the innate immune response have previously been implicated by pathological and epidemiological studies of Alzheimer's disease, but it has been unclear whether those findings reflected primary aetiological events or consequences of the disease process. Our independent evidence from two large studies now demonstrates that these processes are aetiologically relevant, and suggests that they may be suitable targets for novel and existing therapeutic approaches.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0013950PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2981526PMC
November 2010

LRP-1 variation is not associated with risk of Alzheimer's disease.

Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet 2010 Feb 20;1(2):104-13. Epub 2010 Feb 20.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterised by the extensive deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) within the parenchyma and vasculature of the brain. It is hypothesised that a dysfunction in Aβ degradation and/or its removal from the brain may result in accumulation as plaques. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) is a multifunctional receptor shown to be involved in cholesterol metabolism but also the removal of Aβ from the brain. Its ability to transport Aβ from the brain to the periphery has made it an attractive candidate for involvement in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have assessed the frequencies of 9 tag- SNPs and the commonly studied synonymous SNP within exon 3 (rs1799986) in a multi-centre AD/control cohort and performed haplotype analysis. We found no evidence from a combined total of 412 controls and 1057 AD patients to support the involvement of LRP-1 variation, including the most commonly studied variant in rs1799986 in conferring genetic susceptibility to increased risk of AD.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3076756PMC
February 2010

Genome-wide association study identifies variants at CLU and PICALM associated with Alzheimer's disease.

Nat Genet 2009 Oct 6;41(10):1088-93. Epub 2009 Sep 6.

Medical Research Council Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Department of Psychological Medicine and Neurology, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

We undertook a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) involving over 16,000 individuals, the most powerful AD GWAS to date. In stage 1 (3,941 cases and 7,848 controls), we replicated the established association with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) locus (most significant SNP, rs2075650, P = 1.8 x 10(-157)) and observed genome-wide significant association with SNPs at two loci not previously associated with the disease: at the CLU (also known as APOJ) gene (rs11136000, P = 1.4 x 10(-9)) and 5' to the PICALM gene (rs3851179, P = 1.9 x 10(-8)). These associations were replicated in stage 2 (2,023 cases and 2,340 controls), producing compelling evidence for association with Alzheimer's disease in the combined dataset (rs11136000, P = 8.5 x 10(-10), odds ratio = 0.86; rs3851179, P = 1.3 x 10(-9), odds ratio = 0.86).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.440DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2845877PMC
October 2009

Sequence variation in the CHAT locus shows no association with late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

Hum Genet 2003 Aug 21;113(3):258-67. Epub 2003 May 21.

Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Wales College of Medicine, CF14 4XN, Cardiff, UK.

There is substantial evidence for a susceptibility gene for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) on chromosome 10. One of the characteristic features of AD is the degeneration and dysfunction of the cholinergic system. The genes encoding choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and its vesicular transporter (VAChT), CHAT and SLC18A3 respectively, map to the linked region of chromosome 10 and are therefore both positional and obvious functional candidate genes for late-onset AD. We have screened both genes for sequence variants and investigated each for association with late-onset AD in up to 500 late-onset AD cases and 500 control DNAs collected in the UK. We detected a total of 17 sequence variants. Of these, 14 were in CHAT, comprising three non-synonymous variants (D7N in the S exon, A120T in exon 5 and L243F in exon 8), one synonymous change (H547H), nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms in intronic, untranslated or promoter regions, and a variable number of tandem repeats in intron 7. Three non-coding SNPs were detected in SLC18A3. None demonstrated any reproducible association with late-onset AD in our samples. Levels of linkage disequilibrium were generally low across the CHAT locus but two of the coding variants, D7N and A120T, proved to be in complete linkage disequilibrium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-003-0960-2DOI Listing
August 2003