Publications by authors named "Pertti K Suominen"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Effect of Levosimendan Versus Milrinone on the Occurrence Rate of Acute Kidney Injury Following Congenital Heart Surgery in Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2019 10;20(10):947-956

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Objectives: It has been shown that, in contrast to other inotropic agents, levosimendan improves glomerular filtration rate after adult cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of levosimendan, compared with milrinone, in preventing acute kidney dysfunction in infants after open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

Design: Two-center, double-blinded, prospective, randomized clinical trial.

Setting: The study was performed in two tertiary pediatric centers, one in Sweden (Gothenburg) and one in Finland (Helsinki).

Patients: Infants between 1 and 12 months old, diagnosed with Tetralogy of Fallot, complete atrioventricular septal defect or nonrestrictive ventricular septal defect, undergoing total corrective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

Interventions: Seventy-two infants were randomized to receive a perioperative infusion of levosimendan (0.1 µg/kg/min) or milrinone (0.4 µg/kg/min). The infusion was initiated at the start of cardiopulmonary bypass and continued for 26 hours.

Measurements And Main Results: The primary outcome variable was the absolute value of serum creatinine data on postoperative day 1. Secondary outcomes included the following: 1) acute kidney injury according to the serum creatinine criteria of the Kidney Diseases: Improving Global Outcomes; 2) acute kidney injury with serum creatinine corrected for fluid balance; 3) plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; 4) cystatin C; 5) urea; 6) lactate; 7) hemodynamic variables; 8) use of diuretics in the PICU; 9) need of dialysis; 10) length of ventilator therapy; and 11) length of PICU stays. There was no significant difference in postoperative serum creatinine between the treatment groups over time (p = 0.65). The occurrence rate of acute kidney injury within 48 hours was 46.9% in the levosimendan group and 39.5% in the milrinone group (p = 0.70). There were no significant differences in other secondary outcome variables between the groups.

Conclusions: Levosimendan compared with milrinone did not reduce the occurrence rate of acute kidney injury in infants after total corrective heart surgery for atrioventricular septal defect, ventricular septal defect, or Tetralogy of Fallot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000002017DOI Listing
October 2019

The effect of sildenafil on pleural and peritoneal effusions after the TCPC operation.

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2019 11 16;63(10):1384-1389. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: We evaluated whether the administration of sildenafil in children undergoing the TCPC operation shortened the interval from the operation to the removal of the pleural and peritoneal drains.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 122 patients who had undergone the TCPC operation between 2004 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of their treatments. Sildenafil was orally administered pre-operatively in the morning of the procedure or within 24 hours after the TCPC operation to the sildenafil group (n = 48), which was compared to a control group (n = 60). Fourteen patients were excluded from the study.

Results: The primary outcome measure was the time from the operation to the removal of the drains. The study groups had similar demographics. The median [interquartile range] time for the removal of drains (sildenafil group 11 [8-19] vs control group 11 [7-16] d, P = .532) was comparable between the groups. The median [interquartile range] fluid balance on the first post-operative day was significantly higher (P = .001) in the sildenafil group compared with controls (47 [12-103] vs 7 [-6-67] mL kg ). The first post-operative day fluid balance was a significant predictor for a prolonged need for drains in the multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: Sildenafil administration, pre-operatively or within 24 hours after the TCPC operation, did not reduce the required time for pleural and peritoneal drains but was associated with a significantly higher positive fluid balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aas.13431DOI Listing
November 2019

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia with heart defect has a high risk for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and major extra-cardiac malformations: 10-year national cohort from Finland.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2018 02 27;97(2):204-211. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Introduction: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) has a well-known risk of congenital heart defects with poor prognosis. This study was conducted to determine the national total prevalence and prenatal detection rates of CDH with heart defects and its association with major extra-cardiac malformations and to further evaluate the impact of the heart defect severity on survival.

Material And Methods: A 10-year national cohort was derived from four national registries, including live births, stillbirths, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. The study cohort was sorted according to cardiac defect severity.

Results: The total prevalence of CDH with heart defects was 0.6/10 000 births and live birth prevalence 0.3/10 000 live births. Of 145 cases with CDH, 37 (26%) had a concurrent heart defect. The overall prenatal detection rate of heart defects was 41%. The total prevalence (483/10 000) and live birth prevalence (500/10 000) of hypoplastic left heart syndrome were 124 and 250 times higher than in the general population in Finland, respectively. Additional major extra-cardiac malformations were found in 68% of cases. The survival rate for CDH with major heart defects was 11 and 38% with minor heart defects.

Conclusions: The total prevalence of hypoplastic left heart syndrome was significantly higher in CDH patients than in the general population in Finland. Prenatal detection rate for heart defects in CDH patients was 41%. Major extra-cardiac malformations were more common than previously reported. The prognosis of CDH with major heart defects remained poor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13274DOI Listing
February 2018

Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein and High-Dose Methylprednisolone in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2017 Dec 4;31(6):1952-1956. Epub 2017 May 4.

Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital; Division of Anaesthesiology, Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Objectives: Corticosteroids possess cardioprotection in experimental cardiac ischemia/reperfusion. The authors hypothesized that if cardioprotection of corticosteroids occured during pediatric cardiac surgery, then methylprednisolone used in cardiopulmonary bypass prime would reduce postoperative concentrations of heart-type fatty-acid-binding protein, a cardiac biomarker.

Design: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.

Setting: Operating room and pediatric intensive care unit of a university hospital.

Participants: Forty-five infants and young children undergoing ventricular or atrioventricular septal defect correction.

Interventions: The patients received one of the following: 30 mg/kg of methylprednisolone intravenously after anesthesia induction (n = 15), 30 mg/kg of methylprednisolone in cardiopulmonary bypass prime solution (n = 15), or placebo (n = 15).

Measurements And Main Results: Plasma heart-type fatty-acid-binding protein (hFABP) was measured. Preoperatively, hFABP did not differ among the study groups. Methylprednisolone administered preoperatively and in the cardiopulmonary bypass prime solution reduced hFABP by 44% (p = 0.010) and 38% (p = 0.033) 6 hours postoperatively. hFABP significantly correlated with concomitant troponin T after protamine administration (R = 0.811, p < 0.001) and 6 hours postoperatively (R = 0.806, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Methylprednisolone in cardiopulmonary bypass prime solution administered only a few minutes before cardiac ischemia confered cardioprotection of the same magnitude as preoperative methylprednisolone as indicated by hFABP concentrations. Rapid cardioprotective actions of corticosteroids in pediatric heart surgery observed previously experimentally may have occurred.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2017.05.013DOI Listing
December 2017

Stress-Dose Corticosteroid Versus Placebo in Neonatal Cardiac Operations: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Ann Thorac Surg 2017 Oct 21;104(4):1378-1385. Epub 2017 Apr 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Corticosteroids can improve the hemodynamic status of neonates with postoperative low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac operations. This study compared a prophylactically administered stress-dose corticosteroid (SDC) regimen against placebo on inflammation, adrenocortical function, and hemodynamic outcome.

Methods: Forty neonates undergoing elective open heart operations were randomized into two groups. The SDC group received perioperatively 2 mg/kg methylprednisolone, and 6 hours after the operation, a hydrocortisone infusion (0.2 mg/kg/h) was started with tapering doses for 5 days. Placebo was administered in a similar fashion. An adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test was performed after the therapy. The primary endpoint of the study was plasma concentration of interleukin (IL-6). Secondary clinical outcomes included plasma cortisol, IL-10, C-reactive protein, echocardiographic systemic ventricle contractility evaluated by the Velocity Vector Imaging program, the inotropic score, and time of delayed sternal closure.

Results: The IL-6 values of the SDC group were significantly lower postoperatively than in the placebo group. Significantly lower inotropic scores (p < 0.05), earlier sternal closure (p = 0.03), and less deterioration in the systemic ventricle mean delta strain values between the preoperative and the first postoperative assessment (p = 0.01) were detected for the SDC group. The SDC therapy did not suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis more than placebo. The mean plasma cortisol level did not decline in the placebo group after the operation.

Conclusions: The SDC regimen for 5 days postoperatively in neonates was safe and did not cause suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Furthermore, the open heart operation per se did not lead to adrenal insufficiency in neonates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2017.01.111DOI Listing
October 2017

The effect of continuous wound infusion of ropivacaine on postoperative pain after median sternotomy and mediastinal drain in children.

Paediatr Anaesth 2016 Jul 17;26(7):727-33. Epub 2016 May 17.

Division of Anesthesiology, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Postoperative pain after median sternotomy is usually treated with i.v. opioids. We hypothesized that continuous wound infusion of ropivacaine decreases postoperative morphine consumption and improves analgesia in children who undergo cardiac surgery.

Methods: This randomized, double-blind study comprised 49 children aged 1-9 years who underwent atrial septal defect (ASD) closure. Patients received continuous local anesthetic wound infiltration either with 0.2% ropivacaine, 0.3-0.4 mg·kg(-1) ·h(-1) (Group R) or with saline (Group C). Rescue morphine consumption, Objective Pain Scale (OPS), time to mobilization, time to enteral food intake, and time to discharge were recorded.

Results: There were no statistically significant differences in morphine consumption at 24, 48, and 72 h postsurgery between R and C groups. There was a weak evidence for a difference in the time to the first morphine administration after tracheal extubation to be longer for Group R than Group C (186.2 vs 81.0 min; 95% CI (-236.5, 26.2), P = 0.114). The incidence of nausea and vomiting were comparable between the groups. No signs or symptoms of local anesthetic toxicity were registered.

Conclusions: Contrary to our hypothesis, continuous ropivacaine wound infusion did not reduce morphine consumption, pain score values, or nausea and vomiting in children who underwent ASD closure with median sternotomy and mediastinal drain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pan.12919DOI Listing
July 2016

High-Dose Methylprednisolone Has No Benefit Over Moderate Dose for the Correction of Tetralogy of Fallot.

Ann Thorac Surg 2016 Sep 4;102(3):870-876. Epub 2016 May 4.

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: The optimal dose of methylprednisolone during pediatric open heart surgical procedures is unknown. This study compared the antiinflammatory and cardioprotective effects of high and lower doses of methylprednisolone in children undergoing cardiac operations.

Methods: Thirty children, between 1 and 18 months old and undergoing total correction of tetralogy of Fallot, were randomized in double-blind fashion to receive either 5 or 30 mg/kg of intravenous methylprednisolone after anesthesia induction. Plasma concentrations of methylprednisolone, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-10, troponin T, and glucose were measured at anesthesia induction before administration of the study drug, at 30 minutes on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), just after weaning from CPB, and at 6 hours after CPB. Troponin T and blood glucose were also measured on the first postoperative morning.

Results: Significantly higher methylprednisolone concentrations were measured in patients receiving 30 mg/kg of methylprednisolone at 30 minutes on CBP, after weaning from CPB and at 6 hours after CPB (p < 0.001). No differences were detected in IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, or troponin concentrations at any time point. Blood glucose levels were significantly higher in patients receiving 30 mg/kg of methylprednisolone at 6 hours after CPB (p = 0.04) and on the first postoperative morning (p = 0.02).

Conclusions: Based on the measured concentrations of interleukins or troponin T, a 30 mg/kg dose of methylprednisolone during pediatric open heart operations does not offer any additional antiinflammatory or cardioprotective benefit over a 5 mg/kg dose. Higher dose of methylprednisolone exposes patients more frequently to hyperglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2016.02.089DOI Listing
September 2016

The Effect of Methylprednisolone on Plasma Concentrations of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Pediatric Heart Surgery.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2016 Feb;17(2):121-7

1Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Peijas Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. 3Department onf Pediatric Cardiac and Transplantation Surgery, Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. 4Department of Pediatric Nephrology and Transplantation, Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Objectives: Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is a kidney injury marker used in pediatric heart surgery. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is also a constituent of specific granules of neutrophils. Corticosteroids are widely used in pediatric heart surgery. Methylprednisolone inhibits degranulation of neutrophil-specific granules. Use of corticosteroids has not been taken into account in studies of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in pediatric heart surgery. We studied the influence of systemically administered methylprednisolone on plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin concentrations in pediatric heart surgery.

Design: Two separate double-blinded randomized trials.

Setting: PICU at a university-affiliated hospital.

Patients: Forty neonates undergoing open-heart surgery and 45 children undergoing ventricular and atrioventricular septal defect correction.

Interventions: First trial (neonate trial), 40 neonates undergoing open-heart surgery received either 30 mg/kg IV methylprednisolone (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20). Second trial (ventricular septal defect trial), 45 children undergoing ventricular or atrioventricular septal defect correction received one of the following: 30 mg/kg of methylprednisolone IV after anesthesia induction (n = 15), 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone in the cardiopulmonary bypass prime solution (n = 15), or placebo (n = 15).

Measurements And Main Results: Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and creatinine were measured in both series. Lactoferrin levels were measured as a marker of neutrophil-specific granules in the ventricular septal defect trial only. No differences in creatinine levels occurred between the groups of either trial. Preoperative, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin did not differ between the study groups of either trial. Preoperatively administered methylprednisolone in the neonate trial reduced neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin by 41% at 6 hours postoperatively (p = 0.002). Preoperatively administered methylprednisolone in the ventricular septal defect trial reduced neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin by 47% (p = 0.010) and lactoferrin by 52% (p = 0.013) 6 hours postoperatively. Lactoferrin levels in the ventricular septal defect trial correlated with neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (R = 0.492; p = 0.001) preoperatively and after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (R = 0.471; p = 0.001).

Conclusions: Preoperatively administered methylprednisolone profoundly decreases plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin seems to originate to a significant extent from activated neutrophils. Preoperative methylprednisolone is a confounding factor when interpreting plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels as a kidney injury marker in pediatric heart surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000000573DOI Listing
February 2016

Effect of timing and route of methylprednisolone administration during pediatric cardiac surgical procedures.

Ann Thorac Surg 2015 Jan 18;99(1):180-5. Epub 2014 Nov 18.

Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care, Emergency Care and Pain Medicine, Meilahti Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: We compared the antiinflammatory and cardioprotective effects of the two most common regimens of corticosteroid administration in pediatric cardiac surgical procedures: a single dose delivered either at anesthesia induction or by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) prime.

Methods: Forty-five children, aged between 1 and 18 months and undergoing ventricular septal or atrioventricular septal defect correction, were randomized in double-blind fashion into three groups. The anesthesia induction group received 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone intravenously after anesthesia induction, and the CPB-prime group received 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone by CPB circuit. The placebo group received saline solution. Plasma concentrations of methylprednisolone, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and IL-10, and troponin were measured at anesthesia induction before the study drug, 30 minutes on CPB, after patients were weaned from CPB, and 6 hours after cessation of CPB.

Results: Equally high methylprednisolone concentrations were detected in both methylprednisolone groups, but the measured peak concentration occurred earlier in the induction group. Significantly lower IL-8 concentrations were observed just after patients were weaned from and 6 hours after CPB in the anesthesia induction group compared with the placebo (p = 0.002, p = 0.001) and prime groups (p = 0.003, p = 0.006). Significant reductions of troponin were detected in both methylprednisolone groups compared with placebo (induction, p = 0.001; prime, p = 0.002) 6 hours after patients were weaned from CPB.

Conclusions: Methylprednisolone administration at anesthesia induction was superior in terms of antiinflammatory action. Methylprednisolone administration in CPB-prime only a few minutes before aortic cross-clamping and cardioplegia resulted in mean troponin reductions similar to those of administration at anesthesia induction. Corticosteroids may have direct cardioprotective properties, as reported in experimental studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.08.042DOI Listing
January 2015

Neurocognitive long term follow-up study on drowned children.

Resuscitation 2014 Aug 4;85(8):1059-64. Epub 2014 Apr 4.

Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland.

Aim Of The Study: Report cognitive and neurological outcome later in life of surviving drowned children who had received CPR either from bystanders or from emergency medical services (EMS) units.

Methods: Forty children who had drowned and admitted to pediatric intensive care unit after successful CPR between 1985 and 2007, were eligible for the study. Of those 21 gave a consent for neurological and neuropsychological examinations. All data are expressed as median (interquartile range). Mann-Whitley U, Wilcoxon signed ranks and Chi square tests were used.

Results: The median age of the 21 patients at drowning was 2.4 (1.8, 5.5) years and 12.5 (8.6, 19.4) years at the time of neurological and neuropsychological examination. The median interval between the drowning accident and examinations was 8.1 (5.4, 14.4) years. Twelve patients (57.1%) had either signs of minor (6/21) or major neurological dysfunction (6/21). Eight subjects (40.0%) had full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) of less than 80 (range 20-78). The median estimated submersion time of the subjects with normal FIQ was 3.5 (2.0, 7.5)min, which was significantly shorter than for those with FIQ<80, 12.5 (5.0, 22.5)min (p=0.0013). Cognitive or neurologic deficits were detected in 17 of the 21 subjects, although 11 of them were reported to have a full recovery at the hospital discharge.

Conclusions: This study showed that 57% of the drowned and resuscitated children had neurological dysfunction and 40% a low FIQ. Neurological and neuropsychological long term follow-up in drowned children is highly recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2014.03.307DOI Listing
August 2014

Resection of the stenotic segment with individually tailored anastomosis for symptomatic congenital tracheal stenosis in infants.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2014 Jun 28;45(6):e215-9. Epub 2014 Mar 28.

Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Objectives: To analyse retrospectively population-based results of congenital tracheal stenosis (CTS) repair in infants in Finland.

Methods: Data on infants who were operated on for CTS in Helsinki Children's Hospital between August 1988 and May 2013 were analysed retrospectively. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed perioperatively and in follow-up of all the surviving patients. The median follow-up time was 7 (range 1-20) years.

Results: Thirteen infants were operated on for CTS. Resection of the stenotic segment with individually tailored anastomosis was used in 12 patients and slide tracheoplasty in 1 patient. The median age at the operation was 2.9 (range 0.2-19) months. Eight (62%) patients had associated cardiovascular defects, which were corrected during the same operation. The median length of stenosis was 35% (range 25-60%) of the total length of the trachea. The median length of time of postoperative mechanical ventilation was 10 (range 5-19) days. The median length of time of intensive care treatment was 15 (range 7-40) days. One patient died from hypoplastic lung tissue and fibrosis, and multiorgan failure. One patient required reoperation, and 3 other patients received balloon bronchodilatations postoperatively. There was no late mortality. All of the 12 survivors had a good outcome.

Conclusion: Resection with individually tailored anastomosis with up to 55% of the stenotic segment of the trachea presented a good long-term outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezu113DOI Listing
June 2014

Methylprednisolone in neonatal cardiac surgery: reduced inflammation without improved clinical outcome.

Ann Thorac Surg 2013 Jun 18;95(6):2126-32. Epub 2013 Apr 18.

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Corticosteroids are widely used in pediatric open-heart surgery to reduce systemic inflammatory response and to mediate possible cardioprotective effects. However, the optimal dosing of corticosteroids is unknown and their administration varies considerably between different institutions.

Methods: Forty neonates undergoing open-heart surgery were randomized in a double-blind fashion equally into 2 groups. After the induction of anesthesia, 1 group received 30 mg/kg intravenous methylprednisolone and the other a placebo. Concentrations in plasma of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10, free methylprednisolone and total methylprednisolone were obtained for the following: (1) at anesthesia induction before the study drug was administered; (2) 30 minutes on cardiopulmonary bypass; (3) 5 minutes after protamine administration; and (4) 6 hours after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Troponin T was measured at time points T1, T3, T4, and also at 6:00 on the first postoperative morning. Physiological and clinical outcome parameters were also recorded.

Results: Intravenous methylprednisolone resulted in high plasma drug concentrations that peaked at T2. Methylprednisolone significantly lowered concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 and raised levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10. No significant differences in troponin T levels were detected. Blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the methylprednisolone group, and patients in this group received more often insulin therapy than controls. No significant differences were observed in other clinical or physiological outcome measurements.

Conclusions: Intravenous 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone administered before cardiopulmonary bypass resulted in high effective plasma drug concentrations and a decreased inflammatory response. However, no cardioprotective effect or better clinical outcome was noticed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013.02.013DOI Listing
June 2013

Neurologic long term outcome after drowning in children.

Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2012 Aug 15;20:55. Epub 2012 Aug 15.

Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Stenbäckinkatu 9, FIN-00029 HUS, Helsinki, Finland.

Drowning is a major source of mortality and morbidity in children worldwide. Neurocognitive outcome of children after drowning incidents cannot be accurately predicted in the early course of treatment. Therefore, aggressive out-of-hospital and in-hospital treatment is emphasized. There are "miracle" cases after long submersion times that have been reported in the medical literature, which mostly concern small children. However, many of the survivors will remain severely neurologically compromised after remarkably shorter submersion times and will consequently be a great burden to their family and society for the rest of their lives. The duration of submersion, the need of advanced life support at the site of the accident, the duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, whether spontaneous breathing and circulation are present on arrival at the emergency room are important factors related to survival with mild neurological deficits or intact function in drowned children. Data on long-term outcome are scarce. The used outcome measurement methods and the duration of follow-up have not been optimal in most of the existing studies. Proper neurological and neurophysiological examinations for drowned children are superior to outcome scales based chart reviews. There is evidence that gross neurological examination at the time of discharge from the hospital in young children does not reveal all the possible sequelae related to hypoxic brain injury and thus long-term follow-up of drowned resuscitated children is strongly recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1757-7241-20-55DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3493332PMC
August 2012

Single-center experience with levosimendan in children undergoing cardiac surgery and in children with decompensated heart failure.

BMC Anesthesiol 2011 Oct 5;11:18. Epub 2011 Oct 5.

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Children's Hospital, Helsinki University, Central Hospital, P,O B, 281 Stenbäckinkatu 11, FIN-00029 HUCS Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Levosimendan has pharmacologic and hemodynamic advantages over conventional intravenous inotropic agents. It has been used mainly as a rescue drug in the pediatric intensive care unit or in the operating room. We present the largest single-center experience of levosimendan in children.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of all children who received levosimendan infusions between July 5, 2001 and July 4, 2010 in a pediatric intensive care unit. The results of a questionnaire for physicians (anesthesiologist/intensivists, cardiologists and cardiac surgeons) concerning their clinical perceptions of levosimendan are evaluated

Results: During the study period a total of 484 infusions were delivered to 293 patients 53% of whom were male. The median age of the patients was 0.4 years (4 hours-21.1 years) at the time of levosimendan administration. A majority of levosimendan infusions were administered to children who were undergoing cardiac surgery (72%), 14% to children with cardiomyopathy and 14% to children with cardiac failure. Eighty-nine out of the 293 patients (30.4%) received repeated doses of levosimendan (up to 11 infusions). The most common indication for the use of levosimendan (94%) was when the other inotropic agents were insufficient to maintain stable hemodynamics. Levosimendan was especially used in children with cardiomyopathy (100%) or with low cardiac output syndrome (94%). A majority (89%) of the respondents believed that levosimendan administration postponed the need for mechanical assist devices in some children with cardiomyopathy. Moreover, 44% of respondents thought that the mechanical support was totally avoided in some patients undergoing cardiac surgery after receiving levosimendan.

Conclusion: Levosimendan is widely used in our institution and many physicians believe that its use could decrease the need for mechanical support in children undergoing cardiac surgery or in children with decompensated heart failure. However, there is a lack of good empirical evidence in children to support this perception.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2253-11-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3199236PMC
October 2011

Horner's syndrome secondary to internal jugular venous cannulation.

J Clin Anesth 2008 Jun;20(4):304-6

Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital, FIN-00029 HUS, Helsinki, Finland.

Horner's syndrome is a rare complication following insertion of a central catheter into the internal jugular vein (IJV). A 5-year-old boy, who developed unilateral Horner's syndrome postoperatively following IJV cannulation, is presented. The Horner's syndrome resolved completely after 5 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinane.2007.10.016DOI Listing
June 2008

Unrecognized mediastinal tumor causing sudden tracheal obstruction and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

J Emerg Med 2010 Jun 24;38(5):e63-6. Epub 2008 Apr 24.

Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

We report a case of a 13-year-old boy with a presumed neck cyst who developed sudden tracheal obstruction and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Cardiorespiratory collapse occurred due to an improperly diagnosed mediastinal tumor. This report serves to alert Emergency Physicians and emergency medical services personnel of the rare and rapidly progressive nature of respiratory compromise caused by a mediastinal tumor, which may have lethal consequences if not recognized and treated promptly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2007.10.065DOI Listing
June 2010

The effect of temperature correction of blood gas values on the accuracy of end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring in children after cardiac surgery.

ASAIO J 2007 Nov-Dec;53(6):670-4

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

We evaluated accuracy of end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PETco2) monitoring and measured the effect of temperature correction of blood gas values in children after cardiac surgery. Data from 49 consecutive mechanically ventilated children after cardiac surgery in the cardiac intensive care unit were prospectively collected. One patient was excluded from the study. Four arterial-end-tidal CO2 pairs in each patient were obtained. Both the arterial carbon dioxide tension (Paco2) values determined at a temperature of 37 degrees C and values corrected to body temperature (Patcco2) were compared with the PETco2 values. After the surgical correction 28 patients had biventricular, acyanotic (mean age 2.7 +/- 4.8 years) and 20 patients had a cyanotic lesion (mean age 1.0 +/- 1.7 years). The body temperature ranged from 35.2 degrees C to 38.9 degrees C. The Pa-PETco2 discrepancy was affected both by the type of cardiac lesion and by the temperature correction of Paco2 values. Correlation slopes of the Pa-PETco2 and Patc-PETco2 discrepancies were significantly different (p = 0.040) when the body temperature was higher or lower than 37 degrees C. In children, after cardiac surgery, end-tidal CO2 monitoring provided a clinically acceptable estimate of arterial CO2 value, which remained stabile in repeated measurements. End-tidal CO2 monitoring more accurately reflects temperature-corrected blood gas values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAT.0b013e3181569bf3DOI Listing
January 2008

The air-leak test is not a good predictor of postextubation adverse events in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2007 Apr 19;21(2):197-202. Epub 2006 Apr 19.

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: The air-leak test is recommended as a method of assessing the appropriate size of an uncuffed endotracheal tube (ETT) in children. The authors' primary objective was to determine whether the air-leak test would predict adverse events and reintubations after the removal of the ETT in children who have undergone cardiac surgery.

Design: Prospective, observational, clinical study.

Setting: University tertiary care hospital.

Patients: Ninety-four children <10 years of age undergoing elective cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

Interventions: The attending anesthesiologist assessed air-leak pressure after intubation in the operating room (OR). In addition, the air-leak test was performed in 42 patients before extubation in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The incidence of adverse events and the number of failed extubations were recorded after removal of the ETT.

Measurements And Main Results: Eleven of the 94 patients were excluded from the study. Four (4.3%) of the patients died in the PICU before extubation, and 7 patients were excluded for other reasons. The median age of the 83 children was 0.9 years (range 0.01-9.6 years). The total incidences of postextubation adverse events and failed extubations were 30.1% and 8.4%, respectively. An audible air leak < or =25 cmH(2)O airway pressure during the OR phase or before removal of the ETT during the PICU recovery phase had no significant predictive value for the incidence of adverse events (p = 0.63) or reintubations (p = 1.0). The patients undergoing simple and complete operations compared with more complex and incomplete operations had significantly fewer postextubation adverse events (p = 0.03). Neonates did not have a higher risk for postextubation adverse events (p = 0.64) or reintubations (p = 0.26) than older children.

Conclusion: The air-leak test did not predict an increased risk for postextubation adverse events and reintubations in children undergoing elective congenital heart surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2006.01.007DOI Listing
April 2007

Transcranial Doppler-revealed retrograde cerebral artery flow during Norwood 1 operation.

ASAIO J 2006 Sep-Oct;52(5):608-10

Department of Anesthesiology, Penn State Children's Hospital, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033-0850, USA.

We describe a 6-week-old girl with a hypoplastic left heart syndrome in whom multimodal neuromonitoring was used during Norwood stage I palliation. After placement of modified Blalock-Taussig shunt, transcranial Doppler measurements revealed retrograde flow in the right middle cerebral artery throughout the cardiac cycle. Further examination showed that the change in cerebral blood flow was secondary to shunt runoff and clinical correlation was noted in near infrared spectroscopy measurements of regional cerebral oxygenation saturation. The surgical procedure was subsequently modified with a return of antegrade flow. We offer this case as one of the first (if not the first) documented case reports of an intraoperative modification of surgical procedure driven by changes identified by multimodal neuromonitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.mat.0000235487.96687.daDOI Listing
December 2006

Comparison of direct and intravesical measurement of intraabdominal pressure in children.

J Pediatr Surg 2006 Aug;41(8):1381-5

Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 281, FIN-00029 HUCS Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare directly measured intraabdominal pressure with the pressure measured indirectly via urinary catheter using different bladder-filling volumes in children.

Methods: Prospective observational study in pediatric intensive care unit at a university children's hospital. Three simultaneous measurements of intraabdominal pressure were performed in 14 children, mean age 1.6 months (range, 0.2-56), after cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass directly via an intraperitoneal dialysis catheter and indirectly via indwelling urinary catheter with bladder volumes of 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mL/kg of physiological saline. Of the 14 patients, 9 were mechanically ventilated at the time of the intraabdominal pressure measurements.

Results: Directly measured intraabdominal pressure ranged between 0 and 10 mm Hg and showed the highest correlation (r = 0.971, P < .0001) with the pressure measured via urinary catheter using bladder-filling volume of 1 mL/kg. The higher the bladder-filling volume, the higher was the overestimation of the intraabdominal pressure and the weaker was the correlation with the direct measurement. Overestimation of intraabdominal pressure was 1.3, 2.0, and 2.9 mm Hg, with bladder volume of 1, 2, and 3 mL/kg, respectively.

Conclusion: These data suggest that intravesical pressure closely correlates with intraabdominal pressure in children. A bladder-filling volume of 1 mL/kg is recommended for the measurement of intraabdominal pressure in children with a risk of abdominal compartment syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2006.04.030DOI Listing
August 2006

Hemodynamic effects of rescue protocol hydrocortisone in neonates with low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2005 Nov;6(6):655-9

Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: To assess the hemodynamic effects and safety of hydrocortisone in neonates with low cardiac output syndrome requiring high levels of inotropic support and fluid resuscitation after cardiac surgery.

Design: Retrospective chart review.

Setting: Fifteen-bed pediatric cardiovascular intensive care unit.

Patients: Twelve neonates with low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery to whom hydrocortisone was administered according to one of two dosing regimens (100 mg/[m.day] for 2 days, 50 mg/[m.day] for 2 days, and 25 mg/[m.day] for 1 day or 100 mg/[m.day] for 1 day, 50 mg/[m.day] for 2 days, and 25 mg/[m.day] for 2 days) were identified from the Department of Pharmacy database between September 2002 and January 2004.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: The mean and systolic blood pressure increased significantly 3 hrs after hydrocortisone treatment from the values preceding hydrocortisone administration. The mean blood pressure increased from 44.0+/-3.0 to 55.4+/-2.3 mm Hg (p=.01) and the systolic blood pressure increased from 64.2+/-4.7 to 78.3+/-3.4 mm Hg (p=.04). Comparable beneficial changes were also seen in the heart rate, which decreased from 168.3+/-4.6 to 148.3+/-5.6 beats/min (p=.004) after 24 hrs of hydrocortisone administration and remained at this level during the 72 hrs of follow-up. Significant weaning of epinephrine infusions was possible, from a mean dose of 0.16 to 0.06 microg/(kg.min) (p=.008), within 24 hrs after the initiation of steroid administration, and this reduction was not offset by increases in other inotropic agents. hydrocortisone administration caused nonsignificant increases in mean blood glucose concentration (from 116.2+/-20.6 to 156.0+/-25.6 mg/dL; p=.64), mean white blood cell count (from 16.6+/-1.6 to 18.9+/-2.6 x 10 U/L; p=.35), and sodium level (from 144.7+/-1.3 to 145.3+/-1.3 mmol/L; p=.51). Ten of the 12 patients (83.3%) survived.

Conclusion: Most of the hemodynamically compromised neonates who were unresponsive to high doses of inotropic agents and fluid resuscitation after heart surgery responded to hydrocortisone with improvement of hemodynamic parameters and a decrease in inotropic requirements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.pcc.0000185487.69215.29DOI Listing
November 2005
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