Publications by authors named "Pernilla Bohlin"

5 Publications

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Current challenges in air sampling of semivolatile organic contaminants: sampling artifacts and their influence on data comparability.

Environ Sci Technol 2014 Dec 3;48(24):14077-91. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University , Kamenice 5/753, Pavilon A29, Brno 62500, Czech Republic.

With current science and policy needs, more attention is being given to expanding and improving air sampling of semivolatile organic contaminants (SVOCs). However, a wide range of techniques and configurations are currently used (active and passive samplers, different deployment times, different sorbents, etc.) and as the SVOC community looks to assess air measurements on a global scale, questions of comparability arise. We review current air sampling techniques, with a focus on sampling artifacts that can lead to uncertainties or biases in reported concentrations, in particular breakthrough, degradation, meteorological influences, and assumptions regarding passive sampling. From this assessment, we estimate the bias introduced for SVOC concentrations from all factors. Due to the effects of breakthrough, degradation, particle fractions and sampler uptake periods, some current passive and active sampler configurations may underestimate certain SVOCs by 30-95%. We then recommend future study design, appropriateness of sampler types for different study goals, and finally, how the SVOC community should move forward in both research and monitoring to best achieve comparability and consistency in air measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es502164rDOI Listing
December 2014

Evaluation and guidelines for using polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers in double-dome chambers to assess semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in non-industrial indoor environments.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2014 Nov;16(11):2617-26

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, CZ-625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Indoor air pollution has been recognized as an important risk factor for human health, especially in areas where people tend to spend most of their time indoors. Many semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) have primarily indoor sources and are present in orders of magnitude higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Despite this, awareness of SVOCs in indoor air and assessment of the link between indoor concentrations and human health have lagged behind those of outdoor air. This is partially related to challenges associated with indoor sampling of SVOCs. Passive air samplers (PASs), which are widely accepted in established outdoor air monitoring networks, have been used to fill the knowledge gaps on indoor SVOCs distribution. However, their applicability for indoor environments and the assessment of human health risks lack sufficient experimental data. To address this issue, we performed an indoor calibration study of polyurethane foam (PUF) PAS deployed in a double-dome chamber, covering both legacy and new SVOC classes. PUF-PAS and a continuous low-volume active air sampler (AAS) were co-deployed for a calibration period of twelve weeks. Based on the results from this evaluation, PUF-PAS in a double-bowl chamber is recommended for indoor sampling and health risk assessment of gas phase SVOCs, including novel brominated flame retardants (nBFR) providing sufficient exposure time is applied. Data for particle associated SVOCs suffered from significant uncertainties caused by low level of detection and low precision in this study. A more open chamber design for indoor studies may allow for higher sampling rates (RS) and better performance for the particle associated SVOCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4em00305eDOI Listing
November 2014

Field evaluation of a passive personal air sampler for screening of PAH exposure in workplaces.

J Environ Monit 2010 Jul 11;12(7):1437-44. Epub 2010 May 11.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

New sampling methods are needed to simplify and enable frequent monitoring of workers' exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The sampler needs to fulfil some key operational requirements for occupational exposure assessments: (i) be usable as a personal sampler; (ii) work over 8 h exposure time; (iii) sequester PAHs both in gas and particle phase, (iv) yield reliable estimates of air concentrations. Here, a new smaller design of the traditional polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air sampler (PAS) (i.e. a 'mini-PUF') was introduced and assessed against these requirements in sites with elevated PAH concentrations. The exposure times were 2 weeks and 8 hours. The obtained sampling rates (R-values) were not significantly different between gas phase (0.4-3.3 m(3) day(-1), 0.3-2.3 L min(-1)) and particle associated PAHs (0.5-1.9 m(3) day(-1), 0.4-1.3 L min(-1)). The accuracy in estimating air concentrations was within +/-25% from the active sampler for half of the PAHs for the mini-PUF under 8 h exposures. Significant correlations (p < 0.003) were found between personally deployed mini-PUFs and a co-deployed personal active sampling method. This together with the low costs and ease-of-use of the mini-PUF encourage application in exposure assessments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c0em00018cDOI Listing
July 2010

Field evaluation of polyurethane foam passive air samplers to assess airborne PAHs in occupational environments.

Environ Sci Technol 2010 Jan;44(2):749-54

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.

There is a need for simple air sampling techniques to enable routine monitoring of the occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in compliance with occupational exposure limits. Other gas-phase contaminants can be monitored in workplaces using passive samplers but this is currently not the case for PAHs. Here, polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS), routinely used for outdoor air monitoring of PAHs and POPs, were assessed for their suitability in an indoor occupational environment against: ability to accumulate detectable levels within 1-2 weeks; quantitative sampling of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), precision, uptake kinetics, influence of shelter design, and performance of 16 deuterated PAHs as depuration compounds (DCs). Sampling rates (R-values) for PAHs in PUF-PAS, estimated by comparison to low-volume active samplers, and the loss of DCs, varied for individual PAHs (1-10 m(3) day(-1)) but were found to be in the same order of magnitude for both gas-phase and particle-associated PAHs including BaP. Only one PAH (Acy) fulfilled the DC criteria of >40% loss during the 2 week exposure. These results suggest that PUF-PAS are potentially useful tools for PAHs in occupational environments in screening workplaces and identifying sources/hotspots - although unlikely to replace active sampling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es902318gDOI Listing
January 2010

Occupational and indoor air exposure to persistent organic pollutants: a review of passive sampling techniques and needs.

J Environ Monit 2007 Jun 3;9(6):501-9. Epub 2007 Apr 3.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, SE-405 30, Göteborg, Sweden.

Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and related compounds such as PCBs, brominated flame retardants, organochlorine pesticides and PAHs is regarded as an important environmental risk factor for humans. Recently concerns about POPs resulted in the international protocol called the Stockholm Convention on POPs. Air quality standards (indoor, outdoor and occupational) for PAHs and other POPs will also be applied in the EU in the future. This will bring requirements for monitoring, to check for compliance and to reduce human exposures to POPs. This can occur from point sources and in various microenvironments, indoors, outdoors and in workplaces. Monitoring can be undertaken either by an active (pumped) method or using a passive (diffusive) air sampling (PAS) device. To date, PAS for POPs have mainly been used as integrating (long-term) samplers for ambient (outdoor) air. However, there are several reasons to develop PAS for monitoring of POPs in occupational and indoor environments. We discuss the potential advantages, limitations and developments needed, so that PAS can be used reliably and routinely indoors and in occupational settings for POPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b700627fDOI Listing
June 2007
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