Publications by authors named "Per Hoffman"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genome-wide interaction and pathway-based identification of key regulators in multiple myeloma.

Commun Biol 2019 4;2:89. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Division of Molecular Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, 69120, Germany.

Inherited genetic susceptibility to multiple myeloma has been investigated in a number of studies. Although 23 individual risk loci have been identified, much of the genetic heritability remains unknown. Here we carried out genome-wide interaction analyses on two European cohorts accounting for 3,999 cases and 7,266 controls and characterized genetic susceptibility to multiple myeloma with subsequent meta-analysis that discovered 16 unique interacting loci. These risk loci along with previously known variants explain 17% of the heritability in liability scale. The genes associated with the interacting loci were found to be enriched in transforming growth factor beta signaling and circadian rhythm regulation pathways suggesting immunoglobulin trait modulation, T17 cell differentiation and bone morphogenesis as mechanistic links between the predisposition markers and intrinsic multiple myeloma biology. Further tissue/cell-type enrichment analysis associated the discovered genes with hemic-immune system tissue types and immune-related cell types indicating overall involvement in immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-019-0329-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399257PMC
April 2020

Exome-wide association study reveals novel psoriasis susceptibility locus at TNFSF15 and rare protective alleles in genes contributing to type I IFN signalling.

Hum Mol Genet 2017 11;26(21):4301-4313

Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, Neuherberg, Germany.

Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disorder for which multiple genetic susceptibility loci have been identified, but few resolved to specific functional variants. In this study, we sought to identify common and rare psoriasis-associated gene-centric variation. Using exome arrays we genotyped four independent cohorts, totalling 11 861 psoriasis cases and 28 610 controls, aggregating the dataset through statistical meta-analysis. Single variant analysis detected a previously unreported risk locus at TNFSF15 (rs6478108; P = 1.50 × 10-8, OR = 1.10), and association of common protein-altering variants at 11 loci previously implicated in psoriasis susceptibility. We validate previous reports of protective low-frequency protein-altering variants within IFIH1 (encoding an innate antiviral receptor) and TYK2 (encoding a Janus kinase), in each case establishing a further series of protective rare variants (minor allele frequency < 0.01) via gene-wide aggregation testing (IFIH1: pburden = 2.53 × 10-7, OR = 0.707; TYK2: pburden = 6.17 × 10-4, OR = 0.744). Both genes play significant roles in type I interferon (IFN) production and signalling. Several of the protective rare and low-frequency variants in IFIH1 and TYK2 disrupt conserved protein domains, highlighting potential mechanisms through which their effect may be exerted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddx328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5886170PMC
November 2017

Heterogeneous contribution of microdeletions in the development of common generalised and focal epilepsies.

J Med Genet 2017 09 29;54(9):598-606. Epub 2017 Jul 29.

Cologne Center for Genomics (CCG), University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Background: Microdeletions are known to confer risk to epilepsy, particularly at genomic rearrangement 'hotspot' loci. However, microdeletion burden not overlapping these regions or within different epilepsy subtypes has not been ascertained.

Objective: To decipher the role of microdeletions outside hotspots loci and risk assessment by epilepsy subtype.

Methods: We assessed the burden, frequency and genomic content of rare, large microdeletions found in a previously published cohort of 1366 patients with genetic generalised epilepsy (GGE) in addition to two sets of additional unpublished genome-wide microdeletions found in 281 patients with rolandic epilepsy (RE) and 807 patients with adult focal epilepsy (AFE), totalling 2454 cases. Microdeletions were assessed in a combined and subtype-specific approaches against 6746 controls.

Results: When hotspots are considered, we detected an enrichment of microdeletions in the combined epilepsy analysis (adjusted p=1.06×10,OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.35). Epilepsy subtype-specific analyses showed that hotspot microdeletions in the GGE subgroup contribute most of the overall signal (adjusted p=9.79×10, OR 7.45, 95% CI 4.20-13.5). Outside hotspots , microdeletions were enriched in the GGE cohort for neurodevelopmental genes (adjusted p=9.13×10,OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.62-4.94). No additional signal was observed for RE and AFE. Still, gene-content analysis identified known (, and ) and novel () candidate genes across epilepsy subtypes that were not deleted in controls.

Conclusions: Our results show a heterogeneous effect of recurrent and non-recurrent microdeletions as part of the genetic architecture of GGE and a minor contribution in the aetiology of RE and AFE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2016-104495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5574393PMC
September 2017

A haplotype block downstream of plasminogen is associated with chronic and aggressive periodontitis.

J Clin Periodontol 2017 Oct 11;44(10):962-970. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

Department of Periodontology, Institute of Dental, Oral and Maxillary Medicine, Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Aim: The intronic variant rs4252120 in the plasminogen gene (PLG) is known to be associated with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and atherosclerosis. Here, we examined the chromosomal region spanning PLG for associations with both chronic periodontitis (CP) and AgP.

Materials And Methods: The association of PLG candidate rs4252120 was tested in a German case-control sample of 1,419 CP cases using the genotyping assay hCV11225947 and 4,562 controls, genotyped with HumanOmni BeadChips. The German and Dutch sample of AgP cases (N = 851) and controls (N = 6,836) were genotyped with HumanOmni BeadChips. The North American CP sample (N = 2,681 cases, 1,823 controls) was previously genotyped on the Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0. Genotypes were imputed (software Impute v2), and association tests were performed using an additive genetic model adjusting for sex and smoking.

Results: Rs4252120 was not associated with CP. However, a haplotype block downstream of PLG and not in linkage disequilibrium with rs4252120 (r = .08) was associated with both AgP (rs1247559; p = .002, odds ratio [OR] = 1.33) and CP (p = .02, OR = 1.15). That locus was also significantly associated with PLG expression in osteoblasts (p = 6.9 × 10 ).

Conclusions: Our findings support a role of genetic variants in PLG in the aetiology of periodontitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12749DOI Listing
October 2017

No Reliable Association between Runs of Homozygosity and Schizophrenia in a Well-Powered Replication Study.

PLoS Genet 2016 Oct 28;12(10):e1006343. Epub 2016 Oct 28.

Department of Genetic Epidemiology in Psychiatry, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim / Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.

It is well known that inbreeding increases the risk of recessive monogenic diseases, but it is less certain whether it contributes to the etiology of complex diseases such as schizophrenia. One way to estimate the effects of inbreeding is to examine the association between disease diagnosis and genome-wide autozygosity estimated using runs of homozygosity (ROH) in genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Using data for schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (n = 21,868), Keller et al. (2012) estimated that the odds of developing schizophrenia increased by approximately 17% for every additional percent of the genome that is autozygous (β = 16.1, CI(β) = [6.93, 25.7], Z = 3.44, p = 0.0006). Here we describe replication results from 22 independent schizophrenia case-control datasets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (n = 39,830). Using the same ROH calling thresholds and procedures as Keller et al. (2012), we were unable to replicate the significant association between ROH burden and schizophrenia in the independent PGC phase II data, although the effect was in the predicted direction, and the combined (original + replication) dataset yielded an attenuated but significant relationship between Froh and schizophrenia (β = 4.86,CI(β) = [0.90,8.83],Z = 2.40,p = 0.02). Since Keller et al. (2012), several studies reported inconsistent association of ROH burden with complex traits, particularly in case-control data. These conflicting results might suggest that the effects of autozygosity are confounded by various factors, such as socioeconomic status, education, urbanicity, and religiosity, which may be associated with both real inbreeding and the outcome measures of interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1006343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5085024PMC
October 2016

Coding Variation in ANGPTL4, LPL, and SVEP1 and the Risk of Coronary Disease.

N Engl J Med 2016 03 2;374(12):1134-44. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

Background: The discovery of low-frequency coding variants affecting the risk of coronary artery disease has facilitated the identification of therapeutic targets.

Methods: Through DNA genotyping, we tested 54,003 coding-sequence variants covering 13,715 human genes in up to 72,868 patients with coronary artery disease and 120,770 controls who did not have coronary artery disease. Through DNA sequencing, we studied the effects of loss-of-function mutations in selected genes.

Results: We confirmed previously observed significant associations between coronary artery disease and low-frequency missense variants in the genes LPA and PCSK9. We also found significant associations between coronary artery disease and low-frequency missense variants in the genes SVEP1 (p.D2702G; minor-allele frequency, 3.60%; odds ratio for disease, 1.14; P=4.2×10(-10)) and ANGPTL4 (p.E40K; minor-allele frequency, 2.01%; odds ratio, 0.86; P=4.0×10(-8)), which encodes angiopoietin-like 4. Through sequencing of ANGPTL4, we identified 9 carriers of loss-of-function mutations among 6924 patients with myocardial infarction, as compared with 19 carriers among 6834 controls (odds ratio, 0.47; P=0.04); carriers of ANGPTL4 loss-of-function alleles had triglyceride levels that were 35% lower than the levels among persons who did not carry a loss-of-function allele (P=0.003). ANGPTL4 inhibits lipoprotein lipase; we therefore searched for mutations in LPL and identified a loss-of-function variant that was associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (p.D36N; minor-allele frequency, 1.9%; odds ratio, 1.13; P=2.0×10(-4)) and a gain-of-function variant that was associated with protection from coronary artery disease (p.S447*; minor-allele frequency, 9.9%; odds ratio, 0.94; P=2.5×10(-7)).

Conclusions: We found that carriers of loss-of-function mutations in ANGPTL4 had triglyceride levels that were lower than those among noncarriers; these mutations were also associated with protection from coronary artery disease. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1507652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4850838PMC
March 2016
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