Publications by authors named "Pengtao Lu"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Clinical characteristics and survival of children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in China: A multicentre retrospective cohort study.

EClinicalMedicine 2022 Jul 27;49:101466. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Children's Medical Centre, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127, China.

Background: Few data on paediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are available in developing countries. A multicentre, retrospective, cohort study was conducted to profile the clinical characteristics and survival of children with HCM in China.

Methods: We collected longitudinal data on children with HCM aged 0-18 years at three participating institutions between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2019. Patients were identified by searching for the diagnosis using ICD-10 codes from the electronic medical records database. HCM was diagnosed morphologically with echocardiography or cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. The exclusion criteria were secondary aetiologies of myocardial hypertrophy. The primary outcomes were all-cause death or heart transplantation. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival rate of different groups.

Findings: A total of 564 children were recruited, with a median age at diagnosis of 1.0 year (interquartile range, IQR: 0.4-8.0 years), followed for a median of 2.6 years (1977 patient-years, IQR:0.5, 5.9 years). The underlying aetiology was sarcomeric (382, 67.7%), inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) (108, 19.2%), and RASopathies (74, 13.1%). A total of 149 patients (26.4%) died and no patients underwent heart transplantation during follow-up. The survival probability was 71.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.3%-75.3%) at 5 years. Patients with IEMs or those diagnosed during infancy had the poorest outcomes, with an estimated 5-year survival rate of 16.9% (95% CI, 7.7%-29.1%) and 56.0% (95% CI, 48.8%-62.5%), respectively. Heart failure was the leading cause of death in the cohort (90/149, 60.4%), while sudden cardiac death was the leading cause in patients with sarcomeric HCM (32/66, 48.5%).

Interpretation: There is a high proportion of patients with IEM and a low proportion of patients with neuromuscular disease in children with HCM in China. Overall, mortality remains high in China, especially in patients with IEMs and those diagnosed during infancy.

Funding: National Natural Science Fund of China (81770380, 81974029), China Project of Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission (20MC1920400, 21Y31900301).
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July 2022

Metal-Free Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization: From Concept to Creation.

Acc Chem Res 2020 10 22;53(10):2325-2335. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98115, United States.

Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), which is derived from transition-metal-based olefin metathesis, has evolved into one of the most prevalent technologies for making functional polymeric materials in academia and in industry. The initial discovery of and advances in ROMP used ill-defined mixtures of metal salts to initiate polymerization. The initiators most commonly used today, developed with tremendous efforts, are well-defined metal-alkylidene complexes that have enabled a good mechanistic understanding of the polymerization as well as improvement of the initiators' activity, stability, and functional group tolerance.The evolution of ROMP has been decidedly metal-centric, with the path to accolades being paved primarily in ruthenium-, molybdenum-, and tungsten-based systems. Our departure from the ROMP trailhead was inspired in part by recent breakthroughs in radical-mediated polymerizations, whereby their mechanisms were leveraged to develop metal-free reaction conditions. Inventing a metal-free complement to traditional ROMP would essentially involve stepping away from decades of inorganic and organometallic developments, but with the promise of crossing new synthetic capabilities and curiosities.Driven by this motivation, as well as a community-inspired desire to develop "greener" controlled polymerizations, our team pioneered the search for, and discovery of, a wholly organic alternative to traditional metal-mediated ROMP. In this Account, we review our recent efforts to develop metal-free ring-opening metathesis polymerization (MF-ROMP), which is inspired by previous reports in electro- and photo-mediated organic transformations.This work began with an exploration of the direct oxidation of enol ethers and the propensity of the ensuing radical cations to initiate ROMP. To overcome limitations of the electrochemical conditions, a photoredox-mediated method was investigated next, using photoexcited pyrylium salts to oxidize the enol ethers. With this system, we demonstrated the ability to produce ROMP products and temporally control the polymerization.Further investigations into different aspects of the reaction included monomer scope, functional group tolerance, the impact of changing photocatalyst properties, and the ability to control molecular weight. The unique mechanism of MF-ROMP, along with the relative ease of synthesizing enol ether initiators, enabled the preparation of numerous polymeric materials that are hard to access through traditional metal-mediated pathways. At the end of this Account, we provide a perspective on future opportunities in this emerging area.
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October 2020

Tunable Affinity and Molecular Architecture Lead to Diverse Self-Assembled Supramolecular Structures in Thin Films.

ACS Nano 2016 Jan 3;10(1):919-29. Epub 2015 Dec 3.

Department of Polymer Science, College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron , Akron, Ohio 44325, United States.

The self-assembly behavior of specifically designed giant surfactants is systematically studied in thin films using grazing incidence X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy, focusing on the effects of molecular nanoparticle (MNP) functionalities and molecular architectures on nanostructure formation. Two MNPs with different surface functionalities, i.e., hydrophilic carboxylic acid functionalized [60]fullerene (AC60) and omniphobic fluorinated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (FPOSS), are utilized as the head portions of the giant surfactants. By covalently tethering these functional MNPs onto the end point or junction point of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymer, linear and star-like giant surfactants with different molecular architectures are constructed. With fixed length of the PEO block, changing the molecular weight of the PS block leads to the formation of various ordered phases and phase transitions. Due to the distinct affinity, the AC60-based and FPOSS-based giant surfactants form two- or three-component morphologies, respectively. A stretching parameter for the PS block is introduced to characterize the PS chain conformation in the different morphologies. The highly diverse self-assembled nanostructures with high etch resistance between components in small dimensions obtained from the giant surfactant thin films suggest that these macromolecules could provide a promising and robust platform for nanolithography applications.
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January 2016

Self-assembly of fullerene-based janus particles in solution: effects of molecular architecture and solvent.

Chemistry 2014 Sep 22;20(37):11630-5. Epub 2014 Jul 22.

Department of Polymer Science, College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, 170 University Ave. Akron, Ohio, 44325-3909 (USA), Fax: (+1)‚ÄČ330-972-8626.

Two molecular Janus particles based on amphiphilic [60]fullerene (C60 ) derivatives were designed and synthesized by using the regioselective Bingel-Hirsh reaction and the click reaction. These particles contain carboxylic acid functional groups, a hydrophilic fullerene (AC60 ), and a hydrophobic C60 in different ratios and have distinct molecular architectures: 1:1 (AC60 -C60 ) and 1:2 (AC60 -2C60 ). These molecular Janus particles can self-assemble in solution to form aggregates with various types of micellar morphology. Whereas vesicular morphology was observed for both AC60 -C60 and AC60 -2C60 in tetrahydrofuran, in a mixture of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)/water, spherical micelles and cylindrical micelles were observed for AC60 -C60 and AC60 -2C60 , respectively. A mechanism of formation was tentatively proposed based on the effects of molecular architecture and solvent polarity on self-assembly.
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September 2014