Publications by authors named "Pengfei Liu"

480 Publications

Amino Acid Ionic Liquids Catalyzed d-Glucosamine into Pyrazine Derivatives: Insight from NMR Spectroscopy.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Mar 17;69(8):2403-2411. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Shanxi Engineering Research Center of Biorefinery, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 27 South Taoyuan Road, Taiyuan 030001, China.

Using environment-friendly catalysts to convert biomass into compounds with high values is one of the central topics of green chemistry. In this work, [Ch][Pro] (cholinium as the cation and l-proline as the anion) ionic liquid was synthesized and applied as a model catalyst in the production of deoxyfructosazine (DOF) and fructosazine (FZ) from d-glucosamine (GlcNH). The C NMR chemical shift titration experiments and the diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY) measurements showed that, when the [Ch][Pro] interacted with GlcNH, the l-proline anion ([Pro]) played a major catalytic role instead of cholinium cation ([Ch]). The effects of the reaction temperature and the amount of [Ch][Pro] on the product yields were surveyed. The experimental results showed that the highest DOF yield (33.78%) was obtained after 30 min at 100 °C when the molar ratio of [Ch][Pro]/GlcNH was 1. Moreover, H NMR and C NMR experiments were applied to monitor the reaction process with [Ch][Pro] as the catalyst. The reactive intermediate, dihydrofructosazine, was clearly detected by these techniques. Accordingly, a possible reaction pathway was proposed. By applying other amino acids as the anions, we also prepared five other [Ch][AA] ionic liquids, and they showed different catalytic activities and selectivity in the GlcNH self-condensation reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c08032DOI Listing
March 2021

High-Amylose Corn Starch/Konjac Glucomannan Composite Film: Reinforced by Incorporating β-Cyclodextrin.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Mar 17;69(8):2493-2500. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

State Key Laboratory of Biobased Material and Green Papermaking, Qilu University of Technology, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan 250353, China.

Glycerol-plasticized high-amylose corn starch/konjac glucomannan (HCS/KGM) composite films incorporated with various concentrations of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) were prepared and investigated for structural, mechanical, and physical properties. The results of X-ray diffraction, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyses, and scanning electron microscopy indicated that β-CD excluded from the polymer chains and aggregated to form crystals during film formation, which drove HCS to interact with KGM more compactly. The thickness and transparency of the films increased after β-CD was incorporated. More associations of HCS/KGM enhanced the mechanical properties and reduced the moisture content of the films. The water vapor permeability of the HCS/KGM composite film was also improved significantly with the incorporation of β-CD. The enhanced association between biopolymers in the presence of β-CD will advance the development of a degradable active composite packaging film.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c06648DOI Listing
March 2021

Aqueous production of secondary organic aerosol from fossil-fuel emissions in winter Beijing haze.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Feb;118(8)

John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138;

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced by atmospheric oxidation of primary emitted precursors is a major contributor to fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution worldwide. Observations during winter haze pollution episodes in urban China show that most of this SOA originates from fossil-fuel combustion but the chemical mechanisms involved are unclear. Here we report field observations in a Beijing winter haze event that reveal fast aqueous-phase conversion of fossil-fuel primary organic aerosol (POA) to SOA at high relative humidity. Analyses of aerosol mass spectra and elemental ratios indicate that ring-breaking oxidation of POA aromatic species, leading to functionalization as carbonyls and carboxylic acids, may serve as the dominant mechanism for this SOA formation. A POA origin for SOA could explain why SOA has been decreasing over the 2013-2018 period in response to POA emission controls even as emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have remained flat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2022179118DOI Listing
February 2021

Preliminary Application of Three-Dimensional Printing Technique in Preoperative Localization of Meningioma in Primary Hospitals.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, China Department of Neurology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Objective: To explore the preliminary application of three-dimensional (3D) printing technique in preoperative localization of meningiomas in primary hospitals.

Patients And Methods: The enrolled subjects were 13 patients in the Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical College, Shandong Province between December 2018 and June 2020, including CT or MRI data from eight cases of brain meningiomas and five cases of cerebrospinal meningiomas. The Mimics 17.0 software package was applied to reconstruct the 3D images and print out the 3D guide. The authors placed the 3D printed guide on the surgical area for preoperative tumor location.

Results: The 3D printed guides for all patients were successfully designed and printed out. Simpson grade I resection was performed on all tumors. No significant hematoma, brain edema, or neurological symptoms were observed in the postoperative patients, and the surgical results were good.

Conclusions: The authors can use 3D printing technology for precise preoperative localization of meningiomas. Grassroots hospitals can also use this technique because of its economic, accurate, and personalized characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007509DOI Listing
February 2021

Expanding the phenotype, genotype and biochemical knowledge of ALG3-CDG.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 Feb 13. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Division of Genetic Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a continuously expanding group of monogenic disorders of glycoprotein and glycolipid biosynthesis that cause multisystem diseases. Individuals with ALG3-CDG frequently exhibit severe neurological involvement (epilepsy, microcephaly, and hypotonia), ocular anomalies, dysmorphic features, skeletal anomalies, and feeding difficulties. We present 10 unreported individuals diagnosed with ALG3-CDG based on molecular and biochemical testing with 11 novel variants in ALG3, bringing the total to 40 reported individuals. In addition to the typical multisystem disease seen in ALG3-CDG, we expand the symptomatology of ALG3-CDG to now include endocrine abnormalities, neural tube defects, mild aortic root dilatation, immunodeficiency, and renal anomalies. N-glycan analyses of these individuals showed combined deficiencies of hybrid glycans and glycan extension beyond Man GlcNAc consistent with their truncated lipid-linked precursor oligosaccharides. This spectrum of N-glycan changes is unique to ALG3-CDG. These expanded features of ALG3-CDG facilitate diagnosis and suggest that optimal management should include baseline endocrine, renal, cardiac, and immunological evaluation at the time of diagnosis and with ongoing monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12367DOI Listing
February 2021

Physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of hydrothermal treated Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) starch and flour.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Feb 10;176:177-185. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

State Key Laboratory of Biobased Material and Green Papermaking, Qilu University of Technology, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong 250353, China; College of Food Science and Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong 250353, China. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of hydrothermal treatments (heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and annealing (ANN)) on the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of yam starch and yam flour. Hydrothermal treatments decreased the pasting properties of yam starch and yam flour. Compared with yam starch, HMT significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the pasting viscosities of yam flour. Both HMT and ANN caused an increase of the gelatinization temperatures (T, T, and T) and a decrease of enthalpy (△H). The increasement in ratio of 1047/1022 cm and 995/1022 cm suggested that HMT and ANN resulted in an increase in short-range order. The crystalline pattern of all samples was still A-type, and HMT yam starch exhibited higher crystallinity (26.20%). The most significant inhibition of in vitro digestibility was found in HMT yam flour, with slowly digestible starch and resistant starch contents increasing by 3.73% and 4.40%, respectively. Hydrothermal treatments made the no-starch ingredients in yam flour agglomerate and adhere to starch granules. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the starch being coated or embedded by protein was a possible reason for the differences in physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility between yam starch and yam flour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.064DOI Listing
February 2021

Commonalities across computational workflows for uncovering explanatory variants in undiagnosed cases.

Genet Med 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose: Genomic sequencing has become an increasingly powerful and relevant tool to be leveraged for the discovery of genetic aberrations underlying rare, Mendelian conditions. Although the computational tools incorporated into diagnostic workflows for this task are continually evolving and improving, we nevertheless sought to investigate commonalities across sequencing processing workflows to reveal consensus and standard practice tools and highlight exploratory analyses where technical and theoretical method improvements would be most impactful.

Methods: We collected details regarding the computational approaches used by a genetic testing laboratory and 11 clinical research sites in the United States participating in the Undiagnosed Diseases Network via meetings with bioinformaticians, online survey forms, and analyses of internal protocols.

Results: We found that tools for processing genomic sequencing data can be grouped into four distinct categories. Whereas well-established practices exist for initial variant calling and quality control steps, there is substantial divergence across sites in later stages for variant prioritization and multimodal data integration, demonstrating a diversity of approaches for solving the most mysterious undiagnosed cases.

Conclusion: The largest differences across diagnostic workflows suggest that advances in structural variant detection, noncoding variant interpretation, and integration of additional biomedical data may be especially promising for solving chronically undiagnosed cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-01084-8DOI Listing
February 2021

Clinical characterization of individuals with the distal 1q21.1 microdeletion.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Distal 1q21.1 microdeletions have shown highly variable clinical expressivity and incomplete penetrance, with affected individuals manifesting a broad spectrum of nonspecific features. The goals of this study were to better describe the phenotypic spectrum of patients with distal 1q21.1 microdeletions and to compare the clinical features among affected individuals. We performed a retrospective chart review of 47 individuals with distal 1q21.1 microdeletions tested at a large clinical genetic testing laboratory, with most patients being clinically evaluated in the same children's hospital. Health information such as growth charts, results of imaging studies, developmental history, and progress notes were collected. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test to compare clinical features among study subjects. Common features in our cohort include microcephaly (51.2%), seizures (29.8%), developmental delay (74.5%), failure to thrive (FTT) (68.1%), dysmorphic features (63.8%), and a variety of congenital anomalies such as cardiac abnormalities (23.4%) and genitourinary abnormalities (19.1%). Compared to prior literature, we found that seizures, brain anomalies, and FTT were more prevalent among our study cohort. Females were more likely than males to have microcephaly (p = 0.0199) and cardiac abnormalities (p = 0.0018). Based on existing genome-wide clinical testing results, at least a quarter of the cohort had additional genetic findings that may impact the phenotype of the individual. Our study represents the largest cohort of distal 1q21.1 microdeletion carriers available in the literature thus far, and it further illustrates the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations among symptomatic individuals. These results may allow for improved genetic counseling and management of affected individuals. Future studies may help to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms impacting the phenotypic variability observed with this microdeletion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62104DOI Listing
February 2021

Thermal Atomic Layer Deposition of Gold: Mechanistic Insights, Nucleation, and Epitaxy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 9;13(7):9091-9100. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States.

An microbalance and infrared spectroscopic study of alternating exposures to MeAu(SCNEt) and ozone illuminates the organometallic chemistry that allows for the thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) of gold. quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies resolve the nucleation delay and island growth of Au on a freshly prepared aluminum oxide surface with single cycle resolution, revealing inhibition for 40 cycles prior to slow nucleation and film coalescence that extends over 300 cycles. infrared spectroscopy informed by first-principles computation provides insight into the surface chemistry of the self-limiting half-reactions, which are consistent with an oxidized Au surface mechanism. X-ray diffraction of ALD-grown gold on silicon, silica, sapphire, and mica reveals consistent out-of-plane oriented crystalline film growth as well as epitaxially directed in-plane orientation on closely lattice-matched mica at a relatively low growth temperature of 180 °C. A more complete understanding of ALD gold nucleation, surface chemistry, and epitaxy will inform the next generation of low-temperature, nanoscale, textured depositions that are applicable to high surface area supports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c17943DOI Listing
February 2021

Yeast encapsulation in nanofiber via electrospinning: Shape transformation, cell activity and immobilized efficiency.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jan 26;120:111747. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

School of Life Sciences, Tiangong University, Tianjin 300387, China.

To realize encapsulation of living microbial cells and easily evaluation of cell viability after immobilization, the yeast cells were encapsulated in water soluble PAAm nanofiber by a facile and effective electrospinning technology. Firstly, the conductivity, shear viscosity and surface tension of PAAm/yeast electrospinning solution as a function of mass ratios of yeast/PAAm were investigated to determine the optimum solution condition for electrospinning immobilization. After electrospinning, it is interesting to note that the original ellipsoidal structure of yeast cells turns to oblate spheroid structure. To distinguish immobilization structure from the bead appearing during general electrospinning process, immobilization structure and bead structure were compared and analyzed by FESEM and EDX. Free cell activity, the immediate cell activity after electrospinning and cell activity for seven days storage after immobilization were evaluated by dying methods of CTC and methylene blue, respectively. The results show that encapsulation efficiency maintained at about 40%, and immobilized yeast cells remain active even after seven days storage, which provides a promising application prospect for electrospinning immobilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111747DOI Listing
January 2021

Corrigendum to "Physicochemical properties of pea starch-lauric acid complex modified by maltogenic amylase and pullulanase" [Carbohydr. Polym. 242 (2020) 116332].

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Apr 12;257:117629. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

State Key Laboratory of Biobased Material and Green Papermaking, Qilu University of Technology, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong 250353, China; School of Food Science and Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong 250353, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117629DOI Listing
April 2021

Encapsulation of fluazinam to extend efficacy duration in controlling Botrytis cinerea on cucumber.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Background: Fluazinam is an effective fungicide in controlling gray mold, but has short duration of efficacy. Increasing application dosage may cause phytotoxicity. To overcome this shortage, a controlled-release technology was studied by encapsulating fluazinam. Ethyl cellulose polymer microcapsules were loaded with fluazinam to formulate a fluazinam capsule suspension (FCS). The efficacy for inhibition of B. cinerea and persistency of the FCS were examined by comparing with fluazinam technical concentrate (FTC) and aqueous fluazinam suspension concentrate (FSC) using microscopic observation and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.

Results: FCS formed capsules, with median size of 3.17 μm in diameter, had 82.3% encapsulation efficiency. It had a stronger inhibitory activity against B. cinerea than FTC and FSC measured 7 days after the treatments. The half-life of FCS on cucumber leaves was 3.4 days, longer than the 2.3 days of FSC.

Conclusion: FCS formulation significantly improved the inhibition of B. cinerea and resulted in prolonged and sustained release. Moreover, microencapsulation increased the duration of the efficacy of fluazinam on target crops. This formulation could help to sustain pesticides and protect the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6318DOI Listing
February 2021

Rod-plate interactions in sepiolite-LAPONITE® gels: microstructure, surface chemistry and rheology.

Soft Matter 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.

Pure and composite clay gels of sepiolite and LAPONITE® at 4 wt% solids were characterised microstructurally and rheologically. They all displayed time-dependent behaviour, i.e. yield stress increased with aged time. The microstructures captured by cryo-SEM on the samples prepared by high pressure and rapid freezing showed the presence of bonding between LAPONITE® sheets and sepiolite fibres. These bonds are likely to be formed between the positive sheet edge and the negative fibre silica face as suggested by the upright orientation adopted by most LAPONITE® sheets. The sheets formed isolated open networks at a low content and a continuous open network at a high content. The fibres of the pure sepiolite gel formed a relatively strong network. However, the composite networks formed at a low LAPONITE® content between 5 and 25% must be discontinuous as the yield stress is zero. At a higher LAPONITE® content, the composite structure displayed increasing strength. The time-dependent ageing behaviour is due to the electric double layer (EDL, face-face) repulsive force governing the development of the 3D network structure. The Leong model described this behaviour well. All the clay gels displayed a maximum yield stress at a pH of 9 to 10. Pyrophosphate additive reduced the maximum yield stress and shifted the yield stress-pH curve to a lower pH. The Herschel-Bulkley model described the flow behaviour of all the gels well. The variation of the model yield stress with gel composition is similar to that obtained by the vane yield stress technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sm02112aDOI Listing
February 2021

Tracking pesticide exposure to operating workers for risk assessment in seed coating with tebuconazole and carbofuran.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Background: Coating seed with pesticides is an effective way to control plant pests, however, factory-based coating processes may carry a potential risk to operational workers of chemical exposure. To study the risk, carbofuran and tebuconazole were used to coat corn seed and their subsequent distribution on the bodies of workers was measured at manufacturers XFS and LS (Shanxi, China). Clothing was collected from workers during operations and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results: At XFS, dermal exposure to carbofuran was 4.83, 3.31 and 1.48 mg kg , and exposure to tebuconazole was 6.88, 5.16 and 1.72 mg kg for coating, packing and transport workers, respectively. At LS, dermal exposure to carbofuran was 2.32, 0.46 and 0.55 mg kg , and exposure to tebuconazole was 1.69, 0.46 and 0.70 mg kg , for coating, packing and transport workers, respectively. The level of pesticide exposure was significantly higher for seed-coating workers than for packing and transport workers. The main area of exposure was the hands for all workers and the lower limbs for packers; exposure was relatively uniform for pesticide handlers. Occupational risk was assessed based on margin of exposure (MOE). In seed-coating, the MOE was greater than 100 for tebuconazole, indicating no potential risk, but ranged from 0.25 to 2.88 for carbofuran, indicating the risk of a health impact.

Conclusion: The level of exposure varied depending on type of operation undertaken and body parts of workers' body, but the risk of a health impact was highly associated with pesticide toxicity. This provides a guideline for workers in pesticide manufacturing to ensure safe operation of the seed-coating process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6315DOI Listing
February 2021

Is liver involvement overestimated in COVID-19 patients? A meta-analysis.

Int J Med Sci 2021 18;18(5):1285-1296. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Anesthesiology, Capital Medical University affiliated Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Beijing 100038, China.

Considering transaminase more than the upper limit of normal value as liver injury might overestimate the prevalence of liver involvement in COVID-19 patients. No meta-analysis has explored the impact of varied definitions of liver injury on the reported prevalence of liver injury. Moreover, few studies reported the extent of hypertransaminasemia stratified by COVID-19 disease severity. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and Embase. The pooled prevalence of liver injury and hypertransaminasemia was estimated. In total, 60 studies were included. The overall prevalence of liver injury was 25%. Compared to subgroups with the non-strict definition of liver injury (33%) and subgroups without giving detailed definition (26%), the subgroup with a strict definition had a much lower prevalence of liver injury (9%). The overall prevalence of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation was 19% and 22%. The prevalence of elevated ALT and AST were significantly higher in severe COVID-19 cases compare to non-severe cases (31% vs 16% and 44% vs 11%). In critically ill and fatal cases, no difference was found in the prevalence of elevated ALT (24% vs 30%) or AST (54% vs 49%). Sensitivity analyses indicated that the adjusted prevalence of ALT elevation, AST elevation, and liver injury decreased to 14%, 7%, and 12%. The overall prevalence of liver injury and hypertransaminasemia in COVID-19 patients might be overestimated. Only a small fraction of COVID-19 patients have clinically significant liver injury. The prevalence of hypertransaminasemia was significantly higher in severe COVID-19 cases compare to non-severe cases. Hence, in severe COVID-19 patients, more attention should be paid to liver function tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.51174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847626PMC
February 2021

Establishment and Application of a Dual-Labeling Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunoassay Method for Simultaneous Detection of the Troponin I-C Complex and Full-Size-Troponin I.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2020 14;7:596051. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Clinical Lab, Wuxi No.5 People's Hospital, Wuxi, China.

The measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is widely used in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Although existing cTnI detection methods measure total cTnI, the significance of undegraded full-size-cTnI levels is still not well-understood. In this study, we have established a novel dual-labeling time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) technique that simultaneously detects the cTnI-C complex and full-size-cTnI, allowing us to explore the clinical value of full-size-cTnI determination. An antibody against the 23-43 amino acid region of cTnI protected by endogenous cTnC is coupled to magnetic beads to provide a solid-phase antibody for capturing all cTnI. An antibody against cTnC in the cTnI-C complex labeled with Eu was used to detect the cTnI-C complex, and an antibody labeled with Sm near the C-terminal 190-203 amino acids of cTnI was used to detect full-size-cTnI. Through dual-labeling TRFIA, cTnI-C complex, full-size-cTnI, and the full-size-cTnI/cTnI-C ratio can be detected simultaneously. The dual-labeling TRFIA technique was used to analyze serum samples collected at different times during treatment and compare their full-size-cTnI/cTnI-C ratios. The sensitivity for the cTnI-C-TRFIA complex was 0.02 ng/mL, the measurement range was 0.02-40 ng/mL, the average intra-batch coefficient of variation (CV) was 4.35%, and the inter-average CV was 6.23%. The correlation coefficient between cTnI-C-TRFIA and commercial cTnI-CLIA methods was = 0.8887. The sensitivity for full-size-cTnI-TRFIA was 0.04 ng/mL, the measurement range was 0.04-40 ng/mL, the average intra-batch CV was 4.95%, and the average inter-batch CV was 7.79%. The correlation coefficient between full-size-cTnI-TRFIA and commercial cTnI-CLIA methods was = 0.7247. Dual-labeling full-size-cTnI/cTnI-C-TRFIA analysis is helpful for determining the length of time of chest pain before admission and the degree of continuous release of cTnI in the myocardium. Thus, it is more for early prognosis than just detecting cTnI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2020.596051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840586PMC
January 2021

Atorvastatin Attenuates Isoflurane-Induced Activation of ROS-p38MAPK/ATF2 Pathway, Neuronal Degeneration, and Cognitive Impairment of the Aged Mice.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 14;12:620946. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Isoflurane, a widely used volatile anesthetic, induces neuronal apoptosis and memory impairments in various animal models. However, the potential mechanisms and effective pharmacologic agents are still not fully understood. The p38MAPK/ATF-2 pathway has been proved to regulate neuronal cell survival and inflammation. Besides, atorvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, exerts neuroprotective effects. Thus, this study aimed to explore the influence of atorvastatin on isoflurane-induced neurodegeneration and underlying mechanisms. Aged C57BL/6 mice (20 months old) were exposed to isoflurane (1.5%) anesthesia for 6 h. Atorvastatin (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg body weight) was administered to the mice for 7 days. Atorvastatin attenuated the isoflurane-induced generation of ROS and apoptosis. Western blotting revealed a decrease in cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 expression in line with ROS levels. Furthermore, atorvastatin ameliorated the isoflurane-induced activation of p38MAPK/ATF-2 signaling. In a cellular study, we proved that isoflurane could induce oxidative stress and inflammation by activating the p38MAPK/ATF-2 pathway in BV-2 microglia cells. In addition, SB203580, a selected p38MAPK inhibitor, inhibited the isoflurane-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. The results implied that p38MAPK/ATF-2 was a potential target for the treatment of postoperative cognitive dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.620946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840608PMC
January 2021

Mutation-specific pathophysiological mechanisms define different neurodevelopmental disorders associated with SATB1 dysfunction.

Authors:
Joery den Hoed Elke de Boer Norine Voisin Alexander J M Dingemans Nicolas Guex Laurens Wiel Christoffer Nellaker Shivarajan M Amudhavalli Siddharth Banka Frederique S Bena Bruria Ben-Zeev Vincent R Bonagura Ange-Line Bruel Theresa Brunet Han G Brunner Hui B Chew Jacqueline Chrast Loreta Cimbalistienė Hilary Coon Emmanuèlle C Délot Florence Démurger Anne-Sophie Denommé-Pichon Christel Depienne Dian Donnai David A Dyment Orly Elpeleg Laurence Faivre Christian Gilissen Leslie Granger Benjamin Haber Yasuo Hachiya Yasmin Hamzavi Abedi Jennifer Hanebeck Jayne Y Hehir-Kwa Brooke Horist Toshiyuki Itai Adam Jackson Rosalyn Jewell Kelly L Jones Shelagh Joss Hirofumi Kashii Mitsuhiro Kato Anja A Kattentidt-Mouravieva Fernando Kok Urania Kotzaeridou Vidya Krishnamurthy Vaidutis Kučinskas Alma Kuechler Alinoë Lavillaureix Pengfei Liu Linda Manwaring Naomichi Matsumoto Benoît Mazel Kirsty McWalter Vardiella Meiner Mohamad A Mikati Satoko Miyatake Takeshi Mizuguchi Lip H Moey Shehla Mohammed Hagar Mor-Shaked Hayley Mountford Ruth Newbury-Ecob Sylvie Odent Laura Orec Matthew Osmond Timothy B Palculict Michael Parker Andrea K Petersen Rolph Pfundt Eglė Preikšaitienė Kelly Radtke Emmanuelle Ranza Jill A Rosenfeld Teresa Santiago-Sim Caitlin Schwager Margje Sinnema Lot Snijders Blok Rebecca C Spillmann Alexander P A Stegmann Isabelle Thiffault Linh Tran Adi Vaknin-Dembinsky Juliana H Vedovato-Dos-Santos Samantha A Schrier Vergano Eric Vilain Antonio Vitobello Matias Wagner Androu Waheeb Marcia Willing Britton Zuccarelli Usha Kini Dianne F Newbury Tjitske Kleefstra Alexandre Reymond Simon E Fisher Lisenka E L M Vissers

Am J Hum Genet 2021 02 28;108(2):346-356. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Human Genetics, Radboudumc, 6500 HB Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, 6500 GL Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Whereas large-scale statistical analyses can robustly identify disease-gene relationships, they do not accurately capture genotype-phenotype correlations or disease mechanisms. We use multiple lines of independent evidence to show that different variant types in a single gene, SATB1, cause clinically overlapping but distinct neurodevelopmental disorders. Clinical evaluation of 42 individuals carrying SATB1 variants identified overt genotype-phenotype relationships, associated with different pathophysiological mechanisms, established by functional assays. Missense variants in the CUT1 and CUT2 DNA-binding domains result in stronger chromatin binding, increased transcriptional repression, and a severe phenotype. In contrast, variants predicted to result in haploinsufficiency are associated with a milder clinical presentation. A similarly mild phenotype is observed for individuals with premature protein truncating variants that escape nonsense-mediated decay, which are transcriptionally active but mislocalized in the cell. Our results suggest that in-depth mutation-specific genotype-phenotype studies are essential to capture full disease complexity and to explain phenotypic variability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.01.007DOI Listing
February 2021

Clinical exome sequencing data reveal high diagnostic yields for congenital diaphragmatic hernia plus (CDH+) and new phenotypic expansions involving CDH.

J Med Genet 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA

Background: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a life-threatening birth defect that often co-occurs with non-hernia-related anomalies (CDH+). While copy number variant (CNV) analysis is often employed as a diagnostic test for CDH+, clinical exome sequencing (ES) has not been universally adopted.

Methods: We analysed a clinical database of ~12 000 test results to determine the diagnostic yields of ES in CDH+ and to identify new phenotypic expansions.

Results: Among the 76 cases with an indication of CDH+, a molecular diagnosis was made in 28 cases for a diagnostic yield of 37% (28/76). A provisional diagnosis was made in seven other cases (9%; 7/76). Four individuals had a diagnosis of Kabuki syndrome caused by frameshift variants in . Putatively deleterious variants in and were each found in two individuals, supporting their role in CDH development. We also identified individuals with de novo pathogenic variants in and , and compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in . The role of these genes in CDH development is supported by the expression of their mouse homologs in the developing diaphragm, their high CDH-specific pathogenicity scores generated using a previously validated algorithm for genome-scale knowledge synthesis and previously published case reports.

Conclusion: We conclude that ES should be ordered in cases of CDH+ when a specific diagnosis is not suspected and CNV analyses are negative. Our results also provide evidence in favour of phenotypic expansions involving CDH for genes associated with -congenital disorder of glycosylation, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, Fanconi anaemia, Coffin-Siris syndrome and -related disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107317DOI Listing
January 2021

Synthetic mechanism of octenyl succinic anhydride modified corn starch based on shells separation pretreatment.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Mar 16;172:483-489. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

State Key Laboratory of Biobased Material and Green Papermaking, Qilu University of Technology, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan 250353, China; Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, 12211 Giza, Egypt; Department of Medical Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey. Electronic address:

Herein, the synthetic mechanism of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified corn starch (OSCS) and granule shells (OSC) based on shells separation pretreatment (SSP) was investigated. High intensity peaks around 1720 and 1570 cm were observed for OSC in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra after SSP. OSC showed higher degree of substitution (DS) values (ranging from 0.128 to 0.170) than OSCS (0.121) determined by H NMR. The average molecular weight (M) of OSA modified CS decreased, due to the introduction of OS groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that esterification mainly took place in the amorphous regions of starch granules. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that a new peak corresponding to 1s orbital electrons of Na was obtained due to the introduction of OSA molecules. Meanwhile, lower surface DS and higher fluorescence intensity were noticed for OSC. Conclusively, SSP would significantly increase the reaction efficiency of OSA modification process of CS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.01.082DOI Listing
March 2021

Inhibition of galectin-3 augments the antitumor efficacy of PD-L1 blockade in non-small-cell lung cancer.

FEBS Open Bio 2021 Jan 17. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Department of Surgery, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Multiple clinical trials have shown that monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) can benefit patients with lung cancer by increasing their progression-free survival and overall survival. However, a significant proportion of patients do not respond to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 mAbs. In the present study, we investigated whether galectin (Gal)-3 inhibitors can enhance the antitumor effect of PD-L1 blockade. Using the NSCLC-derived cell line A549, we examined the expression of Gal-3 in lung cancer cells under hypoxic conditions and investigated the regulatory effect of Gal-3 on PD-L1 expression, which is mediated by the STAT3 pathway. We also explored whether Gal-3 inhibition can facilitate the cytotoxic effect of T cells induced by PD-L1 blockade. The effects of combined use of a Gal-3 inhibitor and PD-L1 blockade on tumor growth and T-cell function were also investigated, and we found that hypoxia increased the expression and secretion of Gal-3 by lung cancer cells. Gal-3 increased PD-L1 expression via the upregulation of STAT3 phosphorylation, and administration of a Gal-3 inhibitor enhanced the effect of PD-L1 blockade on the cytotoxic activity of T cells against cancer cells in vitro. In a mouse xenograft model, the combination of a Gal-3 inhibitor and PD-L1 blockade synergistically suppressed tumor growth. Furthermore, the administration of a Gal-3 inhibitor enhanced T-cell infiltration and granzyme B release in tumors. Collectively, our results show that Gal-3 increases PD-L1 expression in lung cancer cells and that the administration of a Gal-3 inhibitor as an adjuvant enhanced the antitumor activity of PD-L1 blockade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.13088DOI Listing
January 2021

Identification and characterization of novel variants: modulation of TPP1 protein level offsets the impact of germline loss-of-function variants on telomere length.

Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2021 Feb 19;7(1). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Baylor College of Medicine, Integrated Molecular and Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Telomere biology disorders, largely characterized by telomere lengths below the first centile for age, are caused by variants in genes associated with telomere replication, structure, or function. One of these genes, , which encodes the shelterin protein TPP1, is associated with both autosomal dominantly and autosomal recessively inherited telomere biology disorders. TPP1 recruits telomerase to telomeres and stimulates telomerase processivity. Several studies probing the effect of various synthetic or patient-derived variants have mapped specific residues and regions of TPP1 that are important for interaction with TERT, the catalytic component of telomerase. However, these studies have come to differing conclusions regarding haploinsufficiency. Here, we report a proband with compound heterozygous novel variants in (NM_001082486.1)-c.505_507delGAG, p.(Glu169del); and c.619delG, p.(Asp207Thrfs*22)-and a second proband with a heterozygous chromosomal deletion encompassing : arr[hg19] 16q22.1(67,628,846-67,813,408)x1. Clinical data, including symptoms and telomere length within the pedigrees, suggested that loss of one allele was insufficient to induce telomere shortening or confer clinical features. Further analyses of lymphoblastoid cell lines showed decreased nascent RNA and steady-state mRNA, but normal TPP1 protein levels, in cells containing heterozygous c.619delG, p.(Asp207Thrfs*22), or the -encompassing chromosomal deletion compared to controls. Based on our results, we conclude that cells are able to compensate for loss of one allele by activating a mechanism to maintain TPP1 protein levels, thus maintaining normal telomere length.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/mcs.a005454DOI Listing
February 2021

Perturbations of genes essential for Müllerian duct and Wölffian duct development in Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 02;108(2):337-345

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, State Key Laboratory of Complex Severe and Rare Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China. Electronic address:

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is associated with congenital absence of the uterus, cervix, and the upper part of the vagina; it is a sex-limited trait. Disrupted development of the Müllerian ducts (MD)/Wölffian ducts (WD) through multifactorial mechanisms has been proposed to underlie MRKHS. In this study, exome sequencing (ES) was performed on a Chinese discovery cohort (442 affected subjects and 941 female control subjects) and a replication MRKHS cohort (150 affected subjects of mixed ethnicity from North America, South America, and Europe). Phenotypic follow-up of the female reproductive system was performed on an additional cohort of PAX8-associated congenital hypothyroidism (CH) (n = 5, Chinese). By analyzing 19 candidate genes essential for MD/WD development, we identified 12 likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants in 7 genes: PAX8 (n = 4), BMP4 (n = 2), BMP7 (n = 2), TBX6 (n = 1), HOXA10 (n = 1), EMX2 (n = 1), and WNT9B (n = 1), while LGD variants in these genes were not detected in control samples (p = 1.27E-06). Interestingly, a sex-limited penetrance with paternal inheritance was observed in multiple families. One additional PAX8 LGD variant from the replication cohort and two missense variants from both cohorts were revealed to cause loss-of-function of the protein. From the PAX8-associated CH cohort, we identified one individual presenting a syndromic condition characterized by CH and MRKHS (CH-MRKHS). Our study demonstrates the comprehensive utilization of knowledge from developmental biology toward elucidating genetic perturbations, i.e., rare pathogenic alleles involving the same loci, contributing to human birth defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.12.014DOI Listing
February 2021

An overview on plasticized biodegradable corn starch-based films: the physicochemical properties and gelatinization process.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jan 6:1-11. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

State Key Laboratory of Biobased Material and Green Papermaking, Qilu University of Technology, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, China.

With increasing awareness of environmental protection, petroleum-based raw materials are continuously decreasing, which in turn necessitated the development of eco-friendly sustainable biomaterials, as alternative strategy. Starch could be an ideal substitute. Corn starch has been used as a renewable material for development of biodegradable packaging, owing to great varieties, low cost, large-scale industrial production, and good films forming properties. Unfortunately, its poor mechanical and barrier properties have limited the application of starch-based films. Thence, plasticizers were added to overcome the aforementioned pitfalls and improve the films elongation, distribution, flexibility, elasticity, and rigidity. Addition of plasticizers can change the continuity and therefore would enhance the properties of corn starch-based films. While plasticization can improve the tensile strength and percent elongation, it can reduce the water resistance in prepared films. Herein, we focused on changes of starch granules during gelatinization process, types of biodegradable films, as well as the types of modified starch with plasticizers. Furthermore, the influence of plasticizers on corn starch-based films and the physicochemical properties of various types of corn starch-based films were also addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1868971DOI Listing
January 2021

Effects of ultrasonication on the properties of maize starch/stearic acid/ sodium carboxymethyl cellulose composite film.

Ultrason Sonochem 2020 Dec 28;72:105447. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

State Key Laboratory of Biobased Material and Green Papermaking, Qilu University of Technology, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong 250353, China; School of Food Science and Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong 250353, China. Electronic address:

Ultrasonic treatment can improve the compatibility between a hydrophobic material and a hydrophilic polymer. The light transmittance, crystalline structure, microstructure, surface morphology, moisture barrier, and mechanical properties of a composite film with or without ultrasonication were investigated. Ultrasound increases the film's light transmittance, resulting in a film that has good transparency. Ultrasonication did not change the crystalline structure of the polymer film, but promoted V-type complex formation. The surface of the film became smooth and homogeneous after the film-form suspension underwent ultrasonic treatment. Compared to the control film, after ultrasonication at 70% amplitude with a duration of 30 min, the average roughness and maximum roughness declined from 212 nm to 17.6 nm and from 768.7 nm to 86.5 nm, respectively. The composite film with ultrasonication exhibited better tensile and moisture barrier properties than the nonsonicated film. However, long-term and strong ultrasonication will destroy the polymer structure to some extent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2020.105447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803932PMC
December 2020

Vertical transmission of a large calvarial ossification defect due to heterozygous variants of ALX4 and TWIST1.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 03 27;185(3):916-922. Epub 2020 Dec 27.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

ALX4 is a homeobox gene expressed in the mesenchyme of developing bone and is known to play an important role in the regulation of osteogenesis. Enlarged parietal foramina (EPF) is a phenotype of delayed intramembranous ossification of calvarial bones due to variants of ALX4. The contrasting phenotype of premature ossification of sutures is observed with heterozygous loss-of-function variants of TWIST1, which is an important regulator of osteoblast differentiation. Here, we describe an individual with a large cranium defect, with dominant transmission from the mother, both carrying disease causing heterozygous variants in ALX4 and TWIST1. The distinct phenotype of absent superior and posterior calvarium in the child and his mother was in sharp contrast to the other affected maternal relatives with a recognizable ALX4-related EPF phenotype. This report demonstrates comorbid disorders of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and EPF in a mother and her child, resulting in severe skull defects reminiscent of calvarial abnormalities observed with bilallelic ALX4 variants. To our knowledge this is the first instance of ALX4 and TWIST1 variants acting synergistically to cause a unique phenotype influencing skull ossification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62036DOI Listing
March 2021

Metabolic Fingerprinting for Identifying the Mode of Action of the Fungicide SYP-14288 on .

Front Microbiol 2020 9;11:574039. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Plant Pathology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

The fungicide SYP-14288 has a high efficiency, low toxicity, and broad spectrum in inhibiting both fungi and oomycetes, but its mode of action (MoA) remains unclear on inhibiting fungi. In this study, the MoA was determined by analyzing the metabolism and respiratory activities of treated by SYP-14288. Wild-type strains and SYP-14288-resistant mutants of were incubated on potato dextrose agar amended with either SYP-14288 or one of select fungicides acting on fungal respiration, including complex I, II, and III inhibitors; uncouplers; and ATP synthase inhibitors. Mycelial growth was measured under fungicides treatments. ATP content was determined using an ATP assay kit, membrane potential of mitochondria was detected with the JC-1 kit, and respiratory rate was calculated based on the measurement of oxygen consumption of A model of metabolic fingerprinting cluster was established to separate oxidation inhibitors and phosphorylation inhibitors. All the results together displayed a clear discrimination between oxidation inhibitors and phosphorylation inhibitors, and the latter inhibited ATP synthase production having or uncoupling activities. Based on the model, SYP-14288 was placed in phosphorylation inhibitor group, because it significantly reduced ATP content and membrane potential of mitochondria while increasing respiratory rate in . Therefore, the MoA of SYP-14288 on . was confirmed to involve phosphorylation inhibition and possibly uncoupling activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.574039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755717PMC
December 2020

Influence of two functional dextrins on the gel properties of kappa-carrageenan.

Food Res Int 2020 12 18;138(Pt A):109666. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

State Key Laboratory of Biobased Material and Green Papermaking, Qilu University of Technology, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan 250353, China; School of Food Science and Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan 250353, China.

The physicochemical properties of κ-carrageenan (KC) can be improved by incorporation with small-molecule cosolvents. The texture and rheological properties, micromorphology, and crystallinity of KC incorporating indigestible dextrin (IDD) and beta-limit dextrin (BLD) were investigated. The rheological properties and sol-gel transition temperatures of the gels were slightly improved and the hardness of KC gels was significantly increased after the two dextrins were mixed in. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicated hydrogen-bonding interactions were strengthened in the presence of the dextrins. Confocal laser scanning microscope images revealed that a more homogenous structure was formed of the KC gel after the addition of dextrins. Moreover, X-ray diffraction patterns indicated the crystallinity of KC gel decreased upon dextrin addition. At the same dextrin content, IDD exerted a greater influence than BLD. IDD contents exceeding 3% (w/w) led to undesirable effects, whereas up to 5% (w/w) of BLD could be added. The two dextrins affected the rearrangement of the KC random coils in the sol state, and facilitated aggregation of the KC chains during cooling to form gel network structures after gelation. Therefore, the appropriate addition of these two dextrins can improve the texture and stability of KC gels and expand their application in functional foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109666DOI Listing
December 2020

Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Severity of Large Truck Crashes.

Entropy (Basel) 2020 Oct 22;22(11). Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Transportation Studies, Texas Southern University, 3100 Cleburne Street, Houston, TX 77004-9986, USA.

Crashes that involved large trucks often result in immense human, economic, and social losses. To prevent and mitigate severe large truck crashes, factors contributing to the severity of these crashes need to be identified before appropriate countermeasures can be explored. In this research, we applied three tree-based machine learning (ML) techniques, i.e., random forest (RF), gradient boost decision tree (GBDT), and adaptive boosting (AdaBoost), to analyze the factors contributing to the severity of large truck crashes. Besides, a mixed logit model was developed as a baseline model to compare with the factors identified by the ML models. The analysis was performed based on the crash data collected from the Texas Crash Records Information System (CRIS) from 2011 to 2015. The results of this research demonstrated that the GBDT model outperforms other ML methods in terms of its prediction accuracy and its capability in identifying more contributing factors that were also identified by the mixed logit model as significant factors. Besides, the GBDT method can effectively identify both categorical and numerical factors, and the directions and magnitudes of the impacts of the factors identified by the GBDT model are all reasonable and explainable. Among the identified factors, driving under the influence of drugs, alcohol, and fatigue are the most important factors contributing to the severity of large truck crashes. In addition, the exists of curbs and medians and lanes and shoulders with sufficient width can prevent severe large truck crashes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e22111191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711803PMC
October 2020

Microstructures and optical performances of nitrogen-vanadium co-doped TiO with enhanced purification efficiency to vehicle exhaust.

Environ Res 2021 Feb 8;193:110560. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Institute of Highway Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Mies van-der-Rohe Street 1, 52074, Aachen, Germany.

Titanium dioxide (TiO) is widely used to purify air pollutants in environmental engineering, but it is only activated by ultraviolet (UV) light. The metal or nonmetal single doping of TiO cannot observably improve the purification efficiency of TiO under visible light. To further increase the photocatalytic activity and purification efficiency of TiO on vehicle exhaust under visible light, nitrogen (N)-vanadium (V) co-doped TiO was first prepared. The influences of N-V co-doping on phase structures, morphology, microstructures, electronic structures, and photo-absorption performances were then observed and examined using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-visible light diffuse reflectance spectra. Purification efficiency and reaction rates of N-V co-doped TiO on NO, HC, CO and CO in vehicle exhaust were studied using a purification test system under UV and visible light irradiations, respectively. Results indicate that N and V are synchronously doped into the crystal structures of TiO to replace O and Ti, respectively. N and V show the synergistic co-doping effect to suppress the grain growth of TiO and improve the dispersity and specific surface area of TiO. Also, the N-V co-doping introduces more lattice distortions and defects in the crystal lattices of TiO. Further, N presents in the form of Ti-O-N and O-Ti-N bonds, and V exists in the form of V and V. These form the impurity energy level in the band gap to narrow the energy band of TiO. Additionally, the N-V co-doping broadens the photoabsorption threshold of TiO from 387 nm to 611 nm. These results show that N-V co-doping increases the photocatalytic activity of TiO. Finally, the N-V co-doped TiO shows higher catalytic purification efficiency on NO and HC under UV and visible light. The N-V co-doping obviously increases the purification efficiency of TiO on CO and CO when exposed to visible light, and their reversible reactions are not found. The N-V co-doping of TiO is a feasible approach to purify vehicle exhaust under visible light irradiations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110560DOI Listing
February 2021