Publications by authors named "Peng Xiao"

685 Publications

LncRNA SNHG6 knockdown inhibits cisplatin resistance and progression of gastric cancer through miR-1297/BCL-2 axis.

Biosci Rep 2021 Nov 25. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

People's Hospital of Zhengzhou Affiliated to Southern Medical University, zhengzhou, China.

Cisplatin (DDP) resistance is a huge obstacle to gastric cancer (GC) treatment. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been manifested to exert pivotal functions in GC development. Herein, we aimed to explore the functional impact of lncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 6 (SNHG6) on DDP resistance and progression of GC. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay or Western blotting was performed to detect the expression of SNHG6, microRNA(miR)-1297, and epithelia-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors and B-Cell Lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in DDP-resistant GC cells. Half inhibition concentration (IC50) to DDP, clonogenicity, apoptosis and invasion were examined via CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry and Transwell assay, respectively. Target association between miR-1297 and SNHG6 or BCL-2 was demonstrated via dual-luciferase reporter assay or RIP assay. Xenograft models in nude mice were formed to investigate role of SNHG6 in vivo. We found that SNHG6 and BCL-2 were upregulated, while miR-1297 expression was declined in GC tissues and DDP-resistant cells. Moreover, depletion of SNHG6 or gain of miR-1297 could repress DDP resistance, proliferation and metastasis of DDP-resistant cells, which was weakened by miR-1297 inhibition or BCL-2 overexpression. Besides, SNHG6 positively regulated BCL-2 expression by sponging miR-1297. Furthermore, SNHG6 knockdown repressed GC tumor growth in vivo. In a word, lncRNA SNHG6 knockdown had inhibitory effects on DDP resistance and progression of GC by sponging miR-1297, highlighting its potential in GC treatment.  Keywords: Gastric cancer, cisplatin resistance, lncRNA SNHG6, miR-1297, BCL-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20211885DOI Listing
November 2021

Effects of embryonic exposure to bixafen on zebrafish (Danio rerio) retinal development.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Nov 20;228:113007. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Ecological Treatment Technology for Urban Water Pollution of Life and Environmental Science, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035, PR China.

Bixafen, a pyrazole-carboxamide fungicide, is a potent toxicant that may elicit multiple adverse effects in non-target organisms. However, knowledge of the mechanisms involved in developmental defects caused by bixafen in aquatic organisms remains limited. In this study, the effects of bixafen on retinal development were evaluated in embryo-larval zebrafish. We exposed zebrafish embryos to 0, 0.1, and 0.3 μM bixafen. Exposure of zebrafish embryos to bixafen caused severe retinal defects, including extreme microphthalmia and a significantly increased cell density of the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Compared with the controls, the expression levels of rod and cone photoreceptor marker genes (rho, opn1sw2, opn1mw1, opn1lw1, and opn1sw1) in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) were significantly downregulated after bixafen exposure. Furthermore, bixafen caused significantly increased expression levels in the GCL marker ath5 and decreased expression levels in the inner nuclear layer (INL) markers prox1a, vsx1, and sox2. Accordingly, we observed a significantly increased rate of cell apoptosis in the retina after bixafen exposure. Taken together, our data demonstrate that bixafen exhibits retinal developmental toxicity to zebrafish embryos/larvae, and thus, it may pose a significant environmental threat to aquatic organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.113007DOI Listing
November 2021

Benfuracarb inhibits body growth and causes oxidative stress in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Chemosphere 2021 Nov 18:132955. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Engineering Research Center of Molecular Medicine of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Fujian Molecular Medicine, Key Laboratory of Xiamen Marine and Gene Drugs, Key Laboratory of Precision Medicine and Molecular Diagnosis of Fujian Universities, School of Biomedical Sciences, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, 361021, PR China. Electronic address:

Benfuracarb (BEN), a broad-spectrum carbamate insecticide used for crop protection, is considered toxic to humans and aquatic organisms. However, the potential risk level of BEN to aquatic organisms is still unclear. In this study, we exposed zebrafish embryos to BEN (0.08, 0.49, and 0.90 mg/L) from 3 to 96 hours post-fertilization (hpf). The results showed that BEN caused shorter body length in zebrafish larvae. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased after BEN exposure. Furthermore, the transcription levels of marker genes associated with early embryonic development (myoD, nkx2.4b, myh6, and gh) were disrupted after BEN treatment. Taken together, the data indicate that BEN possesses developmental toxicity to zebrafish. The results provide a valuable reference for assessing BEN's potentially harmful effects on aquatic ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132955DOI Listing
November 2021

Structure, function and pharmacology of human itch receptor complexes.

Nature 2021 Nov 17. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Science, Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Ministry of Education, Beijing, China.

In the clades of animals that diverged from the bony fish, a group of Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptors (MRGPRs) evolved that have an active role in itch and allergic signals. As an MRGPR, MRGPRX2 is known to sense basic secretagogues (agents that promote secretion) and is involved in itch signals and eliciting pseudoallergic reactions. MRGPRX2 has been targeted by drug development efforts to prevent the side effects induced by certain drugs or to treat allergic diseases. Here we report a set of cryo-electron microscopy structures of the MRGPRX2-G trimer in complex with polycationic compound 48/80 or with inflammatory peptides. The structures of the MRGPRX2-G complex exhibited shallow, solvent-exposed ligand-binding pockets. We identified key common structural features of MRGPRX2 and describe a consensus motif for peptidic allergens. Beneath the ligand-binding pocket, the unusual kink formation at transmembrane domain 6 (TM6) and the replacement of the general toggle switch from Trp to Gly (superscript annotations as per Ballesteros-Weinstein nomenclature) suggest a distinct activation process. We characterized the interfaces of MRGPRX2 and the G trimer, and mapped the residues associated with key single-nucleotide polymorphisms on both the ligand and G-protein interfaces of MRGPRX2. Collectively, our results provide a structural basis for the sensing of cationic allergens by MRGPRX2, potentially facilitating the rational design of therapies to prevent unwanted pseudoallergic reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04077-yDOI Listing
November 2021

Sensitivity schemes for dynamic glucose-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to detect glucose uptake and clearance in mouse brain at 3 T.

NMR Biomed 2021 Nov 8:e4640. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

We investigated three dynamic glucose-enhanced (DGE) MRI methods for sensitively monitoring glucose uptake and clearance in both brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at clinical field strength (3 T). By comparing three sequences, namely, Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG), on-resonance variable delay multipulse (onVDMP), and on-resonance spin-lock (onSL), a high-sensitivity DGE MRI scheme with truncated multilinear singular value decomposition (MLSVD) denoising was proposed. The CPMG method showed the highest sensitivity in detecting the parenchymal DGE signal among the three methods, while both onVDMP and onSL were more robust for CSF DGE imaging. Here, onVDMP was applied for CSF imaging, as it displayed the best stability of the DGE results in this study. The truncated MLSVD denoising method was incorporated to further improve the sensitivity. The proposed DGE MRI scheme was examined in mouse brain with 50%/25%/12.5% w/w D-glucose injections. The results showed that this combination could detect DGE signal changes from the brain parenchyma and CSF with as low as a 12.5% w/w D-glucose injection. The proposed DGE MRI schemes could sensitively detect the glucose signal change from brain parenchyma and CSF after D-glucose injection at a clinically relevant concentration, demonstrating high potential for clinical translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nbm.4640DOI Listing
November 2021

Fluorescence lifetime imaging for studying DNA compaction and gene activities.

Light Sci Appl 2021 Nov 2;10(1):224. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518060, China.

Optical imaging is a most useful and widespread technique for the investigation of the structure and function of the cellular genomes. However, an analysis of immensely convoluted and irregularly compacted DNA polymer is highly challenging even by modern super-resolution microscopy approaches. Here we propose fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for the advancement of studies of genomic structure including DNA compaction, replication as well as monitoring of gene expression. The proposed FLIM assay employs two independent mechanisms for DNA compaction sensing. One mechanism relies on the inverse quadratic relation between the fluorescence lifetimes of fluorescence probes incorporated into DNA and their local refractive index, variable due to DNA compaction density. Another mechanism is based on the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) process between the donor and the acceptor fluorophores, both incorporated into DNA. Both these proposed mechanisms were validated in cultured cells. The obtained data unravel a significant difference in compaction of the gene-rich and gene-poor pools of genomic DNA. We show that the gene-rich DNA is loosely compacted compared to the dense DNA domains devoid of active genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-021-00664-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8563720PMC
November 2021

Microvasculature Features of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease Revealed by Widefield Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 14;8:719593. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is a multisystem autoimmune disorder which could induce bilateral panuveitis involving the posterior pole and peripheral fundus. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) provides several advantages over traditional fluorescence angiography for revealing pathological abnormalities of the retinal vasculature. Until recently, however, the OCTA field of view (FOV) was limited to 6 × 6 mm scans. This study examined retinal vasculature and choriocapillaris abnormalities across multiple regions of the retina (15 × 9 mm wide field, macular, peripapillary regions) among acute and convalescent VKH patients using a novel widefield swept-source OCTA (WSS-OCTA) device and assessed correlations between imaging features and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Twenty eyes of 13 VHK disease patients in the acute phase, 30 eyes of 17 patients in the convalescent phase, and 30 eyes of 15 healthy controls (HCs) were included in this study. Vascular length density (VLD) in superficial and deep vascular plexuses (SVP, DVP), vascular perfusion density (VPD) in SVP, DVP, and choriocapillaris (CC), and flow voids (FV) in CC were measured across multiple retinal regions via WSS-OCTA (PLEX Elite 9000, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., USA) using the 15 × 9 mm scan pattern centered on the fovea and quantified by ImageJ. Compared to HCs, acute phase VKH patients exhibited significantly reduced SVP-VLD, SVP-VPD, and CC-VPD across multiple retinal regions (all < 0.01). Notably, the FV area was more extensive in VKH patients, especially those in the acute phase ( < 0.01). These changes were reversed in the convalescent phase. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that macular DVP-VLD and macular CC-VPD were the best predictive factors for BCVA in the acute and convalescent VKH groups. The wider field of SS-OCAT provides more comprehensive and detailed images of the microvasculature abnormalities characterizing VKH disease. The quantifiable and layer-specific information from OCTA allows for the identification of sensitive and specific imaging markers for prognosis and treatment guidance, highlighting WSS-OCTA as a promising modality for the clinical management of VKH disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.719593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8551582PMC
October 2021

Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Crystalline Layered SnSe.

Nano Lett 2021 Nov 28;21(21):9172-9179. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BIST, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona, Spain.

The degree of thermal anisotropy affects critically key device-relevant properties of layered two-dimensional materials. Here, we systematically study the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivity of crystalline SnSe films of varying thickness (16-190 nm) and uncover a thickness-independent thermal conductivity anisotropy ratio of about ∼8.4. Experimental data obtained using Raman thermometry and frequency domain thermoreflectance showed that the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities monotonically decrease by a factor of 2.5 with decreasing film thickness compared to the bulk values. Moreover, we find that the temperature-dependence of the in-plane component gradually decreases as the film becomes thinner, and in the range from 300 to 473 K it drops by more than a factor of 2. Using the mean free path reconstruction method, we found that phonons with MFP ranging from ∼1 to 53 and from 1 to 30 nm contribute to 50% of the total in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivity, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c03018DOI Listing
November 2021

Hsa_circ_0005576 promotes osimertinib resistance through the miR-512-5p/IGF1R axis in lung adenocarcinoma cells.

Cancer Sci 2021 Oct 27. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Osimertinib is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) for lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) harboring activating mutations, but patients ultimately develop acquired resistance. Circular RNAs are involved in EGFR-TKI resistance, while the role of hsa_circ_0005576 in the osimertinib resistance of LUAD remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that hsa_circ_0005576 could facilitate osimertinib-resistant LUAD cells. Briefly, knockdown of hsa_circ_0005576 not only suppressed the proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of resistant LUAD cells, but also increased their sensitivity to osimertinib. Mechanistically, hsa_circ_0005576, serving as an miRNA sponge, could directly interact with miR-512-5p and subsequently upregulate the miR-512-5p-targeted insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. Rescue assays indicated that miR-512-5p inhibition could reverse the effects of hsa_circ_0005576 knockdown in LUAD cells resistant to osimertinib. Overall, our study revealed that hsa_circ_0005576 regulates proliferation and apoptosis through miR-512-5p/IGF1R signaling, which contributes further to the resistance of LUAD cells to osimertinib. In addition, this study provides a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying osimertinib resistance of LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.15177DOI Listing
October 2021

Nurse-to-nurse horizontal violence in Chinese hospitals and the protective role of head nurse's caring and nurses' group behaviour on it: A cross-sectional study.

J Nurs Manag 2021 Oct 26. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Department of Nursing, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Aims: This study aimed to analyse the prevalence of nurse-to-nurse horizontal violence in Chinese hospitals and examine the effects of head nurse's caring and nurse's group behaviour on horizontal violence.

Background: Horizontal violence is a serious global problem affecting the nursing profession, but little is known of the issue in Chinese hospitals. Increasing evidence has showed that leadership and group factors are important in facilitating horizontal violence. Whether the head nurse's caring and group behaviour perceived by nurses has protective effects against horizontal violence remains unclear.

Methods: A cross-sectional online-based questionnaire study was performed in seven general hospitals in Hubei Province, China. Data related to the demographic information, horizontal violence, head nurse's caring and group behaviour were collected. Descriptive analyses, chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used for data analysis.

Results: In total, 1942 valid questionnaires were collected, with a 92.70% effective response rate (1942/2095). Of those, 59.1% (1148/1942) of respondents had experienced horizontal violence at least once in the previous 6 months. Covert negative behaviours were more frequently reported. Compared with the low level, moderate and high levels of the head nurse's caring showed a lower risk of horizontal violence (odds ratio [OR] = 0.400, p < .001; OR = 0.128, p < .001); moderate and high levels of group behaviour also showed a reduced risk (OR = 0.601, p < .001; OR = 0.221, p < .001).

Conclusion: Horizontal violence is common among Chinese nurses. The head nurse's caring and maintaining a good climate of nurses' group behaviours could serve as protective factors for preventing horizontal violence.

Implications For Nursing Management: This study helps nursing managers identify which specific negative behaviours occur frequently and require special attention. It suggests that nursing managers attach importance to improving their caring ability towards nurses and to creating an amicable climate of group behaviour to buffer against horizontal violence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13498DOI Listing
October 2021

Surgical Outcomes After Neoadjuvant Chemoimmunotherapy for Resectable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 6;11:684070. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy for resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents an important research topic. Despite the potential benefits of this approach, the inflammatory responses and adverse events associated with neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy can present technical challenges and compromise a planned resection. This study assessed the safety and feasibility of neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy followed by surgery for resectable NSCLC.

Methods: The study was conducted from May 2019 to March 2021. Patients who were age 18 years or older, were diagnosed with stage Ib-IIIb NSCLC, and received neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy followed by surgery were included. Demographic information, clinical and pathologic characteristics, data about neoadjuvant therapy, and surgical details were collected by retrospective chart review. Toxicity profiles were collected retrospectively or by telephone follow-up.

Results: Twenty patients were included in this study. The median age was 56 years (range, 48-72 years), and 18 patients (90%) were men. Squamous carcinoma (14/20, 70%) was the most common cancer type, followed by adenocarcinoma (4/20, 20%), adenosquamous carcinoma (1/20, 5%), and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (1/20, 5%). All patients received two to four cycles of neoadjuvant therapy, and the median interval between final therapy and surgery was 49 days (range, 23-133 days). Computed tomography evaluation after neoadjuvant therapy showed partial response in 15 patients (75%) and stable disease in 5 (25%). Final pathologic examinations showed major pathologic response in eight patients, including pathologic complete response in five (25%). Most patients (18/20, 90%) had reduced pathologic staging. Twelve patients (60%) underwent open thoracotomy; the other eight patients underwent minimally invasive surgery, which was uneventful and without intraoperative conversion to open thoracotomy. No perioperative deaths occurred, and only seven patients (35%) developed postoperative complications. Most patients experienced only grade 1-2 adverse effects and laboratory abnormalities during neoadjuvant therapy, and no grade 3 or worse adverse effects or laboratory abnormalities occurred. No patients experienced surgical delays as a result of immune-related adverse events.

Conclusions: Preoperative administration of chemoimmunotherapy for patients with resectable NSCLC was safe and feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.684070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8526888PMC
October 2021

Responsive Carbonized Polymer Dots for Optical Super-resolution and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging of Nucleic Acids in Living Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Nov 20;13(43):50733-50743. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Center for Biomedical Photonics & College of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.

The rapid development of advanced optical imaging methods including stimulated emission depletion (STED) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) has provided powerful tools for real-time observation of submicrometer biotargets to achieve unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions. However, the practical imaging qualities are often limited by the performance of fluorescent probes, leading to unsatisfactory results. In particular, long-term imaging of nucleic acids in living cells with STED and FLIM remained desirable yet challenging due to the lack of competent probes combining targeting specificity, biocompatibility, low power requirement, and photostability. In this work, we rationally designed and synthesized a nanosized carbonized polymer dot (CPD) material, CPDs-3, with highly efficient and photostable emission for the super-resolution and fluorescence lifetime imaging of nucleic acids in living cells. The as-fabricated nanoprobe showed responsive emission properties upon binding with nucleic acids, providing an excellent signal-to-noise ratio in both spatial and temporal dimensions. Moreover, the characteristic saturation intensity value of CPDs-3 was as low as 0.68 mW (0.23 MW/cm), allowing the direct observation of chromatin structures with subdiffraction resolution (90 nm) at very low excitation (<1 μW) and depletion power (<5 mW). Owing to its low toxicity, high photonic efficiency, and outstanding photostability, CPDs-3 was capable of performing long-term imaging both with STED and FLIM setups, demonstrating great potential for the dynamic study of nucleic acid functionalities in the long run.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c13943DOI Listing
November 2021

A Hydrophobic Self-Repairing Power Textile for Effective Water Droplet Energy Harvesting.

ACS Nano 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101400, P. R. China.

Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are useful for harvesting clean and widely distributed water droplet energy with high efficiency. However, the commonly used polymer films in TENGs for water droplet energy harvesting have the disadvantages of poor breathability, poor skin affinity, and irreparable hydrophobicity, which greatly hinder their wearable uses. Here, we report an all-fabric TENG (F-TENG), which not only has good air permeability and hydrophobic self-repairing properties but also shows effective energy conversion efficiency. The hydrophobic surface composed of SiO nanoparticles and poly(vinylidenefluoride--hexafluoropropylene)/perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (PVDF-HFP/FDTS) exhibits a static contact angle of 157° and displays excellent acid and alkali resistance. Because of its low glass transition temperature, PVDF-HFP can facilitate the movement of FDTS molecules to the surface layer under heating conditions, realizing hydrophobic self-repairing performance. Furthermore, with the optimized compositions and structure, the water droplet F-TENG shows 7-fold enhancement of output voltage compared with the conventional single-electrode mode TENG, and a total energy conversion efficiency of 2.9% is achieved. Therefore, the proposed F-TENG can be used in multifunctional wearable devices for raindrop energy harvesting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c06985DOI Listing
October 2021

Survival prediction and conditional survival of primary central nervous system lymphoma: A population-based study.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Nov 22;93:188-194. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Lishui Municipal Central Hospital, Department of Neurology, China. Electronic address:

Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma is a rare and highly aggressive type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This study used population-based data to evaluate the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of primary central nervous system lymphoma and develop a prediction model to estimate survival.

Methods: Patients' data were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Significant prognostic factors were identified using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Conditional survival estimates were calculated as CS(x y) = S(x + y)/S(X), and a nomogram was built to predict patient prognosis.

Results: In total, 2563 patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma were included. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that age at diagnosis, sex, histology, tumor site, surgery, chemotherapy, and marital status were independent prognostic factors of overall survival. The 1-year conditional survival increased with time, and our nomogram model showed favorable discriminative ability.

Conclusion: At the population level, our study found that gross total resection and chemotherapy improved the prognosis of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma. However, the prognosis of black patients was poor. Conditional survival provided a more accurate and dynamic survival estimate. Moreover, our nomogram had a good performance and could help predict the overall survival of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2021.09.026DOI Listing
November 2021

Atmospheric Hygroscopic Ionogels with Dynamically Stable Cooling Interfaces Enable a Durable Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement.

Adv Mater 2021 Oct 13:e2103937. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201, China.

In thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems, heat dissipation from their cold sides is an accessible, low-cost, and effective way to increase the temperature gap for their thermoelectric performance enhancement. Although significant efforts have been dedicated mediated by hygroscopic hydrogel coolers as self-sustained alternatives for effective heat removal, it still remains a challenge for overcoming instabilities in their cooling process. The inevitable mechanical deformation of these conventional hydrogels induced by excessive water desorption may cause a detached cooling interface with the targeted substrates, leading to undesirable cooling failure. Herein, a self-sustained and durable evaporative cooling approach for TEG enabled by atmospheric hygroscopic ionogels (RIGs) with stable interfaces to efficiently improve its thermoelectric performance is proposed. Owing to its superior hygroscopicity, the RIGs can achieve higher heat dissipation for TEG through water evaporation than that of common commercial metal heat sinks. Moreover, its favorable adhesion enables the RIG closely interact with the TEG surface either in static or dynamic conditions for a durable thermoelectric performance enhancement. It is believed that such a self-sustained evaporative cooling strategy based on the RIG will have great implications for the enhancement of TEG's efficiency, demonstrating a great promise in intermittent thermal-energy utilizations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202103937DOI Listing
October 2021

Evaluation of the Aging of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Modified Asphalt Binder with Different Polymer Additives.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Sep 30;14(19). Epub 2021 Sep 30.

College of Civil Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127, China.

A wide variety of polymer additives have been widely used in recent years. However, the effect of different polymer additives on the durability of asphalt binders has not been investigated thoroughly. To evaluate the aging property of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) asphalt binder with different polymer additives, three polymer modifiers, namely high modulus modifier (HMM), anti-rutting agent (ARA), and high viscosity modifier (HVM), were added to it. First, the Thin Film Over Test (TFOT) and Pressure Aging Vessel (PAV) was performed on the asphalt binders. The rheological properties of the four asphalt binders before and after aging were then checked by the Dynamic Shear Rheometer Test (DSR). The chemical compositions of the asphalt binders were determined by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) test. Several aging indicators were adopted to reflect the aging degree of the asphalt binders. The results show that when polymer additives are added to the SBS asphalt binder, the complex modulus, storage modulus, loss modulus, and rutting factor substantially increase and the phase angle decreases. All the test parameters become higher after aging. The phase angle of the SBS asphalt binder is the highest at both unaged and aged states, while its other parameters values are the smallest. Moreover, the Carbonyl Aging Indicator (CAI) of SBS with polymer additives becomes lower under both TFOT and PAV conditions, indicating that polymer additives can improve the aging resistance of SBS asphalt, of which HVM modifies the aging resistance best. Complex Modulus Aging Indicator (CMAI) and Storage Modulus Aging Indicator (SMAI) have the best correlation coefficients with CAI, and the two aging indicators can be used to predict the aging degree of polymer modified asphalt binders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14195715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8510154PMC
September 2021

Investigation on Fatigue Performance of Asphalt Mixture Reinforced by Basalt Fiber.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Sep 26;14(19). Epub 2021 Sep 26.

College of Civil Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225100, China.

Basalt fiber has been widely used in asphalt mixture due to its excellent mechanical properties and good combination with asphalt. In order to systematically evaluate the enhancement effect of basalt fiber on the fatigue performance of the mixtures, gradations of Stone Mastic Asphalt and Superpave with different nominal maximum aggregate sizes, namely SMA-13, SUP-20 and SUP-25, were prepared, and a four-point bending beam fatigue test was adopted under the strain control mode. The fatigue damage mode was assessed based on the phenomenology theory, energy dissipation theory and change rate of dissipated energy. The results showed that basalt fiber could well increase the fatigue life of the mixtures. Basalt fiber could also increase the cumulative dissipated energy of the mixtures, and it was linearly correlated with the fatigue life in double logarithmic coordinates. In the meantime, adding basalt fiber could increase the change rate of dissipated energy of the mixtures. Furthermore, it is not appropriate to take the stiffness modulus declined to 50% of the original as the fatigue failure criterion of the mixture; this paper suggested that it is reasonable when the stiffness modulus was 15-25% that of the initial. These findings provide a theoretical basis for exploring the fatigue failure of asphalt pavements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14195596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8509418PMC
September 2021

Clinical efficacy of functional electrical stimulation-assisted rehabilitation cycling on the function of lower limbs in patients with stroke.

Curr Neurovasc Res 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Rehabilitation, Shenzhen Dapeng New District Nanao People's Hospital, Shenzhen 518121. China.

Objective: To explore the efficacy of functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted rehabilitation cycling on the functional recovery of lower limbs in patients with hemiplegic stroke and the assessment value of surface electromyography (sEMG).

Methods: A total of 66 patients with stroke accompanied by hemiplegia of the lower limbs were enrolled in the present prospective study and randomly divided into the experimental group and control group, with 33 patients in each group. FES-assisted rehabilitation cycling was applied in the experimental group, while only rehabilitation cycling was performed without setting the stimulation parameters in the control group. sEMG and the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) were carried out, and the modified Barthel index (MBI) of the lower limbs was assessed before treatment and after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of treatment.

Results: There were no significant differences in the evaluation results of sEMG, FMA, and MBI of the lower limbs between the two groups of patients before the treatment (p > 0.05). After 4 weeks of treatment, compared with the control group, there were significant differences in the results of sEMG, FMA, and MBI of the lower limbs in the experimental group (p < 0.05). In the experimental group, the difference in sEMG was statistically significant (p < 0.05). After 8 weeks of treatment, compared with the control group, there were significant differences in the results of sEMG, FMA, and MBI of the lower limbs in the experimental group (p < 0.05). In the experimental group, the differences in the results of sEMG, FMA, and MBI of the lower limbs were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The inter-group comparison of the results of sEMG, FMA and MBI of the lower limbs was statistically significant (p < 0.05) in the control group.

Conclusion: FES-assisted rehabilitation cycling might promote the recovery of the motor function of the lower limbs in patients with stroke and improve the sEMG signal of the lower limbs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567202618666211012094424DOI Listing
October 2021

The Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Functional Electrical Stimulation on the Lower Limb Function of Stroke Patients.

Front Neurosci 2021 21;15:685931. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Rehabilitation, Shenzhen Dapeng New District Nanao People's Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

This study aimed to research the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) on the lower limb function of post-convalescent stroke patients. A total of 122 patients in the stroke recovery stage who suffered from leg dysfunction were randomly divided into two groups: a tDCS group ( = 61) and a FES group ( = 61). All patients received same routine rehabilitation and equal treatment quality, the tDCS group was treated with tDCS, while the FES group received FES. The lower limb Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA), modified Barthel index (MBI), functional ambulatory category (FAC), and somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) were used to assess the patients at three different stages: prior to treatment, 4 weeks after treatment, and 8 weeks after treatment. The assessment scores for FMA, MBI, and FAC for the lower extremities after treatment ( > 0.05) were compared with those before treatment. The FMA, MBI, and FAC scores of the tDCS group were significantly higher than those of the FES group in all three stages ( < 0.05). The FMA, MBI, and FAC assessment scores of both groups were significantly higher after 4 weeks of treatment than that before treatment, and the scores after 8 weeks of treatment were significantly higher than those after 4 weeks after treatment ( < 0.05). The P40, N45 latencies decreased and the P40, N45 amplitudes increased, but there was no significant difference before treatment and after treatment ( >0.05), and there was no significant difference of the tDCS and FES groups before treatment and after treatment. In conclusion, FMA, MBI, and FAC indicate that both tDCS and FES can significantly promote the recovery of a patient's leg motor function and tDCS is more effective than FES in the stroke recovery stage. The application value of SEP in stroke patients remains to be further studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.685931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8490679PMC
September 2021

Role of Interleukin-17 in Acute Pancreatitis.

Front Immunol 2021 14;12:674803. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Pancreatic and Biliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a leading cause of death and is commonly accompanied by systemic manifestations that are generally associated with a poor prognosis. Many cytokines contribute to pancreatic tissue damage and cause systemic injury. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a cytokine that may play a vital role in AP. Specifically, IL-17 has important effects on the immune response and causes interactions between different inflammatory mediators in the AP-related microenvironment. In this literature review, we will discuss the existing academic understanding of IL-17 and the impacts of IL-17 in different cells (especially in acinar cells and immune system cells) in AP pathogenesis. The clinical significance and potential mechanisms of IL-17 on AP deterioration are emphasized. The evidence suggests that inhibiting the IL-17 cytokine family could alleviate the pathogenic process of AP, and we highlight therapeutic strategies that directly or indirectly target IL-17 cytokines in acute pancreatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.674803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8476864PMC
October 2021

[Protective effect of total triterpenoids from Chaenomeles speciosa against Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in mice].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Sep;46(18):4782-4792

Clinical Medical College of Traditional Chinese Medicine,China Three Gorges University Yichang 443002.

This study investigated the protective effect of total triterpenoids from Chaenomeles speciosa against Helicobacter pylori(Hp)-induced gastritis in mice and explored its possible mechanism. The chronic atrophic gastritis(CAG) model mice were randomly divided into four groups of model, total triterpenoids from C. speciosa(50 and 100 mg·kg~(-1)) and triple therapy, with C57 BL/6 J mice without Hp infection taken as the normal group. Mice in the treatment groups were given corresponding drugs once a day for 4 weeks. Then the following indexes were detected: the contents of reactive oxygen species(ROS), monocyte chemotactic protein 1(MCP-1), keratinocyte chemokines(KC), TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, IL-4 and IL-10 in blood and gastric tissue, the activities and contents of LDH, MPO, SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and MDA in gastric tissue and the activities of β-glucuronidase, β-galactosidase, cathepsins B and D in blood, gastric tissue and lysosome. Besides, the mRNA expression levels of Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88(MyD88), Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Bax and Bad in gastric tissue were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Western blot was employed to detect the protein expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-IKKβ, p-IκBα, NOD-like receptor 3(NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein(ASC), pro-caspase-1, caspase-1, thioredoxin-interacting protein(TXNIP), pro-IL-1β, pro-IL-18, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Bax, Bad, cytochrome C, apoptotic protease-activating factor-1(Apaf-1), pro-caspase-9, pro-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-9, cleaved-caspase-3, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1(PARP-1), cleaved-PARP-1 and cytosol and nucleus NF-κB p65 in gastric tissue. The results indicated that the total triterpenoids from C. speciosa significantly suppressed Hp proliferation, alleviated the damage to gastric mucosa and improved lymphocyte infiltration and gland atrophy. They were also effective in reducing the activities of β-glucuronidase, β-galactosidase, cathepsins B and D in blood and gastric tissue, elevating the activities of β-glucuronidase and cathepsin D in lysosomal organelles, decreasing the contents of ROS, MCP-1, KC, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18 in blood, MDA content and MPO and LDH activities in gastric tissue and increasing the contents of IL-4 and IL-10 in blood and activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px in gastric tissue. Other phenomena were also observed after the treatment with total triterpenoids from C. speciosa, including the down-regulation of the mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, Bax and Bad, the protein expression levels of p-IKKβ, p-IκBα, NLRP3, ASC, pro-caspase-1, caspase-1, TXNIP, pro-IL-1β, pro-IL-18, cytochrome C, Apaf-1, cleaved-caspase-9, cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-PARP-1 and nuclear NF-κB p65, reduction of p-IKKβ/IKKβ and p-IκBα/IκBα ratios and up-regulation of the mRNA and protein expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, up-regulation of pro-caspase-9, pro-caspace-3, cytosol NF-κB p65 protein expression levels and Bcl-2/Bax and Bcl-xl/Bad ratios in gastric tissue. These aforementioned results suggest that the total triterpenoids from C. speciosa have significant protective effects against CAG induced by Hp, and its mechanism may be related to enhancing the function of endogenous antioxidant system, suppressing the oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction induced by Hp, correcting lysosomal dysfunction and inflammatory activation of TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway and thus inhibiting mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210521.401DOI Listing
September 2021

Gut microbiota patterns associated with somatostatin in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy: a prospective study.

Cell Death Discov 2020 Sep 28;6(1):94. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Pancreatic and Biliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is a common and dreaded complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). The gut microbiota has been considered as an crucial mediator of postoperative complications, however, the precise roles of gut microbiota in POPF are unclear. A prospective study was developed to explore the effects of somatostatin on gut microbiota and we aim to identify the microbial alterations in the process of POPF. A total of 45 patients were randomly divided into PD group or additional somatostatin therapy group. The fecal sample of each patient was collected preoperatively and postoperatively and the gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Our study found that somatostatin therapy was independent risk factor for the occurrence of POPF, and it reduced the microbial diversity and richness in patients. At genus level, somatostatin therapy led to a decreased abundance in Bifidobacterium, Subdoligranulum and Dubosiella, whereas the abundance of Akkermansia, Enterococcus and Enterobacter were increased. The abundance levels of certain bacteria in the gut microbiota have significantly shifted in patients with POPF. The LEfSe analysis revealed that Ruminococcaceae could be used as microbial markers for distinguishing patients with high risk of POPF. Furthermore, Verrucomicrobia and Akkermansia could be used as preoperative biomarkers for identifying patients without POPF. Our prospective study highlights the specific communities related with somatostatin therapy and discovers POPF-associated microbial marker, which suggests that gut microbiota may become a diagnostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for POPF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-020-00329-4DOI Listing
September 2020

Computed tomography-based multiple body composition parameters predict outcomes in Crohn's disease.

Insights Imaging 2021 Sep 25;12(1):135. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan, 430030, Hubei, China.

Background: The efficacy of computed tomography-based multiple body composition parameters in assessing disease behavior and prognosis has not been comprehensively evaluated in Crohn's disease. This study aimed to assess the association of body composition parameters with disease behavior and outcomes in Crohn's disease and to compare the efficacies of indexes derived from body and lumbar spinal heights in body composition analysis.

Results: One hundred twenty-two patients with confirmed Crohn's disease diagnoses and abdominal computed tomography scans were retrospectively included in this study. Skeletal muscle, visceral, and subcutaneous fat indexes were calculated by dividing each type of tissue area by height and lumbar spinal height. Parameters reflecting the distribution of adiposity were also assessed. Principal component analysis was used to deal with parameters with multicollinearity. Patients were grouped according to their disease behavior (inflammatory vs. structuring/penetrating) and outcomes. Adverse outcome included need for intestinal surgery or anti-TNF therapy. Predictors of disease course from multiple parameters were evaluated using multivariate analysis. Indexes derived from body and lumbar spinal heights were strongly correlated (r, 0.934-0.995; p < 0.001). Low skeletal muscle-related parameters were significantly associated with complicated disease behavior in multivariate analysis (p = 0.048). Complicated disease behavior (p < 0.001) and adipose tissue parameters-related first principal component (p = 0.029) were independent biomarkers for predicting adverse outcomes.

Conclusions: Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue principle component were associated with complicated Crohn's disease behavior and adverse outcome, respectively. Indexes derived from body and lumbar spinal heights have similar efficacies in body composition analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13244-021-01083-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8464641PMC
September 2021

Development and validation of a nomogram for predicting overall survival in pediatric patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors.

Turk Neurosurg 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Lishui Municipal Central Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Lishui, China.

Aim: The clinical outcomes of patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) are heterogeneous, making it difficult to predict prognosis. This study aimed to construct a reliable prediction model for pediatric ATRT patients.

Material And Methods: Population-based data of patients diagnosed with intracranial ATRT were extracted from the National Cancer Institute\'s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. These patients were randomly assigned into training and validation groups at a ratio of 2:1. Univariable and multivariable Cox analyses were conducted to determine independent factors of overall survival (OS). A nomogram was then developed using the covariates with the best prognostic value, and the predictive performance of the nomogram was assessed by calibration curves, concordance index, time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and decision curve analysis.

Results: A total of 267 cases were included. The OS rates at 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years were 61.6%, 50.1%. and 35.4%, respectively. The results of multivariable Cox analysis showed that tumor extension, surgery type, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were independent prognostic indicators. A nomogram integrating these factors was established to predict the 6-month, 1-year, and 3-year OS rates. This prediction model was validated in the validation cohort. The nomogram had favorable predictive performance and discrimination ability.

Conclusion: We developed and validated a novel nomogram with favorable discrimination ability to predict prognosis for newly diagnosed pediatric ATRT patients. Although additional validation is required, this may be a useful tool in clinical decision making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.33034-20.2DOI Listing
May 2021

Quantitative analysis of morphological and functional features in Meibography for Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Diagnosis and Grading.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Oct 11;40:101132. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Centre, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Background: To explore the performance of quantitative morphological and functional analysis in meibography images by an automatic meibomian glands (MGs) analyser in diagnosis and grading Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD).

Methods: A cross-sectional study collected 256 subjects with symptoms related to dry eye and 56 healthy volunteers who underwent complete ocular surface examination was conducted between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2020. The 256 symptomatic subjects were classified into MGD group (n = 195) and symptomatic non-MGD group (n = 61). An automatic MGs analyser was used to obtained multi-parametric measurements in meibography images including the MGs area ratio (GA), MGs diameter deformation index (DI), MGs tortuosity index (TI), and MGs signal index (SI). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of the multi-parametric measurements of MGs for MGD, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) curves of multi-parametric measurements for MGD diagnosing and grading were conducted.

Findings: When consider age, sex, ocular surface condition together, the estimated ORs for DI was 1.62 (95% CI, 1.29-2.56), low-level SI was 24.34 (95% CI, 2.73-217.3), TI was 0.76(95% CI, 0.54-0.90), and GA was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.74-0.92) for MGD. The combination of DI-TI-GA-SI showed an AUC = 0.82 ( < 0.001) for discriminating MGD from symptomatic subjects. The DI had a higher AUC in identifying early-stage MGD (grade 1-2), while TI and GA had higher AUCs in moderate and advanced stages (grade 3-5). Merging DI-TI-GA showed the highest AUCs in distinguish MGD severities.

Interpretation: The MGs area ratio, diameter deformation, tortuosity and signal intensity could be considered promising biomarkers for MGD diagnosis and objective grading.

Funding: This work was supported by the Key-Area Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province (No. 2019B010152001), the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant (81901788) and Guangzhou Science and Technology Program (202002030412).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8435692PMC
October 2021

Self-Powered Smart Arm Training Band Sensor Based on Extremely Stretchable Hydrogel Conductors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 10;13(37):44868-44877. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience Beijing Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy and Sensor, Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083, P. R. China.

The development of elastic electronic technology has promoted the application of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) in flexible wearable electronics. However, most of the flexible electronics cannot achieve the requirements of being extremely stretchable, transparent, and highly conductive at the same time. Herein, we report a TENG constructed using a double-network polymer ionic conductor sodium alginate/zinc sulfate/poly acrylic-acrylamide (SA-Zn) hydrogel, which exhibited outstanding stretchability (>10,000%), high transparency (>95%), and good conductivity (0.34 S·m). The SA-Zn hydrogel TENG (SH-TENG) could harvest energy from typical human movements, such as bending, stretching, and twisting, which could light up 234 green commercial LEDs easily. Additionally, the SH-TENG can be used to prepare a self-powered smart training band sensor for monitoring arm stretching motion. This work may provide an innovative platform for accessing the next generation of sustainable wearable and sports monitoring electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c12378DOI Listing
September 2021

Evaluation of a New Viral Vaccine Vector in Mice and Rhesus Macaques: J Paramyxovirus Expressing Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus H5N1.

J Virol 2021 Oct 1;95(22):e0132121. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgiagrid.213876.9, Athens, Georgia, USA.

H5N1, an avian influenza virus, is known to circulate in many Asian countries, such as Bangladesh, China, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Vietnam. The current FDA-approved H5N1 vaccine has a moderate level of efficacy. A safe and effective vaccine is needed to prevent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in humans. Nonsegmented negative-sense single-stranded viruses (NNSVs) are widely used as a vector to develop vaccines for humans, animals, and poultry. NNSVs stably express foreign genes without integrating with the host genome. J paramyxovirus (JPV) is a nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus and a member of the proposed genus in the family . JPV-specific antibodies have been detected in rodents, bats, humans, and pigs, but the virus is not associated with disease in any species other than mice. JPV replicates in the respiratory tract of mice and efficiently expresses the virus-vectored foreign genes in tissue culture cells. In this work, we explored JPV as a vector for developing an H5N1 vaccine using intranasal delivery. We incorporated hemagglutinin (HA) of H5N1 into the JPV genome by replacing the small hydrophobic (SH) gene to generate a recombinant JPV expressing HA (rJPV-ΔSH-H5). A single intranasal administration of rJPV-ΔSH-H5 protected mice from a lethal HPAI H5N1 challenge. Intranasal vaccination of rJPV-ΔSH-H5 in rhesus macaques elicited antigen-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. This work demonstrates that JPV is a promising vaccine vector. A highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreak in Southeast Asia destroyed millions of birds. Transmission of H5N1 into humans resulted in deaths in many countries. In this work, we developed a novel H5N1 vaccine candidate using J paramyxovirus (JPV) as a vector and demonstrated that JPV is an efficacious vaccine vector in animals. Nonsegmented negative-sense single-stranded viruses (NNSVs) stably express foreign genes without integrating into the host genome. JPV, an NNSV, replicates efficiently in the respiratory tract and induces robust immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01321-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8549524PMC
October 2021

New insights into the construction of wild-type Saba pig-derived gene deletion strains.

3 Biotech 2021 Sep 13;11(9):408. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, 650201 Yunnan China.

To construct wild-type gene deletion strains, CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology was used, and the difficulty and key points of gene editing of wild-type strains were analyzed. Based on the resistance of the CRISPR/Cas9 system expression vector, 4 strains of 41 strains isolated from Saba pigs were selected as the target strains for the deletion of the gene, which were sensitive to both ampicillin and kanamycin. Then, CRISPR/Cas9 technology was combined with homologous recombination technology to construct recombinant vectors containing Cas9, sgRNA and donor sequences to knock out the gene. Finally, the absence of the gene in was further verified by iron uptake assays, iron carrier production assays and growth curve measurements. The results showed that three of the selected strains showed single base mutations and deletions (Δ, Δ and Δ). The deletion of the gene reduced the ability of to take up iron ions and produce iron carriers, but not affect the growth characteristics of . It is shown that the CRISPR/Cas9 knock-out system constructed in this study can successfully knock out the gene of the wild-type . Our results providing new insights into genome editing in wild-type strains, which enable further functional studies of the gene in wild-type .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-02951-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8363713PMC
September 2021
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