Publications by authors named "Peng Jiang"

1,004 Publications

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Gene structure, SNP screening and growth correlation analysis of the preproinsulin gene in grass carp ().

J Genet 2021 ;100

Key Laboratory of Tropical and Subtropical Fishery Resource Application and Cultivation, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou 510380, People's Republic of China.

The preproinsulin gene encodes a precursor protein of insulin, which is the most important hormone for lowering blood glucose levels and promoting the synthesis of glycogen, fat and protein. To explore the correlation between polymorphisms in the preproinsulin gene and growth traits in grass carp, the preproinsulin gene sequence, measuring a total of 5708 bp, was identified in the grass carp genome. The sequence includes a promoter, two introns and three exons, and encodes a 108-aa protein. A total of three SNPs were identified, including SNP1 (g.-2661C>G) in the promoter and SNP2 (g.1305G>C) and SNP3 (g.1682G>A) in intron 2. The correlation between SNPs and growth traits in grass carp was analysed by a general linear model (GLM). The results indicated that no genotype in each single SNP, SNP1 with SNP2, or SNP1 with SNP3 was related to rapid growth and low fatness, respectively. While eight genotypes of SNP1, SNP2 and SNP3 were combined into six types of effective diplotypes, the H5 diplotype was significantly superior to the other diplotypes (<0.05) concerning body weight, body length, body height and body width, and its fatness was lower than those of the other diplotypes, except for H6 diplotype. This result indicated that the H5 diplotype of the preproinsulin gene in grass carp may be a candidate molecular marker for selecting fast-growing and low-fatness grass carp.
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January 2021

Distinct Microbiomes of Gut and Saliva in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematous and Clinical Associations.

Front Immunol 2021 1;12:626217. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Urology, Affiliated Wuxi No. 2 Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, China.

Alterations in the microbiome of the gut and oral cavity are involved in the etiopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to assess whether both microbiome compositions in feces and saliva were specific in patients with SLE. A total of 35 patients with SLE, as well as sex- and age-matched asymptomatic subjects as healthy control (HC) group were recruited. Fecal swabs and saliva samples were collected from the participants. 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was performed on the samples. Compared with the HC group, reduced bacterial richness and diversity were detected in the feces of patients with SLE, and increased bacterial diversity in their saliva. Both feces and saliva samples explained the cohort variation. The feces were characterized by enrichment of , and depletion of an unclassified bacterium in the Ruminococcaceae family and . Lack of was observed in patients with arthritis. and negatively correlated with the serum levels of C3. In saliva, , , and were dominant, and was negatively associated with disease activity. These findings can assist us to comprehensively understand the bacterial profiles of different body niches in SLE patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.626217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281017PMC
July 2021

Lighting quantity indexes for lighting traditional Chinese paintings based on pigments protection and substrates protection in museums.

Opt Express 2021 Jul;29(14):22667-22678

In museum lighting, traditional Chinese paintings are the artworks with the highest light sensitivity. They are vulnerable to the color damage to pigments and the mechanical damage to substrates after the irradiation from light sources. As the basis of effective preventive protection, the research on the two lighting quantity indexes of illuminance and annual exposure (illuminance × time) is currently missing. In this study, the halogen lamp was used as the experimental light source to conduct a 1440 h irradiation experiment on the samples of paper and silk substrates under 4 illuminance levels, respectively, and the test of infrared spectrum was carried out on the samples every 240 h. The oxidation index of paper and crystallinity degree of silk were calculated then. Three-dimensional visual curved surface plots of mechanical damage to samples with the change of illuminance and time were established and then fitted into damage evaluation equations, which revealed and described mathematically the mechanical damage law of samples. Through the equations, the recommended values of illuminance and annual exposure for samples could be calculated. Combining the previous researches on pigments, the lighting quantity indexes of traditional Chinese paintings with different combinations of substrates and pigments were proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.429923DOI Listing
July 2021

COVID-19 pandemics Stage II - Energy and environmental impacts of vaccination.

Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2021 Oct 6;150:111400. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, PR China.

The COVID-19 pandemic developed the severest public health event in recent history. The first stage for defence has already been documented. This paper moves forward to contribute to the second stage for offensive by assessing the energy and environmental impacts related to vaccination. The vaccination campaign is a multidisciplinary topic incorporating policies, population behaviour, planning, manufacturing, materials supporting, cold-chain logistics and waste treatment. The vaccination for pandemic control in the current phase is prioritised over other decisions, including energy and environmental issues. This study documents that vaccination should be implemented in maximum sustainable ways. The energy and related emissions of a single vaccination are not massive; however, the vast numbers related to the worldwide production, logistics, disinfection, implementation and waste treatment are reaching significant figures. The preliminary assessment indicates that the energy is at the scale of ~1.08 × 10 kWh and related emissions of ~5.13 × 10 gCO when embedding for the envisaged 1.56 × 10 vaccine doses. The cold supply chain is estimated to constitute 69.8% of energy consumption of the vaccination life cycle, with an interval of 26-99% depending on haul distance. A sustainable supply chain model that responds to an emergency arrangement, considering equality as well, should be emphasised to mitigate vaccination's environmental footprint. This effort plays a critical role in preparing for future pandemics, both environmentally and socially. Research in exploring sustainable single-use or reusable materials is also suggested to be a part of the plans. Diversified options could offer higher flexibility in mitigating environmental footprint even during the emergency and minimise the potential impact of material disruption or dependency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2021.111400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259105PMC
October 2021

p53 deficiency induces MTHFD2 transcription to promote cell proliferation and restrain DNA damage.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(28)

School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China;

Cancer cells acquire metabolic reprogramming to satisfy their high biogenetic demands, but little is known about how metabolic remodeling enables cancer cells to survive stress associated with genomic instability. Here, we show that the mitochondrial methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD2) is transcriptionally suppressed by p53, and its up-regulation by p53 inactivation leads to increased folate metabolism, de novo purine synthesis, and tumor growth in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, MTHFD2 unexpectedly promotes nonhomologous end joining in response to DNA damage by forming a complex with PARP3 to enhance its ribosylation, and the introduction of a PARP3-binding but enzymatically inactive MTHFD2 mutant (e.g., D155A) sufficiently prevents DNA damage. Notably, MTHFD2 depletion strongly restrains p53-deficient cell proliferation and sensitizes cells to chemotherapeutic agents, indicating a potential role for MTHFD2 depletion in the treatment of p53-deficient tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2019822118DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of long-term high-altitude exposure on fibrinolytic system.

Hematology 2021 Dec;26(1):503-509

Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

Objective: High altitude (HA), with the main feature of hypobaric hypoxia, is an independent risk factor for thrombosis. However, little is known on the alterations of fibrinolytic system in adaptation to HA. In this study, we investigated changes of fibrinolytic system parameters between individuals permanently living at HA and low altitude (LA) regions, and provided data for further studies on HA-induced thrombotic disease.

Material And Methods: A total of 226 eligible participants, including 103 LA participants, 100 healthy HA subjects and 23 high altitude polycythemia (HAPC) patients, were recruited in this study. Six fibrinolytic parameters, i.e. fibrinogen (Fbg), D-dimer (DDi), antithrombin III (AT-III), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen (PLG) were analyzed respectively. PAI-1 and tPA were performed by using bio-immuno-assays and an automated coagulation analyzer was used to conduct Fbg, DDi, AT-III and PLG tests.

Results: Plasma levels of Fbg, DDi, PAI-1 and PLG were significantly higher in healthy HA group than in LA group (all < 0.05), whereas tPA was significantly lower in healthy HA group. No significant difference in AT-III was observed between healthy HA and LA groups ( > 0.05). All these fibrinolytic parameters showed no significant distinctions between healthy HA subjects and HAPC patients (all  > 0.05). HGB showed no relationship with fibrinolytic parameters in HA cohort.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that HA environment has a significant effect on fibrinolytic system and provides a foundation for further studies on HA hypobaric hypoxia-induced thrombotic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16078454.2021.1946265DOI Listing
December 2021

Minimising the present and future plastic waste, energy and environmental footprints related to COVID-19.

Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2020 Jul 27;127:109883. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Systems Science, Institute of High Performance Computing, ASTAR, Singapore, 138632, Singapore.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had growing environmental consequences related to plastic use and follow-up waste, but more urgent health issues have far overshadowed the potential impacts. This paper gives a prospective outlook on how the disruption caused by COVID-19 can act as a catalyst for short-term and long-term changes in plastic waste management practices throughout the world. The impact of the pandemic and epidemic following through the life cycles of various plastic products, particularly those needed for personal protection and healthcare, is assessed. The energy and environmental footprints of these product systems have increased rapidly in response to the surge in the number of COVID-19 cases worldwide, while critical hazardous waste management issues are emerging due to the need to ensure destruction of residual pathogens in household and medical waste. The concept of Plastic Waste Footprint (PWF) is proposed to capture the environmental footprint of a plastic product throughout its entire life cycle. Emerging challenges in waste management during and after the pandemic are discussed from the perspective of novel research and environmental policies. The sudden shift in waste composition and quantity highlights the need for a dynamically reponsive waste management system. Six future research directions are suggested to mitigate the potential impacts of the pandemic on waste management systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2020.109883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183989PMC
July 2020

Energy, environmental, economic and social equity (4E) pressures of COVID-19 vaccination mismanagement: A global perspective.

Energy (Oxf) 2021 Nov 30;235:121315. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Civil, Structural, and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin, Ireland.

Vaccination now offers a way to resolve the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it is critical to recognise the full energy, environmental, economic and social equity (4E) impacts of the vaccination life cycle. The full 4E impacts include the design and trials, order management, material preparation, manufacturing, cold chain logistics, low-temperature storage, crowd management and end-of-life waste management. A life cycle perspective is necessary for sustainable vaccination management because a prolonged immunisation campaign for COVID-19 is likely. The impacts are geographically dispersed across sectors and regions, creating real and virtual 4E footprints that occur at different timescales. Decision-makers in industry and governments have to act, unify, resolve, and work together to implement more sustainable COVID-19 vaccination management globally and locally to minimise the 4E footprints. Potential practices include using renewable energy in production, storage, transportation and waste treatment, using better product design for packaging, using the Internet of Things (IoT) and big data analytics for better logistics, using real-time database management for better tracking of deliveries and public vaccination programmes, and using coordination platforms for more equitable vaccine access. These practices raise global challenges but suggest solutions with a 4E perspective, which could mitigate the impacts of global vaccination campaigns and prepare sustainably for future pandemics and global warming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2021.121315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245053PMC
November 2021

Development and validation of an institutional nomogram for aiding aneurysm rupture risk stratification.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 5;11(1):13826. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute and Beijing Tiantan Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100050, China.

Rupture risk stratification is critical for incidentally detected intracranial aneurysms. Here we developed and validated an institutional nomogram to solve this issue. We reviewed the imaging and clinical databases for aneurysms from January 2015 to September 2018. Aneurysms were reconstructed and morphological features were extracted by the Pyradiomics in python. Multiple logistic regression was performed to develop the nomogram. The consistency of the nomogram predicted rupture risks and PHASES scores was assessed. The performance of the nomogram was evaluated by the discrimination, calibration, and decision curve analysis (DCA). 719 aneurysms were enrolled in this study. For each aneurysm, twelve morphological and nine clinical features were obtained. After logistic regression, seven features were enrolled in the nomogram, which were SurfaceVolumeRatio, Flatness, Age, Hyperlipemia, Smoker, Multiple aneurysms, and Location of the aneurysm. The nomogram had a positive and close correlation with PHASES score in predicting aneurysm rupture risks. AUCs of the nomogram in discriminating aneurysm rupture status was 0.837 in a separate testing set. The calibration curves fitted well and DCA demonstrated positive net benefits of the nomogram in guiding clinical decisions. In conclusion, Pyradiomics derived morphological features based institutional nomogram was useful for aneurysm rupture risk stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93286-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257713PMC
July 2021

Anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody and bortezomib prevent mechanical unloading-induced bone loss.

J Bone Miner Metab 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, National Center for Protein Sciences (Beijing), Beijing Institute of Lifeomics, Beijing, 100850, China.

Introduction: Bone loss is a major health concern for astronauts during long-term spaceflight and for patients during prolonged bed rest or paralysis. It is essential to develop therapeutic strategies to combat the bone loss occurring in people afflicted with disuse atrophy on earth as well as in astronauts in space, especially during prolonged missions. Although several drugs have been demonstrated for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis or bone-related diseases, their effects on microgravity-induced bone loss are still unclear.

Materials And Methods: Here, we employed the hindlimb-unloading (HLU) tail suspension model and compared the preventive efficiencies of five agents including alendronate (ALN), raloxifene (Rox), teriparatide (TPTD), anti-murine RANKL monoclonal antibody (anti-RANKL) and proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Bzb) on mechanical unloading-induced bone loss. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by quantitative computed tomography. The osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity were measured by serum ELISA, histology analysis, and histomorphometric analysis.

Results: Compared to the control, ALN and anti-RANKL antibody could restore bone mass close to sham levels by inhibiting bone resorption. Bzb could increase the whole bone mass and strength by inhibiting bone resorption and promoting bone formation simultaneously. Meanwhile, Rox did not affect bone loss caused by HLU. TPTD stimulated cortical bone formation but the total bone mass was not increased significantly.

Conclusions: We demonstrated for the first time that anti-RANKL antibody and Bzb had a positive effect on preventing mechanical unloading-induced bone loss. This finding puts forward the potential use of anti-RANKL and Bzb on bone loss therapies or prophylaxis of astronauts in spaceflight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00774-021-01246-xDOI Listing
July 2021

Toward a Coronavirus Knowledge Graph.

Genes (Basel) 2021 06 29;12(7). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Library and Information Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea.

This study builds a coronavirus knowledge graph (KG) by merging two information sources. The first source is Analytical Graph (AG), which integrates more than 20 different public datasets related to drug discovery. The second source is CORD-19, a collection of published scientific articles related to COVID-19. We combined both chemo genomic entities in AG with entities extracted from CORD-19 to expand knowledge in the COVID-19 domain. Before populating KG with those entities, we perform entity disambiguation on CORD-19 collections using Wikidata. Our newly built KG contains at least 21,700 genes, 2500 diseases, 94,000 phenotypes, and other biological entities (e.g., compound, species, and cell lines). We define 27 relationship types and use them to label each edge in our KG. This research presents two cases to evaluate the KG's usability: analyzing a subgraph (ego-centered network) from the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and revealing paths between biological entities (hydroxychloroquine and IL-6 receptor; chloroquine and STAT1). The ego-centered network captured information related to COVID-19. We also found significant COVID-19-related information in top-ranked paths with a depth of three based on our path evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12070998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307964PMC
June 2021

CREB1 and ATF1 Negatively Regulate Glutathione Biosynthesis Sensitizing Cells to Oxidative Stress.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 10;9:698264. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) family activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) and cAMP response element binding protein 1 (CREB1) have been reported in a diverse group of tumors, however, the mechanistic basis for this remains unclear. Here we found that CREB1 and ATF1 unexpectedly regulate glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis by suppressing the expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM) and glutathione synthase (GSS), two key enzymes of GSH biosynthesis pathway. Mechanistic studies reveal that GCLM and GSS are direct transcriptional targets of CREB1 and ATF1. Through repressing the expression of these two enzymes, CREB1 and ATF1 reduce the GSH biosynthesis and the capability of cells to detoxicate reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby increasing cellular susceptibility to oxidative stress. Therefore, our findings link CREB1 family to cellular metabolism, and uncover a potential therapeutic approach by targeting GCLM or oxidative stress for the treatment of tumors with relatively high expression of CREB1 family proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.698264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223876PMC
June 2021

Pulmonary coagulation and fibrinolysis abnormalities that favor fibrin deposition in the lungs of mouse antibody-mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Aug 24;24(2). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu, Sichuan 610052, P.R. China.

Transfusion‑related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a life‑threatening disease caused by blood transfusion. However, its pathogenesis is poorly understood and specific therapies are not available. Experimental and clinical studies have indicated that alveolar fibrin deposition serves a pathological role in acute lung injuries. The present study investigated whether pulmonary fibrin deposition occurs in a TRALI mouse model and the possible mechanisms underlying this deposition. The TRALI model was established by priming male Balb/c mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 18 h prior to injection of an anti‑major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC‑I) antibody. Untreated mice and mice administered LPS plus isotype antibody served as controls. At 2 h after TRALI induction, blood and lung tissue were collected. Disease characteristics were assessed based on lung tissue histology, inflammatory responses and alterations in the alveolar‑capillary barrier. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect pulmonary fibrin deposition, platelets and fibrin‑platelet interactions. Levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor‑1 (PAI‑1), thrombin‑antithrombin complex (TATc), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), coagulation factor activity and fibrin degradation product (FDP) in lung tissue homogenates were measured. Severe lung injury, increased inflammatory responses and a damaged alveolar‑capillary barrier in the LPS‑primed, anti‑MHC‑I antibody‑administered mice indicated that the TRALI model was successfully established. Fibrin deposition, fibrin‑platelet interactions and platelets accumulation in the lungs of mouse models were clearly promoted. Additionally, levels of TATc, coagulation factor V (FV), TFPI and PAI‑1 were elevated, whereas FDP level was decreased in TRALI mice. In conclusion, both impaired fibrinolysis and enhanced coagulation, which might be induced by boosted FV activity, increased pulmonary platelets accumulation and enhanced fibrin‑platelet interactions and contributed to pulmonary fibrin deposition in TRALI mice. The results provided a therapeutic rationale to target abnormalities in either coagulation or fibrinolysis pathways for antibody‑mediated TRALI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240174PMC
August 2021

Nanoparticle-Cartilage Interaction: Pathology-Based Intra-articular Drug Delivery for Osteoarthritis Therapy.

Nanomicro Lett 2021 Jun 23;13(1):149. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Musculoskeletal Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, Hong Kong, SAR, People's Republic of China.

Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent chronic and debilitating joint disease, resulting in huge medical and socioeconomic burdens. Intra-articular administration of agents is clinically used for pain management. However, the effectiveness is inapparent caused by the rapid clearance of agents. To overcome this issue, nanoparticles as delivery systems hold considerable promise for local control of the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic agents. Given the therapeutic programs are inseparable from pathological progress of osteoarthritis, an ideal delivery system should allow the release of therapeutic agents upon specific features of disorders. In this review, we firstly introduce the pathological features of osteoarthritis and the design concept for accurate localization within cartilage for sustained drug release. Then, we review the interactions of nanoparticles with cartilage microenvironment and the rational design. Furthermore, we highlight advances in the therapeutic schemes according to the pathology signals. Finally, armed with an updated understanding of the pathological mechanisms, we place an emphasis on the development of "smart" bioresponsive and multiple modality nanoparticles on the near horizon to interact with the pathological signals. We anticipate that the exploration of nanoparticles by balancing the efficacy, safety, and complexity will lay down a solid foundation tangible for clinical translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-021-00670-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8222488PMC
June 2021

An Adjacent Atomic Platinum Site Enables Single-Atom Iron with High Oxygen Reduction Reaction Performance.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

The modulation effect has been widely investigated to tune the electronic state of single-atomic M-N-C catalysts to enhance the activity of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, the in-depth study of modulation effect is rarely reported for the isolated dual-atomic metal sites. Now, the catalytic activities of Fe-N moiety can be enhanced by the adjacent Pt-N moiety through the modulation effect, in which the Pt-N acts as the modulator to tune the 3d electronic orbitals of Fe-N active site and optimize ORR activity. Inspired by this principle, we design and synthesize the electrocatalyst that comprises isolated Fe-N /Pt-N moieties dispersed in the nitrogen-doped carbon matrix (Fe-N /Pt-N @NC) and exhibits a half-wave potential of 0.93 V vs. RHE and negligible activity degradation (ΔE =8 mV) after 10000 cycles in 0.1 M KOH. We also demonstrate that the modulation effect is not effective for optimizing the ORR performances of Co-N /Pt-N and Mn-N /Pt-N systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202105186DOI Listing
June 2021

Identification of Methylation-Regulated Differentially Expressed Genes and Related Pathways in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Study Based on TCGA Database and Bioinformatics Analysis.

Front Oncol 2021 3;11:636093. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Internal Oncology, Cancer Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning Cancer Hospital & Institute, Shenyang, China.

Background: In recent years, DNA methylation modification has been shown to be a critical mechanism in the field of epigenetics.

Methods: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) data were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas project, including RNA expression profiles, Illumina Human Methylation 450K BeadChip data, clinical information, and pathological features. Then, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially methylated genes were identified using R software. Methylation-regulated DEGs (MeDEGs) were further analyzed using Spearman's correlation analysis. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses were performed using the DAVID database and ClueGO in Cytoscape software. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis explored the relationship between methylation, expression of MeDEGs, and survival time. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was conducted to predict the function of prognosis-related MeDEGs.

Results: A total of nine up-regulated and 72 down-regulated MeDEGs were identified. GO and KEGG pathway analyses results indicated that multiple cancer-related terms were enriched. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the methylation status of four MeDEGs (CTF1, FZD8, PDK4, and ZNF334) was negatively associated with overall survival. Moreover, the methylation status of CDF1 and PDK4 was identified as an independent prognostic factor. According to GSEA, hypermethylation of prognosis-related MeDEGs was enriched in pathways that included "Spliceosome", "Cell cycle", "RNA degradation", "RNA polymerase", "DNA replication", "Mismatch repair", "Base excision repair", "Nucleotide excision repair", "Homologous recombination", "Protein export", and "Pyrimidine metabolism".

Conclusions: Aberrant DNA methylation plays a critical role in malignant progression of HCC. Prognosis-related MeDEGs identified in this research may be potential biomarkers and targets in diagnosis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.636093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209385PMC
June 2021

Superelastic oxide micropillars enabled by surface tension-modulated 90° domain switching with excellent fatigue resistance.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(24)

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Oxide Materials and Devices, Southern University of Science and Technology, 518055 Shenzhen, Guangdong, China;

Superelastic materials capable of recovering large nonlinear strains are ideal for a variety of applications in morphing structures, reconfigurable systems, and robots. However, making oxide materials superelastic has been a long-standing challenge due to their intrinsic brittleness. Here, we fabricate ferroelectric BaTiO (BTO) micropillars that not only are superelastic but also possess excellent fatigue resistance, lasting over 1 million cycles without accumulating residual strains or noticeable variation in stress-strain curves. Phase field simulations reveal that the large recoverable strains of BTO micropillars arise from surface tension-modulated 90° domain switching and thus are size dependent, while the small energy barrier and ultralow energy dissipation are responsible for their unprecedented cyclic stability among superelastic materials. This work demonstrates a general strategy to realize superelastic and fatigue-resistant domain switching in ferroelectric oxides for many potential applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2025255118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214672PMC
June 2021

ASIC1a promotes acidic microenvironment-induced HCC cells migration and invasion by inducing autophagy.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jun 8;907:174252. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Inflammation and Immune Mediated Diseases Laboratory of Anhui Province, Anhui Institute of Innovative Drugs, School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032, China. Electronic address:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common types of liver cancer with high incidence and metastatic rate. Recent studies have shown that the high metastasis of HCC is closely related to the acidic microenvironment of HCC cells. Acid-sensing ion Channel 1a (ASIC1a) plays an important role in HCC development, which can mediate tumor cell migration and invasion. However, the underlying mechanism of how ASIC1a promotes HCC cell migration and invasion in acidic microenvironments remains unclear, while autophagy may act as a mechanism for tumor cells to adapt to acidic microenvironment. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether ASIC1a mediates autophagy and its effects on the migration and invasion of HCC cells. Interestingly, our study has shown that ASIC1a and autophagy were increased in HepG2 cells in acidic microenvironment, and both of them can promote HCC cells migration and invasion. Moreover, inhibition of ASIC1a with PcTx1 or ASIC1a ShRNA reduced the autophagy flux. Collectively, ASIC1a can promote acidic microenvironment-induced HepG2 cells migration and invasion by inducing autophagy, which may be correlated with Ca influx.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174252DOI Listing
June 2021

Recombinant Expression of Thrombolytic Agent Reteplase in Marine Microalga (Chlorodendrales, Chlorophyta).

Mar Drugs 2021 May 28;19(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

CAS and Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China.

, a unicellular marine green alga, is used widely in aquaculture as an initial feeding for fish, bivalve mollusks, penaeid shrimp larvae, and rotifers because of its rich content of amino acids and fatty acids. A stable nuclear transformation system using the herbicide phosphinothricin (PPT) as a selective reagent was established previously. In this research, the recombinant expression in was investigated by particle bombardment with the gene that encodes the recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (Reteplase), which is a thrombolytic agent for acute myocardial infarction treatment. Transgenic algal strains were selected by their resistance to PPT, and expression of was validated by PCR, Southern blotting, and Western blotting, and bioactivity of rt-PA was confirmed by the fibrin agarose plate assay for bioactivity. The results showed that was integrated into the genome of , and the expression product was bioactive, indicating proper post-transcriptional modification of rt-PA in . This report contributes to efforts that take advantage of marine microalgae as cell factories to prepare recombinant drugs and in establishing a characteristic pathway of oral administration in aquaculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md19060315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230124PMC
May 2021

The influence of gut microbiome on bone health and related dietary strategies against bone dysfunctions.

Food Res Int 2021 06 22;144:110331. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China; International Joint Research Laboratory for Probiotics at Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

The link between the gut microbiome and bone health has begun to attract widespread interest in recent years. The gut microbiome are vital in many diseases involving bone loss. Probiotics, prebiotics, and dietary supplements have been suggested to protect bone health by altering the composition of the gut microbiota. Notably, studying the relationship between the gut microbiome and bone health can provide a basis for the prevention and treatment of bone diseases. This review focuses on the link between the gut microbiome and bone diseases, exploring current knowledge of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria affect bone health. In addition, the influences of dietary supplements on the interactions between the gut microbiome and bone health are discussed. This knowledge will promote new ideas for gut microbiota-mediated dietary interventions in patients with bone diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110331DOI Listing
June 2021

Insights into Mechanism of Aβ Fibril Growth on Surface of Graphene Oxides: Oxidative Degree Matters.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 May 29:e2100436. Epub 2021 May 29.

Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion and New Carbon Materials of Hubei Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430081, P. R. China.

The filamentous β-amyloid deposition has been regarded as the hallmark pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nanomaterials such as graphene oxides (GOs) have achieved significant progress in the therapy of AD, but the molecular pathway of the growth propagation remains challenging to investigate, especially on the surfaces of materials. The thermodynamics and kinetics of fibril elongation on GO surfaces with different oxidative degrees have been investigated by a combination of in vitro experiments and simulations. ThT kinetics, calorimetric measurements, and TEM observations suggest that low oxidative GO-10 promotes the fibril elongation, while both high oxidative GO-20 and GO-40 inhibit the fibril elongation. Computational results reveal that the apparent regulation behaviors of GOs on filament growth depend on the balance between the promoting effect by templating the incoming of monomers and the retarding effect by capturing the monomer during docking and locking phases through hydrogen bonding. This work will promote the understanding of the interplay between biomolecules and materials, thus providing new thoughts for the rational design of novel materials for amyloidosis therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202100436DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of Moringa Extract on Aminoglycoside-Induced Hair Cell Death and Organ of Corti Damage.

Otol Neurotol 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Southern Illinois University Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Department of Pharmacology, Southern Illinois University Schools of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois Kresge Hearing Research Institute, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology, and Cell Biology, and Department of Pharmacology, Southern Illinois University Schools of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois.

Hypothesis: Moringa extract, a naturally occurring anti-oxidant, protects against aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death and hearing loss within the organ of Corti.

Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) arise primarily in the mitochondria and have been implicated in aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity. Mitochondrial dysfunction results in loss of membrane potential, release of caspases, and cell apoptosis. Moringa extract has not previously been examined as a protective agent for aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity.

Methods: Putative otoprotective effects of moringa extract were investigated in an organotypic model using murine organ of Corti explants subjected to gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. Assays evaluated hair cell loss, cytochrome oxidase expression, mitochondrial membrane potential integrity, and caspase activity.

Results: In vitro application of moringa conferred significant protection from gentamicin-induced hair cell loss at dosages from 25 to 300 μg/mL, with dosages above 100 μg/mL conferring near complete protection. Assays demonstrated moringa extract suppression of ROS, preservation of cytochrome oxidase activity, and reduction in caspase production.

Conclusion: Moringa extract demonstrated potent antioxidant properties with significant protection against gentamicin ototoxicity in cochlear explants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAO.0000000000003193DOI Listing
May 2021

Attention-Based Meta-Reinforcement Learning for Tracking Control of AUV With Time-Varying Dynamics.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 May 24;PP. Epub 2021 May 24.

Reinforcement learning (RL) is a promising technique for designing a model-free controller by interacting with the environment. Several researchers have applied RL to autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) for motion control, such as trajectory tracking. However, the existing RL-based controller usually assumes that the unknown AUV dynamics keep invariant during the operation period, limiting its further application in the complex underwater environment. In this article, a novel meta-RL-based control scheme is proposed for trajectory tracking control of AUV in the presence of unknown and time-varying dynamics. To this end, we divide the tracking task for AUV with time-varying dynamics into multiple specific tasks with fixed time-varying dynamics, to which we apply meta-RL for training to distill the general control policy. The obtained control policy can transfer to the testing phase with high adaptability. Inspired by the line-of-sight (LOS) tracking rule, we formulate each specific task as a Markov decision process (MDP) with a well-designed state and reward function. Furthermore, a novel policy network with an attention module is proposed to extract the hidden information of AUV dynamics. The simulation environment with time-varying dynamics is established, and the simulation results reveal the effectiveness of our proposed method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3079148DOI Listing
May 2021

[Using Immunohistochemical Markers and Clinicopathological Factors to Predict the Prognostic Survival of Different Types of Endometrial Cancer Recurrence].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 May;52(3):489-496

Department of Gynecology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400000, China.

Objective: To probe for factors that can be used effectively to predict the prognostic survival of patients with endometrial cancer recurrence.

Methods: The clinicopathological data of 473 patients with stage Ⅰ to Ⅲ endometrial cancer who underwent standard surgical treatment from October 2013 to May 2019 were retrospectively collected, and post-operative recurrence of the patients were followed up. Overall recurrence includes local recurrence and poor prognosis recurrence. The endpoint indicators of this study are the recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with overall recurrence, local recurrence, and poor prognosis recurrence (PPR). The Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to evaluate the OS and RFS of patients. Cox proportional-hazards model was used to identify factors affecting the prognostic survival of patients with endometrial cancer recurrence.

Results: Among the 473 patients, 406 did not experience recurrence. A total of 67 patients, accounting for 14.2%, had recurrence. Among them, 27 had local recurrence, accounting for 5.7%, while 40 had poor prognosis recurrence, accounting for 8.5%. The median follow-up time of patients with recurrence was 38 months. The survival curve showed that the RFS and OS of the patients in the recurrence-free group remained unchanged, while the patients in the recurrence group, regardless of whether they had overall recurrence, local recurrence or PPR, experienced a decrease in RFS and OS( <0.001). The overall 3-year OS rate of patients with recurrence was 44.8%, the median survival time was 29 months, and the median recurrence time was 17 months. The 3-year OS rate of patients in the recurrence-free group was 98.8%, and the median survival time was 40 months; the 3-year OS rate of patients with local recurrence was 59.3%, the median survival time was 27 months, and the median recurrence time was 15 months. The 3-year OS rate of patients with PPR was only 35.0%, the median survival time was 22 months, and the median recurrence time was 10 months. The results of multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that, for overall recurrence patients, FIGO stage Ⅲ (hazard ratio ( )=3.432, =0.005), increased expression of K-i67 ( =1.015, =0.025), and decreased expression of estrogen receptor (ER) ( =0.985, =0.005) are independent factors for the decline in RFS, FIGO stage Ⅲ ( =4.918, =0.005) and the decreased expression of progesterone receptor (PR) ( =0.977, =0.003) are independent factors for the decrease in OS. For patients with local recurrence, special pathological types ( =2.545, =0.049) and increased expression of Ki-67 ( =1.024, =0.033) are independent factors influencing the decrease in RFS, while decreased expression of PR ( =0.973, =0.009) is an independent risk factor for decreased OS. For patients with PPR, FIGO stage Ⅲ ( =5.977, =0.002) and decreased ER expression ( =0.984, =0.023) are independent risk factors for the decline in RFS, while FIGO stage Ⅲ ( =10.098, =0.001) is an independent factor influencing the decline of OS.

Conclusion: FIGO stage Ⅲ, increased Ki-67 expression, and decreased ER expression can increase patients' risk of postoperative recurrence, and FIGO stage Ⅲ and decreased expression of PR can increase the risk of death in patients with recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20210560205DOI Listing
May 2021

Polylysine-decorated macroporous microcarriers laden with adipose-derived stem cells promote nerve regeneration in vivo.

Bioact Mater 2021 Nov 19;6(11):3987-3998. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Orthopedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing Key Lab of Regenerative Medicine in Orthopedics, Key Lab of Musculoskeletal Trauma & War Injuries, PLA, No.28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853, PR China.

Cell transplantation is an effective strategy to improve the repair effect of nerve guide conduits (NGCs). However, problems such as low loading efficiency and cell anoikis undermine the outcomes. Microcarriers are efficient 3D cell culture scaffolds, which can also prevent cell anoikis by providing substrate for adhesion during transplantation. Here, we demonstrate for the first time microcarrier-based cell transplantation in peripheral nerve repair. We first prepared macroporous chitosan microcarriers (CSMCs) by the emulsion-phase separation method, and then decorated the CSMCs with polylysine (pl-CSMCs) to improve cell affinity. We then loaded the pl-CSMCs with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and injected them into electrospun polycaprolactone/chitosan NGCs to repair rat sciatic nerve defects. The ADSCs-laden pl-CSMCs effectively improved nerve regeneration as demonstrated by evaluation of histology, motor function recovery, electrophysiology, and gastrocnemius recovery. With efficient cell transplantation, convenient operation, and the multiple merits of ADSCs, the ADSCs-laden pl-CSMCs hold good potential in peripheral nerve repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.03.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082165PMC
November 2021

Endovascular treatment of vertebral and basilar artery aneurysms with low-profile visualized intraluminal support device.

BMC Neurol 2021 May 15;21(1):198. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute and Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, NansanhuanXilu 119, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100070, China.

Background: The Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS) device is a self-expanding, nitinol, single-braid, closed-cell device that was recently developed for endovascular embolization of intracranial aneurysms. However, current knowledge regarding the use of LVIS devices to treat vertebral and basilar artery aneurysms is limited. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of the LVIS device for treating vertebral and basilar artery aneurysms.

Methods: Between January 2015 and December 2017, patients with vertebral and basilar artery aneurysms treated using LVIS stents were enrolled in this study. We analyzed patients' demographic, clinical and aneurysmal characteristics, procedural details, complications, and angiographic and clinical follow-up results.

Results: We identified 63 patients with 64 vertebral and basilar artery aneurysms who underwent treatment with (n = 59) or without (n = 5) LVIS stenting, including 10 patients with ruptured aneurysms. Forty-one aneurysms were located at the vertebral artery, and 23 at the basilar artery. Intraprocedural-related complications developed in three (4.8%) patients, while none of these patients developed morbidities or died during follow-up. Three patients developed post-procedural complications (4.8%). Two patients experienced ischemic events immediately post-procedure. A minor permanent morbidity developed in one of the two patients (1.6%). The mortality rate was 1.6%, for that the patient died of brainstem hemorrhage after 1 month of follow-up. At a mean follow-up of 12.5 months, 39/43 (90.7%) patients had stable or improved aneurysms, and four (9.3%) had recanalized.

Conclusions: LVIS device of vertebral and basilar artery aneurysms may be an acceptable safety profile and may represent a reasonable treatment option in the short-term. Long-term and larger cohort studies are necessary to validate our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-021-02180-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8122564PMC
May 2021

Analysis of therapeutic potential of preclinical models based on DR3/TL1A pathway modulation (Review).

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jul 2;22(1):693. Epub 2021 May 2.

Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu, Sichuan 610052, P.R. China.

Death receptor 3 (DR3) and its corresponding ligand, tumor necrosis factor-like ligand 1A (TL1A), belong to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. Signaling via this receptor-ligand pair results in pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Effector lymphocytes can be activated to exert pro-inflammatory activity by triggering the DR3/TL1A pathway. By contrast, DR3/TL1A signaling also induces expansion of the suppressive function of regulatory T cells, which serve an important role in exerting anti-inflammatory functions and maintaining immune homeostasis. Preclinical evidence indicates that neutralizing and agonistic antibodies, as well as ligand-based approaches targeting the DR3/TL1A pathway, may be used to treat diseases, including inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. Accumulating evidence has suggested that modulating the DR3/TL1A pathway is a promising therapeutic approach for patients with these diseases. This review discusses preclinical models to gauge the progress of therapeutic strategies for diseases involving the DR3/TL1A pathway to aid in drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111866PMC
July 2021

Structures and catalytic performances of Me/SAPO-34 (Me = Mn, Ni, Co) catalysts for low-tem perature SCR of NO by ammonia.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Jun 18;104:137-149. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

Me/SAPO-34 (Me = Mn, Ni, Co) series of catalysts were prepared by a wetness impregnation method and investigated for the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides with ammonia (NH-SCR). Among them, Mn/SAPO-34 catalyst was found as the most promising candidate based on its superior low-temperature activity. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy images (TEM), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature programmed reduction and desorption (TPR and TPD), and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transformed spectroscopy (DRIFTS) of NH/NO adsorption. Mn/SAPO-34 is obviously different from Ni/SAPO-34 and Co/SAPO-34 in the active species state and distribution. Surface MnO species which play an essential role in NO oxidation and NO adsorption, act as better active sites than nickel and cobalt mostly in the form of the aluminates and silicates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.11.018DOI Listing
June 2021

Tumors exploit FTO-mediated regulation of glycolytic metabolism to evade immune surveillance.

Cell Metab 2021 Jun 27;33(6):1221-1233.e11. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Institute for Immunology, Beijing Key Lab for Immunological Research on Chronic Diseases, THU-PKU Center for Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

The ever-increasing understanding of the complexity of factors and regulatory layers that contribute to immune evasion facilitates the development of immunotherapies. However, the diversity of malignant tumors limits many known mechanisms in specific genetic and epigenetic contexts, manifesting the need to discover general driver genes. Here, we have identified the mA demethylase FTO as an essential epitranscriptomic regulator utilized by tumors to escape immune surveillance through regulation of glycolytic metabolism. We show that FTO-mediated mA demethylation in tumor cells elevates the transcription factors c-Jun, JunB, and C/EBPβ, which allows the rewiring of glycolytic metabolism. Fto knockdown impairs the glycolytic activity of tumor cells, which restores the function of CD8 T cells, thereby inhibiting tumor growth. Furthermore, we developed a small-molecule compound, Dac51, that can inhibit the activity of FTO, block FTO-mediated immune evasion, and synergize with checkpoint blockade for better tumor control, suggesting reprogramming RNA epitranscriptome as a potential strategy for immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.04.001DOI Listing
June 2021

AGEs/RAGE blockade downregulates Endothenin-1 (ET-1), mitigating Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) injury in deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

Bioengineered 2021 12;12(1):1360-1368

Department of Vascular Surgery, 1-7 Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing, China.

This study is aimed at identifying the roles of AGE/RAGE and ET-1 in deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in glycated human serum albumin (M-HSA) were detected by ELISA. The viability of HUVECs was examined by CCK-8 assay. Flow cytometry was performed to detect cell apoptosis, followed by ELISA for the detection of inflammatory cytokine level and oxidative stress level in HUVECs. Immunofluorescence was performed to detect ET-1 and eNOS expression. The expression of specific proteins was assayed by western blot. As a result, decreased HUVEC viability was observed after stimulation with M-HSA, whereas RAGE inhibitor improved it. Cell apoptosis showed the opposite trend. Additionally, M-HSA-induced inflammatory cytokine release and oxidative stress of HUVECs were both alleviated by RAGE inhibitor. RAGE inhibitor also increased the levels of NO and eNOS while decreasing the level of ET-1 in M-HSA-stimulated HUVECs. Furthermore, decreased protein expression of Bax, cleaved-caspase3, RAGE, p65, ET-1 and iNOS was observed after treatment with RAGE inhibitor, in addition to increased protein expression of Bcl-2 and eNOS. In conclusion, blocking AGE/RAGE pathway downregulates ET-1, thereby mitigating HUVEC damage in DVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1917980DOI Listing
December 2021
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