Publications by authors named "Peng Gao"

1,956 Publications

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PALE-GREEN LEAF 1, a rice cpSRP54 protein, is essential for the assembly of the PSI-LHCI supercomplex.

Plant Direct 2022 Aug 7;6(8):e436. Epub 2022 Aug 7.

National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology Chinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai China.

Although photosynthetic multiprotein complexes have received major attention, our knowledge about the assembly of these proteins into functional complexes in plants is still limited. In the present study, we have identified a chlorophyll-deficient mutant, - (), in rice that displays abnormally developed chloroplasts. Map-based cloning of this gene revealed that encodes a chloroplast targeted protein homologous to the 54-kDa subunit of the signal recognition particle (cpSRP54). Immunoblot analysis revealed that the accumulation of the PSI core proteins PsaA and PsaB, subunits from the ATP synthase, cytochrome, and light-harvesting complex (LHC) is dramatically reduced in . Blue native gel analysis of thylakoid membrane proteins showed the existence of an extra band in the mutant, which located between the dimeric PSII/PSI-LHCI and the monomeric PSII. Immunodetection after 2D separation indicated that the extra band consists of the proteins from the PSI core complex. Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence at 77 K further confirmed that PSI, rather than PSII, was primarily impaired in the mutant. These results suggest that OsPGL1 might act as a molecular chaperone that is required for the efficient assembly and specific integration of the peripheral LHCI proteins into the PSI core complex in rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pld3.436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9358330PMC
August 2022

Visible-light-driven photocatalytic degradation of ofloxacin by BiOBr nanocomposite modified with oxygen vacancies and N-doped CQDs: Enhanced photodegradation performance and mechanism.

Chemosphere 2022 Aug 6:135976. Epub 2022 Aug 6.

Beijing Key Laboratory for Source Control Technology of Water Pollution, Engineering Research Center for Water Pollution Source Control and Eco-remediation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, China.

The rapid recombination of photogenerated carriers and weak light absorption capacity are two major challenges for bismuth-based photocatalysts. Here, N-CQDs/BiOBr micro-flower photocatalysts with the visible-light activity were fabricated through the ethylene glycol solvothermal method for the first time, and oxygen vacancies (OVs) and N-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) were simultaneously introduced on the surface of BiOBr. OVs were introduced to form defective BiOBr (BiOBr). N-CQDs and BiOBr formed a strong binding effect. Then, the composition, morphology, crystal structure and photoelectric property of photocatalysts were studied, and the mechanism and pathway of ofloxacin (OFL) photodegradation were studied. N-CQDs/BiOBr-4 was a micro-flower composed of nanosheets with a thickness of about 60 nm, this structure produced multiple light reflections. Photoelectrochemical analysis confirmed that the synergistic effect of OVs and N-CQDs significantly promoted the electron-hole separation (3 times vs BiOBr) and enhanced the light absorption range (Eg = 2.96 eV vs 3.24 eV). Meanwhile, the removal rate of OFL by N-CQDs/BiOBr-4 was 6 times higher than that by BiOBr (K of N-CQDs/BiOBr-4 was 32 times higher than that of BiOBr). Electron spin resonances analysis and radical quenching experiments showed that ·O and h played dominant roles in the OFL photodegradation system, and their contribution rates were 89.84% and 70.31%, respectively. There were main degradation pathways for OFL, including oxidation, dealkylation, hydroxylation and decarboxylation. This study explored the synergistic and complementary effects between OVs and N-CQDs, and provided a promising strategy for the photodegradation of toxic antibiotics by visible-light-driven photocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135976DOI Listing
August 2022

Effect of Stenting Plus Medical Therapy vs Medical Therapy Alone on Risk of Stroke and Death in Patients With Symptomatic Intracranial Stenosis: The CASSISS Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2022 08;328(6):534-542

Departments of Neurosurgery and Interventional Neuroradiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Importance: Prior randomized trials have generally shown harm or no benefit of stenting added to medical therapy for patients with symptomatic severe intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, but it remains uncertain as to whether refined patient selection and more experienced surgeons might result in improved outcomes.

Objective: To compare stenting plus medical therapy vs medical therapy alone in patients with symptomatic severe intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Multicenter, open-label, randomized, outcome assessor-blinded trial conducted at 8 centers in China. A total of 380 patients with transient ischemic attack or nondisabling, nonperforator (defined as nonbrainstem or non-basal ganglia end artery) territory ischemic stroke attributed to severe intracranial stenosis (70%-99%) and beyond a duration of 3 weeks from the latest ischemic symptom onset were recruited between March 5, 2014, and November 10, 2016, and followed up for 3 years (final follow-up: November 10, 2019).

Interventions: Medical therapy plus stenting (n = 176) or medical therapy alone (n = 182). Medical therapy included dual-antiplatelet therapy for 90 days (single antiplatelet therapy thereafter) and stroke risk factor control.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of stroke or death within 30 days or stroke in the qualifying artery territory beyond 30 days through 1 year. There were 5 secondary outcomes, including stroke in the qualifying artery territory at 2 years and 3 years as well as mortality at 3 years.

Results: Among 380 patients who were randomized, 358 were confirmed eligible (mean age, 56.3 years; 263 male [73.5%]) and 343 (95.8%) completed the trial. For the stenting plus medical therapy group vs medical therapy alone, no significant difference was found for the primary outcome of risk of stroke or death (8.0% [14/176] vs 7.2% [13/181]; difference, 0.4% [95% CI, -5.0% to 5.9%]; hazard ratio, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.52-2.35]; P = .82). Of the 5 prespecified secondary end points, none showed a significant difference including stroke in the qualifying artery territory at 2 years (9.9% [17/171] vs 9.0% [16/178]; difference, 0.7% [95% CI, -5.4% to 6.7%]; hazard ratio, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.56-2.16]; P = .80) and 3 years (11.3% [19/168] vs 11.2% [19/170]; difference, -0.2% [95% CI, -7.0% to 6.5%]; hazard ratio, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.53-1.90]; P > .99). Mortality at 3 years was 4.4% (7/160) in the stenting plus medical therapy group vs 1.3% (2/159) in the medical therapy alone group (difference, 3.2% [95% CI, -0.5% to 6.9%]; hazard ratio, 3.75 [95% CI, 0.77-18.13]; P = .08).

Conclusions And Relevance: Among patients with transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke due to symptomatic severe intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, the addition of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting to medical therapy, compared with medical therapy alone, resulted in no significant difference in the risk of stroke or death within 30 days or stroke in the qualifying artery territory beyond 30 days through 1 year. The findings do not support the addition of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting to medical therapy for the treatment of patients with symptomatic severe intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01763320.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2022.12000DOI Listing
August 2022

Development of Rice Variety With Durable and Broad-Spectrum Resistance to Blast Disease Through Marker-Assisted Introduction of Gene.

Front Plant Sci 2022 22;13:937767. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics of the Ministry of Education/Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

Rice blast, caused by (), is one of the most destructive diseases threatening rice production worldwide. Development of resistant cultivars using broad-spectrum resistance () genes with high breeding value is the most effective and economical approach to control this disease. In this study, the breeding potential of gene in / rice breeding practice in Jiangsu province was comprehensively evaluated. Through backcross and marker-assisted selection (MAS), was introduced into two rice cultivars (Wuyungeng 32/WYG32 and Huageng 8/HG8). In each genetic background, five advanced backcross lines with (ABLs) and the same genotypes as the respective recurrent parent in the other 13 known gene loci were developed. Compared with the corresponding recurrent parent, all these ABLs exhibited stronger resistance in seedling inoculation assay using 184 isolates collected from rice growing regions of the lower region of the Yangtze River. With respect to panicle blast resistance, all ABLs reached a high resistance level to blast disease in tests conducted in three consecutive years with the inoculation of seven mixed conidial suspensions collected from different regions of Jiangsu province. In natural field nursery assays, the ABLs showed significantly higher resistance than the recurrent parents. No common change on importantly morphological traits and yield-associated components was found among the ABLs, demonstrating the introduction of had no tightly linked undesirable effect on rice economically important traits and its associated grain weight reduction effect could be probably offset by others grain weight genes or at least in the background of the aforementioned two varieties. Notably, one rice line with , designated as Yangnonggeng 3091, had been authorized as a new variety in Jiangsu province in 2021, showing excellent performance on both grain yield and quality, as well as the blast resistance. Together, these results suggest that the gene has a high breeding value in developing rice varieties with durable and broad-spectrum resistance to blast disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.937767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354813PMC
July 2022

A hybrid ZIF-8/ZIF-62 glass membrane for gas separation.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 Aug 5. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

School of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China.

Metal-organic framework (MOF) glasses have demonstrated great potential for high-performance separation. Herein a uniform hybrid MOF glass membrane was fabricated by using the liquid state of ZIF-62 to facilitate the melting of ZIF-8. The doping of ZIF-8 enhanced both the adsorption capacity as well as the ideal CH/CH selectivity of ZIF-62 glass. As expected, the hybrid glass membrane exhibited good CH/CH separation performance while preserving the CO performance of the sole ZIF-62 membrane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cc03179eDOI Listing
August 2022

A Genetic Polymorphism in the Gene is Associated With Calcium Nephrolithiasis in the Chinese Han Population.

Front Genet 2022 14;13:897051. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital & Institute of Urology, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported several novel loci for nephrolithiasis in British and Japanese population, some of which were predicted to influence CaSR signaling. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of these loci with calcium nephrolithiasis in Chinese Han population. We performed a case-control association analysis involving 691 patients with calcium nephrolithiasis and 1008 control subjects. We were able to genotype a total of 17 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which were previously reported to be significantly associated with nephrolithiasis in GWAS. rs578595 at 72 was significantly associated with calcium nephrolithiasis in Chinese Han population ( < 0.001, OR = 0.617). Moreover, rs12654812 at ( = 0.0427, OR = 1.170), rs12539707 at ( = 0.0179, OR = 0.734), rs1037271 at ( = 0.0096, OR = 0.828) and rs12626330 at ( = 0.0080, OR = 1.213) indicated suggestive associations with calcium nephrolithiasis. Our results elucidated the significance of genetic variation at 72, , , , and in Chinese patients with nephrolithiasis. Since polymorphisms of , , and are predicted to influence in CaSR signaling, our results emphasized the role of abnormal calcium homeostasis in calcium nephrolithiasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.897051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9333346PMC
July 2022

Step-climbing Epitaxy of Layered Materials with Giant Out-of-plane Lattice Mismatch.

Adv Mater 2022 Jul 29:e2202754. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Center for Nanochemistry, Beijing Science and Engineering Centre for Nanocarbons, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, P. R. China.

Heteroepitaxy with large lattice mismatch remains a great challenge for high-quality epifilm growth. Although great efforts have been devoted to epifilm growth with an in-plane lattice mismatch, the epitaxy of two-dimensional (2D) layered crystals on stepped substrates with a giant out-of-plane lattice mismatch is seldom reported. Here, taking the molecular beam epitaxy of 2D semiconducting Bi O Se on three-dimensional SrTiO substrates as an example, we propose a step-climbing epitaxy growth strategy, in which the n (n = 1, 2, 3…) epilayer climbs the step with height difference from out-of-plane lattice mismatch and continues to grow the n+1 epilayer. Step-climbing epitaxy can spontaneously relax and release the strain from the out-of-plane lattice mismatch, which ensures the high quality of large-area epitaxial films. Wafer-scale uniform 2D Bi O Se single-crystal films with controllable thickness can be obtained via step-climbing epitaxy. Most notably, one-unit-cell Bi O Se films (1.2 nm thick) exhibit a high Hall mobility of 180 cm /Vs at room temperature, which exceeds that of silicon and other 2D semiconductors with comparable thickness. As an out-of-plane lattice mismatch is generally present in the epitaxy of layered materials, the step-climbing epitaxy strategy expands the existing epitaxial growth theory and provides guidance toward the high-quality synthesis of layered materials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202202754DOI Listing
July 2022

Electron Microscopy Probing Electron-Photon Interactions in SiC Nanowires with Ultrawide Energy and Momentum Match.

Nano Lett 2022 Aug 29;22(15):6207-6214. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Electron Microscopy Laboratory, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing100871, China.

Light-matter interactions are commonly probed by optical spectroscopy, which, however, has some fundamental limitations such as diffraction-limited spatial resolution, tiny momentum transfer, and noncontinuous excitation/detection. In this work, through the use of scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy loss spectroscopy (STEM-EELS) with ultrawide energy and momentum match and subnanometer spatial resolution, the longitudinal Fabry-Perot (FP) resonating modes and the transverse whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) in individual SiC nanowires are simultaneously excited and detected, which span from near-infrared (∼1.2 μm) to ultraviolet (∼0.2 μm) spectral regime, and the momentum transfer can range up to 10 cm. The size effects on the resonant spectra of nanowires are also revealed. This work provides an alternative technique to optical resonating spectroscopy and light-matter interactions in dielectric nanostructures, which is promising for modulating free electrons via photonic structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c01672DOI Listing
August 2022

Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor Canagliflozin Antagonizes Salt-Sensitive Hypertension Through Modifying Transient Receptor Potential Channels 3 Mediated Vascular Calcium Handling.

J Am Heart Assoc 2022 Aug 29;11(15):e025328. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Daping Hospital Army Medical University, Chongqing Institute of Hypertension Chongqing China.

Background Salt-sensitive hypertension is highly prevalent and associated with cardiorenal damage. Large clinical trials have demonstrated that SGLT2 (sodium-glucose cotransporter 2) inhibitors exert hypotensive effect and cardiorenal protective benefits in patients with hypertension with and without diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Methods and Results Dahl salt-sensitive rats and salt-insensitive controls were fed with 8% high-salt diet and some of them were treated with canagliflozin. The blood pressure, urinary sodium excretion, and vascular function were detected. Transient receptor potential channel 3 (TRPC3) knockout mice were used to explain the mechanism. Canagliflozin treatment significantly reduced high-salt-induced hypertension and this effect was not totally dependent on urinary sodium excretion in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. Assay of vascular function and proteomics showed that canagliflozin significantly inhibited vascular cytoplasmic calcium increase and vasoconstriction in response to high-salt diet. High salt intake increased vascular expression of TRPC3 in salt-sensitive rats, which could be alleviated by canagliflozin treatment. Overexpression of TRPC3 mimicked salt-induced vascular cytosolic calcium increase in vitro and knockout of TRPC3 erased the antihypertensive effect of canagliflozin. Mechanistically, high-salt-induced activation of NCX1 (sodium-calcium exchanger 1) reverse mode increased cytoplasmic calcium level and vasoconstriction, which required TRPC3, and this process could be blocked by canagliflozin. Conclusions We define a previously unrecognized role of TRPC3/NCX1 mediated vascular calcium dysfunction in the development of high-salt-induced hypertension, which can be improved by canagliflozin treatment. This pathway is potentially a novel therapeutic target to antagonize salt-sensitive hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.025328DOI Listing
August 2022

IL-36 Cytokines: Their Roles in Asthma and Potential as a Therapeutic.

Front Immunol 2022 12;13:921275. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines are members of the IL-1 superfamily, which consists of three agonists (IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ) and an IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra). IL-36 cytokines are crucial for immune and inflammatory responses. Abnormal levels of IL-36 cytokine expression are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation, autoimmunity, allergy and cancer. The present study provides a summary of recent reports on IL-36 cytokines that participate in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, and the potential mechanisms underlying their roles in asthma. Abnormal levels of IL-36 cytokines are associated with the pathogenesis of different types of asthma through the regulation of the functions of different types of cells. Considering the important role of IL-36 cytokines in asthma, these may become a potential therapeutic target for asthma treatment. However, existing evidence is insufficient to fully elucidate the specific mechanism underlying the action of IL-36 cytokines during the pathological process of asthma. The possible mechanisms and functions of IL-36 cytokines in different types of asthma require further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.921275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9314646PMC
August 2022

TidyMass an object-oriented reproducible analysis framework for LC-MS data.

Nat Commun 2022 Jul 28;13(1):4365. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Reproducibility, traceability, and transparency have been long-standing issues for metabolomics data analysis. Multiple tools have been developed, but limitations still exist. Here, we present the tidyMass project ( https://www.tidymass.org/ ), a comprehensive R-based computational framework that can achieve the traceable, shareable, and reproducible workflow needs of data processing and analysis for LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics. TidyMass is an ecosystem of R packages that share an underlying design philosophy, grammar, and data structure, which provides a comprehensive, reproducible, and object-oriented computational framework. The modular architecture makes tidyMass a highly flexible and extensible tool, which other users can improve and integrate with other tools to customize their own pipeline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-32155-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9334349PMC
July 2022

Synthesis of adjustable {312}/{004} facet heterojunction MWCNTs/BiOI photocatalyst for ofloxacin degradation: Novel insights into the charge carriers transport.

J Hazard Mater 2022 09 15;437:129374. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Beijing Key Lab for Source Control Technology of Water Pollution, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China; Engineering Research Center for Water Pollution Source Control & Eco-remediation, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China. Electronic address:

Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with high electrical conductivity are commonly accounted as the ideal additives to enhance the charge surface migration efficiency in photocatalysis. Theoretically, the MWCNTs-modified binary photocatalysts have potential for the change of nanocrystal structure. Herein, we reports an adjustable {312}/{004}facet heterojunction MWCNTs/BiOI nanocomposite. Interestingly, the synergistic effect of {312}/{004}facet heterojunction and MWCNTs can effectively accelerate the spatial charge carriers transport. A novel {312}/{004}facet "S-scheme" pathway was proven to be the dominated pathway for the enhancement of spatial charge carriers. As a result, the MWCNTs-{312}/{004}BiOI composites exhibited superior photocatalytic oxidation efficiency for a representative antibiotics ofloxacin photodegradation. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation and LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed that the possible dealkylation and oxidation pathways could be found in OFL degradation. This work provides novel insights for the relationship between charge carrier transport and facet structure-property.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129374DOI Listing
September 2022

Percentage of Asymptomatic Infections among SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant-Positive Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Jun 30;10(7). Epub 2022 Jun 30.

School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.

Background: Asymptomatic infections are potential sources of transmission for coronavirus disease 2019, especially during the epidemic of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. We aimed to assess the percentage of asymptomatic infections among SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant-positive individuals detected by gene sequencing or specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science from 26 November 2021 to 13 April 2022. This meta-analysis was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022327894). Three researchers independently extracted data and two researchers assessed quality using pre-specified criteria. The pooled percentage with 95% confidence interval (CI) of asymptomatic infections of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron was estimated using random-effects models.

Results: Our meta-analysis included eight eligible studies, covering 7640 Omicron variant-positive individuals with 2190 asymptomatic infections. The pooled percentage of asymptomatic infections was 32.40% (95% CI: 25.30-39.51%) among SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant-positive individuals, which was higher in the population in developing countries (38.93%; 95% CI: 19.75-58.11%), with vaccine coverage ≥ 80% (35.93%; 95% CI: 25.36-46.51%), with a travel history (40.05%; 95% CI: 7.59-72.51%), community infection (37.97%; 95% CI: 10.07-65.87%), and with a median age < 20 years (43.75%; 95% CI: 38.45-49.05%).

Conclusion: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the pooled percentage of asymptomatic infections was 32.40% among SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant-positive individuals. The people who were vaccinated, young (median age < 20 years), had a travel history, and were infected outside of a clinical setting (community infection) had higher percentages of asymptomatic infections. Screening is required to prevent clustered epidemics or sustained community transmission caused by asymptomatic infections of Omicron variants, especially for countries and regions that have successfully controlled SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9321237PMC
June 2022

Identification and Characterization Roles of Phytoene Synthase () Genes in Watermelon Development.

Genes (Basel) 2022 Jul 1;13(7). Epub 2022 Jul 1.

College of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

Phytoene synthase () plays an essential role in carotenoid biosynthesis. In this study, three genes were identified through the watermelon genome, and their full-length cDNA sequences were cloned. The deduced proteins of the three genes were ranged from 355 to 421 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the are highly conserved with bottle gourd compared to other cucurbit crops PSY proteins. Variation in expression in watermelon with different flesh colors was observed; was most highly expressed in fruit flesh and associated with the flesh color formation. expression was much lower in the white-fleshed variety than the colored fruits. Gene expression analysis of genes in root, stem, leaf, flower, ovary and flesh of watermelon plants showed that the levels of transcripts found in leaves was higher than other tissues; was dominantly expressed in roots. Functional complementation assays of the three genes suggested that all of them could encode functional enzymes to synthesize the phytoene from Geranylgeranyl Pyrophosphate (GGPP). Some of the homologous genes clustered together in the phylogenetic tree and located in the synteny chromosome region seemed to have similar expression profiles among different cucurbit crops. The findings provide a foundation for watermelon flesh color breeding with regard to carotenoid synthesis and also provide an insight for the further research of watermelon flesh color formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes13071189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9324402PMC
July 2022

Fusion between Glioma Stem Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Malignant Progression in 3D-Bioprinted Models.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Aug 26;14(31):35344-35356. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Research and Engineering Center of Biomedical Materials, Anhui Provincial Institute of Translational Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, P. R. China.

The interaction between glioma stem cells (GSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the glioma microenvironment is considered to be an important factor in promoting tumor progression, but the mechanism is still not fully elucidated. To further elucidate the interaction between GSCs and MSCs, two 3D-bioprinted tumor models (low-temperature molding and coaxial bioprinting) were used to simulate the tumor growth microenvironment. Cell fusion between GSCs and MSCs was found by the method of Cre-LoxP switch gene and RFP/GFP dual-color fluorescence tracing. The fused cells coexpressed biomarkers of GSCs and MSCs, showing stronger proliferation, cloning, and invasion abilities than GSCs and MSCs. In addition, the fused cells have stronger tumorigenic properties in nude mice, showing the pathological features of malignant tumors. In conclusion, GSCs and MSCs undergo cell fusion in 3D-bioprinted models, and the fused cells have a higher degree of malignancy than parental cells, which promotes the progression of glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c06658DOI Listing
August 2022

Mechanical Insights into the Electrochemical Properties of Thornlike Micro-/Nanostructures of [email protected]@NMC Composites in Aqueous Zn Ion Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Aug 26;14(31):36079-36091. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan joint international laboratory of advanced materials and technology for clean energy, Changsha 410082, P. R. China.

As emerging energy storage devices, aqueous zinc ion batteries (AZIBs) with outstanding advantages of high safety, high energy density, and environmental friendliness have attracted much research interest. Herein, the favorable thornlike MnO micro-/nanostructures ([email protected]@NMC) are rationally constructed by the incorporation of both carbon substrates (NMC) and polydopamine (PDA) surface modifications. Ex situ X-ray diffraction and Raman characteristics show the formation of MnOOH and ZnMnO products, corresponding to H and Zn insertions in two discharge platforms. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations also demonstrate that PDA can firmly anchor onto MnO surfaces and prevent the dissolution of MnOOH. In addition, PDA with more hydrophilic groups can capture more H together with the increased surface capacitance and the extension of the first discharge platform, while the NMC carbon substrate can provide abundant active sites for the overgrown MnO nanowires, improve the conductivity, and promote fast ion and electron transportations. Further, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and GITT results show that the ohmic resistance of [email protected]@NMC decreases to almost half and, in particular, the ion diffusion coefficient increases more than 30 times of pure MnO. As such, [email protected]@NMC in the AZIB cathode exhibits excellent electrochemical performance compared to the pure MnO, which is expected to have favorable competitiveness in energy storage devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c06368DOI Listing
August 2022

Thermally Stable D2h Symmetric Donor-π-Donor Porphyrins as Hole-Transporting Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 Jul 26. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Chinese Academy of Sciences Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Xiamen Institute on Research of Rare earth Materials, West Yangqiao road, 361021, Fuzhou, CHINA.

A series of new D 2h symmetric porphyrins ( MDA4 , MTA4 , and MDA8 ) with donor-π-donor structures have been synthesized as the hole-transporting materials for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The novel porphyrin molecules feature a D 2h symmetrically substituted Zn(II) porphyrin core and two kinds of donor systems (diarylamine (DAA) and triarylamine (TAA)), which can regulate energy level, increase thermal stability, solubility, and hydrophobicity via long alkoxyl chains. PSC devices based on MDA4 as the HTM showed impressive power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of 22.67% under AM1.5G solar illumination. Notably, the device was sent for certification, and a PCE of 22.19% was reported, representing the highest PCE from porphyrin-based HTMs. Furthermore, the MDA4 -based PSCs showed excellent thermal stability under 60 °C and RH 60% and preserved 88% of initial performance after 360 hours. The strategy opens a new avenue for developing efficient and stable porphyrin HTMs for PSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202209365DOI Listing
July 2022

Gambogic acid suppresses the pentose phosphate pathway by covalently inhibiting 6PGD protein in cancer cells.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 Aug 9;58(64):9030-9033. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Artemisinin Research Center, and Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100700, China.

Whether or not the anticancer activity of gambogic acid is achieved regulating the cellular metabolic process remains unclear. Here we report that gambogic acid suppresses the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) by covalently inhibiting the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) protein. This study elucidates the mechanism of action of gambogic acid from the perspective of metabolic reprogramming regulation in cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cc03069aDOI Listing
August 2022

SMOC2 promotes an epithelial-mesenchymal transition and a pro-metastatic phenotype in epithelial cells of renal cell carcinoma origin.

Cell Death Dis 2022 Jul 22;13(7):639. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Département de Pharmacologie et Physiologie, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) is the most common form of all renal cancer cases, and well-known for its highly aggressive metastatic behavior. SMOC2 is a recently described non-structural component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that is highly expressed during tissue remodeling processes with emerging roles in cancers, yet its role in RCC remains elusive. Using gene expression profiles from patient samples, we identified SMOC2 as being significantly expressed in RCC tissue compared to normal renal tissue, which correlated with shorter RCC patient survival. Specifically, de novo protein synthesis of SMOC2 was shown to be much higher in the tubular epithelial cells of patients with biopsy-proven RCC. More importantly, we provide evidence of SMOC2 triggering kidney epithelial cells into an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a phenotype known to promote metastasis. We found that SMOC2 induced mesenchymal-like morphology and activities in both RCC and non-RCC kidney epithelial cell lines. Mechanistically, treatment of RCC cell lines ACHN and 786-O with SMOC2 (recombinant and enforced expression) caused a significant increase in EMT-markers, -matrix production, -proliferation, and -migration, which were inhibited by targeting SMOC2 by siRNA. We further characterized SMOC2 activation of EMT to occur through the integrin β3, FAK and paxillin pathway. The proliferation and metastatic potential of SMOC2 overexpressing ACHN and 786-O cell lines were validated in vivo by their significantly higher tumor growth in kidneys and systemic dissemination into other organs when compared to their respective controls. In principle, understanding the impact that SMOC2 has on EMT may lead to more evidence-based treatments and biomarkers for RCC metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-022-05059-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9307531PMC
July 2022

The AT(N) system for describing biological changes in Alzheimer's disease: a plain language summary.

Neurodegener Dis Manag 2022 07 22. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Eisai Inc., Neurology Business Group, Nutley, New Jersey, USA.

What Is This Summary About?: This is a plain language summary of an article published in . It explains how Alzheimer's disease is diagnosed. It also looks at whether a newer way to assess people with Alzheimer's disease could help improve how the condition is diagnosed, monitored, and treated.

Why Is This Important?: Alzheimer's disease is a long-term progressive brain disease that leads to difficulties with thinking and memory. It is a progressive condition, which means it gets worse over time. Biological changes occur in the brain of people with Alzheimer's disease. This includes a build-up of toxic protein clusters called amyloid plaques and tau tangles, gradual damage to the brain cells (neurodegeneration), and brain shrinkage due to loss of neurons. It is often due to multiple factors and doctors usually diagnose Alzheimer's disease by looking at a person's symptoms and ruling out other causes of dementia. However, research shows that people diagnosed in this way do not always have the biological changes in the brain that are related to Alzheimer's disease. This means that some people may be misdiagnosed. Additionally, there may be a delay in the appearance of Alzheimer's symptoms, by which point changes in the brain may be severe. For example, people with Alzheimer's disease show biological changes in the brain, years before symptoms appear.

What Are The Key Takeaways?: An assessment of biological changes in the brain, by measuring substances that indicate disease progress (biomarkers), may offer a fuller picture of a person's Alzheimer's disease, how advanced it is, and which treatments are likely to work best. A recently developed classification scheme known as the AT(N) system provides a way to assess and describe the biological changes in amyloid (A), tau (T), and neurodegeneration (N) that occur in people with Alzheimer's disease. The goal is to include biomarker testing in clinical practice to help physicians and practitioners diagnose, monitor, and treat people with Alzheimer's disease more effectively. The AT(N) system is being used for various purposes in clinical studies, and has the potential to assist physicians and practitioners in early detection, accurate diagnosis, staging, and treatment selection for people with Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nmt-2022-0013DOI Listing
July 2022

Viral evasion of PKR restriction by reprogramming cellular stress granules.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Jul 11;119(29):e2201169119. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, People's Republic of China.

Protein kinase R (PKR) is a critical host restriction factor against invading viral pathogens. However, this molecule is inactivated in the cells infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an economically devastating pathogen to the world swine industry. Here, we report that this event is to suppress cellular inflammation and is mediated by the viral replicase protein nsp1β. We show that nsp1β is a stress-responsive protein, enters virus-induced stress granules (SGs) during infection, and repurposes SGs into a proviral platform, where it co-opts the SG core component G3BP1 to interact with PKR in a regulated manner. RNA interference silencing of G3BP1 or mutation of specific nsp1β residues (VS19GG) can abolish the antagonization of PKR activation. The viral mutant carrying the corresponding mutations induces elevated level of PKR phosphorylation and pronounced production of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-6, and IL-8), whereas small-interfering RNA knockdown of PKR or treatment with C16, a PKR inhibitor, blocks this effect. Thus, PRRSV has evolved a unique strategy to evade PKR restriction to suppress host inflammatory responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2201169119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9303852PMC
July 2022

Organic Sulfonium-Stabilized High-Efficiency Cesium or Methylammonium Lead Bromide Perovskite Nanocrystals.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 Jul 19:e202209880. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

College of Materials and Fujian Key Laboratory of Materials Genome, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China.

Herein, we report a new X-type ligand, i.e., organic sulfonium bromide, for high-efficiency CsPbBr and MAPbBr (MA=methylammonium) perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs). We first confirmed the facile synthesis of the titled ligands in N,N-dimethylformamide at room temperature. By reacting dodecylmethylsulfide with allyl bromide, (3-bromopropyl)trimethoxysilane, and 1,4-dibromobutane, respectively, three representative ligands (named DAM, DSM, and DMM) are acquired. All of them result in CsPbBr and MAPbBr PNCs with near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and decent ambient stability (no less than 90 % PLQY after 2 months) using a room-temperature ligand-assisted reprecipitation technique. Among them, DSM and DMM endow CsPbBr PNCs with higher thermal/light stability arising from the cross-linkable or bidentate ligand structure. Further, DSM-CsPbBr PNCs can be incorporated into polystyrene through in situ thermal polymerization and the composite shows a record-high PLQY of 93.8 %.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202209880DOI Listing
July 2022

A review on the advances in the extraction methods and structure elucidation of Poria cocos polysaccharide and its pharmacological activities and drug carrier applications.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jul 16;217:536-551. Epub 2022 Jul 16.

Shandong First Medical University Affiliated Shandong Tumor Hospital and Institute: Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan 250117, China. Electronic address:

Poria cocos polysaccharide (PCP) is one of the main active components of Poria cocos that is extensively used in the world. PCP can be divided into intro-polysaccharides and exopolysaccharides. PCP is mainly composed of glucose, galactose and mannose. There are many methods to exact PCP, and methods can affect its yield. PCP and its derivatives exhibit diverse biological functions such as antitumour, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immune-regulatory, hepatoprotective, etc. There is the potential application of PCP as drug carriers. The review provides a comprehensive summary of the latest extraction and purification methods of PCP, its chemistry, synthesis of PCP derivates, their pharmacological activities and their applications as drug carriers. This review provides comprehensive information on PCP, which can be used as the basis for further research on PCP and its derivates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.07.070DOI Listing
July 2022

The Formation Mechanism of Impulse Buying in Short Video Scenario: Perspectives From Presence and Customer Inspiration.

Front Psychol 2022 28;13:870635. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

College English Department, School of Foreign Languages, Northwest University, Xi'an, China.

It has been found in many cases that consumers are prone to exhibit impulsive buying behavior that is manifested as being immediate, emotional, and irresponsible especially under short video scenario. Supported by the customer inspiration theory, this study explores the psychological mechanism underlying impulse purchase in short videos that differentiates the traditional web shopping by the strong sense of presence in short video marketing. On the basis of a questionnaire survey and three laboratory experiments, this study examines the relationship among presence, customer inspiration, and impulse purchase intention. The empirical results point to the fact that social presence, co-presence, and physical presence have significant positive effects on impulse purchase intention, and customer inspiration mediates the effect of social presence, physical presence, and co-presence on impulse purchase intention. Furthermore, it is indicated that social and co-presence have stronger influences on impulse purchase intention than physical presence, thus proving a stronger effect of social factors on impulse purchase intention than physical factors in short video environment. The research results testify the impact of presence on consumer behavior in the upgrading short video marketing and provide valuable reference for marketing strategies to shorten consumers' decision-making time in short video purchase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.870635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9275553PMC
June 2022

Comparison of twelve human milk oligosaccharides in mature milk from different areas in China in the Chinese Human Milk Project (CHMP) study.

Food Chem 2022 Nov 11;395:133554. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) act as a vital role in the development of infant's gut microbiome and immune function. This study aimed to measure 12 oligosaccharides in milk from Chinese donors (n = 203), and evaluated the influences of multiple factors on the HMOs profiles. The results indicated that concentrations of 6'-sialyllactose were the highest among 12 oligosaccharides (2.31 ± 0.81 g/L). HMOs concentrations varied depending on geographical location. Latitude was observed to be related to concentrations of Lacto-N-neohexaose, lacto-N-fucopentaose III, 3'-sialyllactose (r = -0.67, r = +0.63 and r = +0.50, respectively). Environmental factors like seasons correlated with lacto-N-difucohexaose Ⅱ, Lacto-N-neohexaose and 2'-fucosyllactose (r = -0.47, r = -0.4, r = -0.35, respectively). Several HMOs concentrations were correlated with maternal diet. As a consequence, the HMOs profiles measured were influenced by geographical, environmental, maternal anthropometric as well as dietary factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133554DOI Listing
November 2022

A deep learning-based system for survival benefit prediction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors in stage IV non-small cell lung cancer patients: A multicenter, prognostic study.

EClinicalMedicine 2022 Sep 1;51:101541. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

School of Health Management, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.

Background: For clinical decision making, it is crucial to identify patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who may benefit from tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). In this study, a deep learning-based system was designed and validated using pre-therapy computed tomography (CT) images to predict the survival benefits of EGFR-TKIs and ICIs in stage IV NSCLC patients.

Methods: This retrospective study collected data from 570 patients with stage IV EGFR-mutant NSCLC treated with EGFR-TKIs at five institutions between 2010 and 2021 (data of 314 patients were from a previously registered study), and 129 patients with stage IV NSCLC treated with ICIs at three institutions between 2017 and 2021 to build the ICI test dataset. Five-fold cross-validation was applied to divide the EGFR-TKI-treated patients from four institutions into training and internal validation datasets randomly in a ratio of 80%:20%, and the data from another institution was used as an external test dataset. An EfficientNetV2-based survival benefit prognosis (ESBP) system was developed with pre-therapy CT images as the input and the probability score as the output to identify which patients would receive additional survival benefit longer than the median PFS. Its prognostic performance was validated on the ICI test dataset. For diagnosing which patient would receive additional survival benefit, the accuracy of ESBP was compared with the estimations of three radiologists and three oncologists with varying degrees of expertise (two, five, and ten years). Improvements in the clinicians' diagnostic accuracy with ESBP assistance were then quantified.

Findings: ESBP achieved positive predictive values of 80·40%, 75·40%, and 77·43% for additional EGFR-TKI survival benefit prediction using the probability score of 0·2 as the threshold on the training, internal validation, and external test datasets, respectively. The higher ESBP score (>0·2) indicated a better prognosis for progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 0·36, 95% CI: 0·19-0·68, <0·0001) in patients on the external test dataset. Patients with scores >0·2 in the ICI test dataset also showed better survival benefit (hazard ratio: 0·33, 95% CI: 0·18-0·55, <0·0001). This suggests the potential of ESBP to identify the two subgroups of benefiting patients by decoding the commonalities from pre-therapy CT images (stage IV EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients receiving additional survival benefit from EGFR-TKIs and stage IV NSCLC patients receiving additional survival benefit from ICIs). ESBP assistance improved the diagnostic accuracy of the clinicians with two years of experience from 47·91% to 66·32%, and the clinicians with five years of experience from 53·12% to 61·41%.

Interpretation: This study developed and externally validated a preoperative CT image-based deep learning model to predict the survival benefits of EGFR-TKI and ICI therapies in stage IV NSCLC patients, which will facilitate optimized and individualized treatment strategies.

Funding: This study received funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (82001904, 81930053, and 62027901), and Key-Area Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province (2021B0101420005).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9256845PMC
September 2022

The Interaction Between Dietary Fructose and Gut Microbiota in Hyperuricemia and Gout.

Front Nutr 2022 22;9:890730. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

With the worldwide epidemics of hyperuricemia and associated gout, the diseases with purine metabolic disorders have become a serious threat to human public health. Accumulating evidence has shown that they have been linked to increased consumption of fructose in humans, we hereby made a timely review on the roles of fructose intake and the gut microbiota in regulating purine metabolism, together with the potential mechanisms by which excessive fructose intake contributes to hyperuricemia and gout. To this end, we focus on the understanding of the interaction between a fructose-rich diet and the gut microbiota in hyperuricemia and gout to seek for safe, cheap, and side-effect-free clinical interventions. Furthermore, fructose intake recommendations for hyperuricemia and gout patients, as well as the variety of probiotics and prebiotics with uric acid-lowering effects targeting the intestinal tract are also summarized to provide reference and guidance for the further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.890730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9257186PMC
June 2022

Novel anilinopyrimidine derivatives as potential EGFR Inhibitors: Design, Synthesis, biological activity study.

Bioorg Med Chem 2022 Sep 5;70:116907. Epub 2022 Jul 5.

Jiangsu Province Hi-Tech Key Laboratory for Bio-medical Research and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China. Electronic address:

EGFR is an important target for the development of new generation of EGFR kinase inhibitors without drug resistance. In this work, a series of anilinopyrimidine derivatives that targeting EGFR were designed, synthesized, and evaluated in vitro for the inhibitory effect on triple mutations kinases and cell lines. Based on the pharmacology data, the anilinopyrimidine derivatives showed high inhibitory activity on triple mutations kinases (EGFR and EGFR) as well as the cell line Ba/F3 with highly expression of EGFR. In addition, the anilinopyrimidine derivatives had a more than 50-fold selectivity towards EGFR as compared with EGFR. In vivo antitumor activity test also indicated that 8j had good pharmacokinetic parameters, low toxicity and better inhibitory activity. Overall, the anilinopyrimidine derivatives could be regarded as promising candidates for the further development of novel EGFR inhibitors for clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2022.116907DOI Listing
September 2022

Late Miocene Tarim desert wetting linked with eccentricity minimum and East Asian monsoon weakening.

Nat Commun 2022 Jul 8;13(1):3977. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Xinjiang Research Center for Mineral Resources, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, China.

Periodic wetting is an inherent feature of many monsoon marginal region deserts. Previous studies consistently demonstrate desert wetting during times of Earth's high orbital eccentricity and strong summer monsoon. Here we report the first evidence demonstrating desert wetting during Earth's low orbital eccentricity from the late Miocene strata of the northwestern Tarim Basin of northern China, which is commonly thought to be beyond the range of Asian monsoon precipitation. Using mechanisms for modern Tarim wetting as analogs, we propose that East Asian summer monsoon weakening enhanced westward moisture transport and caused opposite desert wetting pattern to that observed in monsoon marginal region deserts. This inference is supported by our model simulations. This result has far-reaching implications for understanding environmental variations in non-monsoonal deserts in the next few thousands of years under high atmospheric CO content and low eccentricity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31577-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9270403PMC
July 2022

Melon shoot organization 1, encoding an AGRONAUTE7 protein, plays a crucial role in plant development.

Theor Appl Genet 2022 Aug 8;135(8):2875-2890. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops (North China), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing Vegetable Research Center, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing, 100097, China.

Key Message: A melon gene MSO1 located on chromosome 10 by map-based cloning strategy, which encodes an ARGONAUTE 7 protein, is responsible for the development of shoot organization. Plant endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) are involved in various plant developmental processes. In Arabidopsis, sRNAs combined with ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which functions in RNA silencing or biogenesis of trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs). However, their roles in melon (Cucumis melo L.) are still unclear. Here, the melon shoot organization 1 (mso1) mutant was identified and shown to exhibit pleiotropic phenotypes in leaf morphology and plant architecture. Positional cloning of MSO1 revealed that it encodes a homologue of Arabidopsis AGO7/ZIPPY, which is required for the production of ta-siRNAs. The AG-to-C mutation in the second exon of MSO1 caused a frameshift mutation and significantly reduced its expression. Ectopic expression of MSO1 rescued the Arabidopsis ago7 phenotype. RNA-seq analysis showed that several genes involved in transcriptional regulation and plant hormones were significantly altered in mso1 compared to WT. A total of 304 and 231 miRNAs were identified in mso1 and WT by sRNA sequencing, respectively, and among them, 42 known and ten novel miRNAs were differentially expressed. cme-miR390a significantly accumulated, and the expression levels of the two ta-siRNAs were almost completely abolished in mso1. Correspondingly, their targets, the ARF3 and ARF4 genes, showed dramatically upregulated expression, indicating that the miR390-TAS3-ARF pathway has conserved roles in melon. These findings will help us better understand the molecular mechanisms of MSO1 in plant development in melon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-022-04156-2DOI Listing
August 2022
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