Publications by authors named "Peng Cao"

647 Publications

Household financial literacy and relative poverty: An analysis of the psychology of poverty and market participation.

Front Psychol 2022 22;13:898486. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

School of Mathematics and Statistics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.

Financial literacy is the significant human capital factor affecting people's ability to obtain financial services. Evaluating the relationship between financial literacy and relative poverty is of great significance to poverty reduction. This study investigated the impacts of financial literacy on relative poverty from the perspective of poverty psychology and market participation using data from the 2017, 2019 China Household Finance Survey (CHFS). The empirical findings showed that financial literacy can alleviate relative household poverty through household participation in entrepreneurial activities, commercial insurance participation and the choice of lending channels. Financial literacy has significant poverty reduction effect on households of continuous operation, reduces the likelihood of exiting operation. Further discussion showed that the poverty reduction effect of financial literacy is more pronounced among households with higher levels of financial literacy, under the age of sixty, low levels of indebtedness and in the eastern region. Our study provides empirical evidence for encouraging market participation and promoting financial literacy and provide valuable recommendations for the policymaker to improve poverty reduction effect in the developing country context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.898486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355557PMC
July 2022

Ancient DNA traces a Chinese 5400-year-old cat specimen as leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis).

J Genet Genomics 2022 Jul 31. Epub 2022 Jul 31.

Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100044, China; University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgg.2022.07.005DOI Listing
July 2022

Qingchang Wenzhong Decoction Prevents the Occurrence of Intestinal Tumors by Regulating Intestinal Microbiota and Gasdermin E.

Front Physiol 2022 14;13:917323. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Affiliated Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Intestinal tumors are the third most common malignant tumors worldwide, accounting for approximately 10% of all new cancer cases worldwide. Cancer prevention is a promising way to limit the intestinal tumor incidence rate; however, challenges remain. Qingchang Wenzhong decoction (QCWZD) can clinically treat mild to moderate ulcerative colitis symptoms. Moreover, the mechanism by which it prevents intestinal tumors has not been clarified. In this study, we explored the mechanism by which QCWZD prevents the occurrence of intestinal tumors. To study the preventive mechanism of QCWZD on intestinal tumors, we used two model mice with azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)- and Apc-induced intestinal tumor formation. The two models exhibited colitis-associated cancer and familial adenomatous polyposis, respectively. Colon and small intestine tissues were collected and analyzed based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry analyses. Fecal samples were collected, and 16S rRNA sequencing was used to analyze the correlation between intestinal microbiota and the prevention of intestinal tumors. In the AOM/DSS mice, the QCWZD reduced the number and size of tumors, as well as tumor load. Similarly, in the Apc mice, QCWZD can also reduce the number of tumors and the tumor load. The results of 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed that QCWZD altered the composition of intestinal microbiota in mice, a phenomenon that may prevent the occurrence of intestinal tumors by aiding the increase in the abundance of beneficial bacteria, such as and , and reducing that of pathogenic bacteria, such as and , in the intestine. Further, immunohistochemistry reveald that QCWZD can improve the expression of intestinal barrier-related proteins and inhibit pyroptosis-related proteins. QCWZD has the potential to prevent the occurrence of intestinal tumors. The anti-tumor activity may be achieved by regulating the intestinal microbiota, improving the function of the intestinal barrier, and inhibiting GSDME mediated pyroptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.917323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9329543PMC
July 2022

Microglial Engulfment of Spines in the Ventral Zona Incerta Regulates Anxiety-Like Behaviors in a Mouse Model of Acute Pain.

Front Cell Neurosci 2022 14;16:898346. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Stroke Center and Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Although activation of microglial cells is critical in developing brain disorders, their role in anxiety-like behaviors in pain is still vague. This study indicates that alteration of microglia's neuronal spine engulfment capacity in ventral zona incerta (ZI ) leads to significant pain and anxiety-like behaviors in mice 1-day post-injection of Complete Freud's Adjuvant (CFA1D). Performing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in GABAergic neurons in the ZI (ZI ) in brain slices, we observed decreased activity in ZIv and reduced frequency of the miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in ZI of CFA1D mice compared with the saline1D mice. Besides, chemogenetic activation of ZI significantly relieved pain and anxiety-like behaviors in CFA1D mice. Conversely, in naïve mice, chemogenetic inhibition of ZI induced pain and anxiety-like behaviors. Interestingly, we found changes in the density and morphology of ZI and increased microglial engulfment of spines in ZI of CFA1D mice. Furthermore, pain sensitization and anxiety-like behaviors were reversed when the ZI of CFA1D-treated mice were chemically inhibited by intra-ZI minocycline injection, accompanied by the recovery of decreased ZI excitability. Conclusively, our results provide novel insights that dysregulation of microglial engulfment capacity encodes maladaptation of ZI , thus promoting the development of anxiety-like behaviors in acute pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2022.898346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9337222PMC
July 2022

Research on Mechanical Behavior of the Steel-Concrete-Steel Composite Structures Subjected to High Temperature of Fire.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jul 13;15(14). Epub 2022 Jul 13.

National Engineering Research Center of Road Tunnel, Ltd., Chongqing 400067, China.

A new type of steel-concrete-steel composite structure was adopted and widely used in the immersed tunnel of the Shenzhen-Zhongshan access. The research on the mechanical behavior of the new composite structure under a high temperature of fire is of great engineering significance to the fire protection design of the structure. Both the model test and a numerical simulation were adopted to study the mechanical behavior and damage characteristics of the new composite structure under fire. The RABT standard temperature rise curve was used to simulate the temperature rising law under fire (it reflects the characteristics of temperature rise in case of fire in an enclosed environment: rapidly raised to 1200 °C within 5 min, maintained at 1200 °C for 120 min, then it is cooled to normal temperature after 110 min). The temperature distribution law inside the structure, the deformation development law of the roof and the crack distribution were analyzed based on the thermal-mechanical coupling analysis method. The results showed that the internal part of the composite structure close to the fire surface was directly affected by the high temperature, and the temperature presented a step distribution law, while the part far from the fire surface was affected by the lag effect of the temperature transfer, and the temperature presented a continuous growth law. The roof deformation presented a three-stage model of "rapid growth-deformation stability-deformation recovery" with time. The overall cracks of the composite structure showed a symmetrical distribution under fire. The composite structure presented a shear failure mode as a whole. The results could provide a reference for the study of fire resistance for the new composite structure and support the structural fire protection design of the immersed tunnel of the Shenzhen-Zhongshan access.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15144872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9321933PMC
July 2022

TGF-β Enhances Immunosuppression of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells to Induce Transplant Immune Tolerance Through Affecting Arg-1 Expression.

Front Immunol 2022 7;13:919674. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Department of Urology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a class of heterogeneous myeloid cells, which play an important role in immunosuppression. We intended to find an effective method that can produce MDSCs with significantly better efficiency and promote immune tolerance for transplant rejection through cell therapy. It has been reported that granulocyte and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) could induce MDSCs to cause immunosuppression. In the present study, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) was added to the induction system, and flow cytometry analysis was used to detect the phenotypes of induced MDSCs. Their potential immunosuppressive function and mechanisms were determined by co-culturing MDSCs with stimulated T cells and transferring MDSCs to the skin grafted C57BL/6J mouse models . It was found that the addition of TGF-β could effectively cause bone marrow cells to differentiate into a group of cells with stronger immunosuppressive functions, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of stimulated T cells. The population of CD11bGr-1 MDSCs also increased significantly as compared with GM-CSF alone treatment. While detecting for immunosuppressive effectors, we found that expression of arginase 1 (Arg-1) was significantly upregulated in these MDSCs, and inhibitor of Arg-1 significantly suppressed their immunosuppressive capabilities. Moreover, an adoptive transfer of these cells significantly prolonged survival of allo-skin and improved immune tolerance . These findings indicated that TGF-β + GM-CSF could serve as an effective and feasible method to induce powerful immunosuppressive MDSCs . Thus, TGF-β + GM-CSF-induced MDSCs may have a promising role in prevention of the graft rejection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.919674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9300822PMC
July 2022

Systemic pharmacological verification of Guizhi Fuling decoction in treating endometriosis-associated pain.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Jul 20;297:115540. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Affiliated Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Guizhi Fuling decoction (GZFL decoction) is a famous formula in the Synopsis of the Golden Chamber, which has a long history in treating endometriosis. However, its exact mechanism remains unclear.

Aim Of Study: This study aims to explore the mechanism of GZFL decoction in treating endometriosis, especially in alleviating endometriosis-associated pain.

Materials And Methods: A combination of system pharmacology and pharmacodynamics was used to explore the specific mechanism of GZFL decoction in the treatment of endometriosis-associated pain. First, the TCMSP database was used to search the components of the GZFL decoction; the parameter index was set as oral bioavailability (OB) ≥ 30% and drug-likeness (DL) ≥ 0.18, while the active ingredients of the drug were screened out. The disease targets of endometriosis were obtained from the TTD, OMIM, Genecards, and DisGeNET databases; the keyword was "endometriosis pain". Network construction and analysis were performed using Cytoscape 3.7.2 software; the David database was used to enrich and analyze the pathways for alleviating endometriosis pain after GZFL decoction treatment. In addition, the network results were verified using experimental animal and cell research.

Results: The results showed the following targets: 76 for the effective chemical components in the prescription, 1329 for disease pain, and 278 for the intersection of drugs and endometriosis pain. The enrichment results for these targets showed that the TNF-PI3K/Akt pathway exhibited research significance. In endometriosis rat models, the GZFL decoction reduced the volume of lesions and relieved pain symptoms. It also reduced the serum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α as well as their expression in the lesion tissues. The GZFL decoction also suppressed the activation of PI3K/Akt downstream signaling proteins.

Conclusions: GZFL decoction could reduce the volume of lesions, suppress inflammation, and decrease the sensitivity to pain in endometriosis rat models through inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathway. This study provides a possible target for traditional Chinese medicine in treating endometriosis-associated pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2022.115540DOI Listing
July 2022

High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy versus noninvasive ventilation for patients with blunt chest trauma: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2022 Jul 19;23(1):570. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Clinical Medical College of Yangzhou University, Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital, Yangzhou, 225001, China.

Background: High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) is recommended by some scholars as an optimized respiratory support method for blunt chest trauma (BCT) patients. The basis of this recommendation is limited, however, and the efficacy of HFNC or noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in BCT patients has not yet been rigorously explored. This study aims to determine if HFNC is non-inferior to NIV in reducing treatment failure in moderate to severe BCT patients with acute respiratory failure.

Methods: This will be a prospective, open-label, multicenter, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial. Moderate to severe BCT patients with acute respiratory failure (100mmHg < PaO/FiO ≦ 200mmHg) who do not need immediate intubation will be randomized to HFNC or NIV within 48 h after trauma. The primary outcome is treatment failure, defined as invasive ventilation or a switch in respiratory support modality (from HFNC to NIV or vice-versa). Secondary outcomes include arterial blood gas analysis and vital signs at 2 and 12 h after initiating HFNC or NIV treatment, as well as patients' comfort scores, dyspnea scores, daily number of nursing airway care interventions, incidence of pneumonia or pneumothorax, facial skin breakdown, duration of NIV or HFNC, 28-day mortality, and total ICU and hospital lengths of stay. Based on an α error of 5% and a β error of 80%, with a non-inferiority limit of 9%, a sample size of 562 will be required to accomplish the trial goal, considering potential patient dropouts and nonparametric analysis.

Discussion: We hypothesize that HFNC will be non-inferior to NIV in reducing treatment failure in moderate to severe BCT with acute respiratory failure. The results should be useful for judging whether HFNC could be an effective alternative to NIV to treat moderate to severe BCT patients, especially for those who do not tolerate or have contraindications for NIV.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR1800017313 . Registered on July 24, 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-022-06507-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9295083PMC
July 2022

Efficacy and safety of thoracoscopic resection for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

Am J Transl Res 2022 15;14(6):4024-4032. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan 430030, Hubei, China.

Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of thoracoscopic resection for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: A total of 110 patients with early-stage NSCLC admitted to Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology between August 2017 and December 2019 were enrolled and retrospectively analysed. Among them, 60 patients receiving thoracoscopic resection for lung cancer (LC) were assigned to the research group (Res group) and another 50 patients treated with routine open radical resection for LC were included in the control group (Con group). The following items of the two groups were evaluated and compared: treatment efficacy, operation indexes, VAS score, lung function, lung capacity, complications, 2-year tumour-free survival rate, 2-year survival rate, and quality of life (QoL).

Results: The Res group showed significantly better efficacy, and lower incidence of complications and VAS score than the Con group. In addition, patients in the Res group experienced less intraoperative blood loss, earlier anal exhaust, shorter hospital stay and indwelling time of drainage tube as well as less drainage volume. Furthermore, better recovery in pulmonary function and lung capacity, and significantly higher 2-year tumour-free survival rate, 2-year survival rate as well as postoperative QoL were noted in the Res group compared with the Con group.

Conclusion: Thoracoscopic resection for LC is effective in the treatment of patients with early-stage NSCLC. It can substantially shorten the hospital stay and indwelling time of drainage tube and reduce drainage volume and blood loss, with high safety.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9274577PMC
June 2022

Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Cancers From the Metabolomics Perspective.

Front Pharmacol 2022 27;13:909755. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Gastrointestinal cancer (GIC), primarily including colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, and esophageal cancer, is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths with increasing prevalence and poor prognosis. Medicinal plants have been shown to be a great resource for the treatment of GIC. Due to their complex manifestations of multi-component and multi-target, the underlying mechanisms how they function against GIC remain to be completely deciphered. Cell metabolism is of primary importance in the initialization and development of GIC, which is reported to be a potential target. As an essential supplement to the newest "omics" sciences, metabolomics focuses on the systematic study of the small exogenous and endogenous metabolites involved in extensive biochemical metabolic pathways of living system. In good agreement with the systemic perspective of medicinal plants, metabolomics offers a new insight into the efficacy assessment and action mechanism investigation of medicinal plants as adjuvant therapeutics for GIC therapy. In this review, the metabolomics investigations on metabolism-targeting therapies for GIC in the recent 10 years were systematically reviewed from five aspects of carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, and nucleotide metabolisms, as well as other altered metabolisms (microbial metabolism, inflammation, and oxidation), with particular attention to the potential of active compounds, extracts, and formulae from medicinal plants. Meanwhile, the current perspectives and future challenges of metabolism-targeting therapies of medicinal plants for GIC were also discussed. In conclusion, the understanding of the action mechanisms of medicinal plants in GIC from the metabolomics perspective will contribute to the clinical application of potential candidates from the resourceful medicinal plants as novel and efficient adjuvant therapeutics for GIC therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.909755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9271783PMC
June 2022

The relationship between public service motivation and turnover intention: the mediating role of work stress and task performance.

Environ Health Prev Med 2022 ;27(0):31

School of Public Health, Jilin University.

Background: The shortage of health care workforce is a common problem all over the world and one of the main reasons for the shortage is the high turnover rate. Based on the characteristics of medical work, this study explored the relationship among public service motivation (PSM), work stress, task performance and turnover intention.

Methods: Medical personnel in public hospitals were selected by stratified random sampling in Jilin province of China and validated scales from previous studies were applied to measure the variables. Besides, a structural equation model of turnover intention was constructed to demonstrate the relationship.

Results: A total of 3191 valid questionnaires were collected. The results showed that the score of turnover intention was 2.02 ± 1.13. There are significant differences in turnover intention among medical staff of different genders and departments. At the same time, PSM had direct and negative effects on the turnover intention (β = -0.292, P < 0.001), work stress had direct and positive effects on the turnover intention (β = 0.479, P < 0.001), whereas task performance had no significant effect on turnover intention (β = 0.044, P < 0.142). The results showed an acceptable fit model.

Conclusion: The greater the PSM, the lower the turnover intention, and the higher the work stress, the higher the turnover intention. In addition, work stress and task performance play a mediating role between PSM and turnover intention. This paper provides theoretical support for the measures to reduce the turnover intention of medical staff.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1265/ehpm.22-00045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9283907PMC
July 2022

Nickel-Catalyzed Three-Component Cross-Electrophile Coupling of 1,3-Dienes with Aldehydes and Aryl Bromides.

Org Lett 2022 07 13;24(28):5023-5028. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu 610066, People's Republic of China.

We herein report a Ni-catalyzed three-component cross-electrophile coupling of 1,3-dienes with aldehydes and aryl bromides using manganese metal as the reducing agent. This efficient protocol accomplishes dicarbofunctionalization of 1,3-dienes to synthesize diverse structural 1,4-disubstituted homoallylic alcohols by forming two new C-C bonds in one time. Mechanistic study suggests that an allyl-nickel(I) species is involved in the catalytic cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.2c01648DOI Listing
July 2022

Knockdown of hnRNPA1 Promotes NSCLC Metastasis and EMT by Regulating Alternative Splicing of LAS1L exon 9.

Front Oncol 2022 23;12:837248. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Tumor metastasis is still an insurmountable obstacle in tumor treatment. Lung cancer represents one of the most common malignancies with high morbidity worldwide. hnRNPA1 has been reported to be involved in the regulation of tumor metastasis, while its specific role in tumor metastasis seems to be controversial and its molecular mechanism in lung cancer metastasis remains to be further elucidated. In this study, we confirmed that knockdown of the hnRNPA1 led to enhanced migration, invasion and EMT transition in lung cancer cells. Bioinformatics analysis of the GSE34992 dataset revealed that hnRNPA1 may regulate the alternative splicing (AS) of LAS1L exon 9. Further AGE assays and RIP assays revealed that hnRNPA1 can directly bind to the LAS1L pre-mRNA to inhibit the splicing of LAS1L exon 9. The RNA pull-down assays showed that hnRNPA1 can specifically bind to the two sites (UAGGGU(WT1) and UGGGGU(WT3)) of LAS1L Intron 9. Further Transwell assays indicated that the expression ratio of LAS1L-L/LAS1L-S regulated by hnRNPA1 can further promote the migration, invasion and EMT transition in lung cancer cells. Moreover, hnRNPA1 expression showed significant heterogeneity in lung cancer tissues, which may contain new research directions and potential therapeutic targets. Our results indicate that hnRNPA1 can affect the metastasis of lung cancer cells by modulating the AS of LAS1L exon 9, highlighting the potential significance of hnRNPA1 in lung cancer metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.837248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9260696PMC
June 2022

Biochemical and structural characterization of a KTSC family single-stranded DNA-binding protein from Euryarchaea.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jul 7;216:618-628. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 West Beichen Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:

The lysine (K) tRNA synthetase C-terminal (KTSC) domain containing proteins are widely spread in Bacteria, Archaea and Viruses, but the function of this short domain is unclear. The occurrence of the fusion of KTSC domain to a catalytic domain or domains related to DNA or RNA metabolisms suggests its potential role in DNA or RNA binding. Here, we report the characterization of Mvu8s from Methanolobus vulcani, which consists of a single KTSC domain. Mvu8s binds specifically to ssDNA with an affinity approximately 40- and 10-fold higher than those for dsDNA and ssRNA in vitro, respectively. It shows a slight preference to the G-rich DNA sequence but barely binds the A-stretch. Crystal structure of Mvu8s shows that it forms a homo-tetramer, with each monomer composed of a four-strand antiparallel β-sheet and a helix-turn-helix in the order of β1-β2-β3-α1-α2-β4. Four basic residues (R3, R7, K54 and K58) were found to serve important roles in ssDNA-binding. And, the spiral arrangement of the DNA interfaces in Mvu8s homo-tetramer presumably results in ssDNA wrapping. Our results not only offer clues of the functions of the KTSC domain containing proteins but also expand our knowledge on the non-oligonucleotide-binding (OB) fold single-stranded DNA-binding proteins in Archaea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.07.015DOI Listing
July 2022

Modeling global and local label correlation with graph convolutional networks for multi-label chest X-ray image classification.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2022 Jul 4. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

Alberta Machine Intelligence Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

The diagnosis of chest diseases is a challenging task for assessing thousands of radiology subjects. Their diagnosis decisions heavily rely on the expert radiologists' manual annotations. It is important to develop automated analysis methods for the computer-aided diagnosis of chest diseases on chest radiography. To explore the label relationship and improve the diagnosis performance, we present an end-to-end multi-label learning framework for jointly modeling the global and local label correlation, called GL-MLL that (1) explores the label correlation from a globally static view and a locally adaptive view, (2) considers the imbalanced class distribution, and (3) focuses on capturing label-specific features in image-level representation. We validate the performance of the proposed framework on the CheXpert dataset. The results demonstrate that the proposed GL-MLL outperforms state-of-the-art approaches. The code is available at https://github.com/llt1836/GL-MLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11517-022-02604-1DOI Listing
July 2022

Rituximab, Omalizumab, and Dupilumab Treatment Outcomes in Bullous Pemphigoid: A Systematic Review.

Front Immunol 2022 13;13:928621. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Dermatology, Tianjin Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune subepidermal bullous disease of the skin. First-line treatment of systemic corticosteroids may cause serious adverse events. Rituximab, omalizumab, and dupilumab should be explored as alternative treatment options to improve outcomes.

Objective: To systematically review the rituximab, omalizumab, and dupilumab treatment outcomes in bullous pemphigoid.

Methods: A PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library search were conducted on March 10, 2022. A total of 75 studies were included using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines.

Results: Use of rituximab (n=122), omalizumab (n=53) and dupilumab (n=36) were reported in 211 patients with BP. Rituximab led to complete remission in 70.5% (n=86/122) and partial remission in 23.8% (n=29/122) of patients within 5.7 months, with a recurrence rate of 20.5% (n=25/122). 9.0% (n=11/122) of patients died and infection (6.6%, n=8/122) was the most common adverse event. Omalizumab led to complete remission in 67.9% (n=36/53) and partial remission in 20.8% (n=11/53) of patients within 6.6 months, with a recurrence rate of 5.7% (n=3/53). 1.9% (n=1/53) of patients died and thrombocytopenia (1.9%, n=1/53) was observed as the most common adverse event. Dupilumab led to complete remission in 66.7% (n=24/36) and partial remission in 19.4% (n=7/36) of patients within 4.5 months of treatment without any reported adverse events, with a recurrence rate of 5.6% (n=2/36).

Conclusions: Rituximab, omalizumab, and dupilumab have similar clinical benefits for BP patients. However, rituximab resulted in higher recurrence rates, adverse events, and mortality rates.

Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, identifier CRD42022316454.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.928621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9235912PMC
July 2022

PbrCalS5, a callose synthase protein, is involved in pollen tube growth in Pyrus bretschneideri.

Planta 2022 Jun 29;256(2):22. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Centre of Pear Engineering Technology Research, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

Main Conclusion: Identification of CalS genes in seven Rosaceae species and functional characterization of PbrCalS5 in pear pollen tube growth by regulating callose deposition. Callose exists widely in angiosperms and has significant functions in a range of developmental processes. Callose is synthesized by callose synthase (CalS). However, the members of the callose synthase gene family and their evolutionary profiles, along with their biological functions, in species of the Rosaceae remain unknown. In this study, a total of 69 members of the CalS gene family in seven Rosaceae species (Fragaria vesca, Malus × domestica, Prunus avium, Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus mume, Prunus persica and Rubus occidentalis) were identified and divided into six clades. Different types of gene duplication events contributed to the expansions of the CalS gene family in the seven species, with purifying selection playing a key role in the evolution of the CalS genes. Tissue-specific expression patterns analysis revealed that PbrCalS5 was highly expressed in the pear pollen tube and was selected for further functional analysis. Subcellular localization indicated that PbrCalS5 was localized in the plasma membrane and cell wall. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN) assays resulted in the inhibition of PbrCalS5 expression, leading to the decreased callose deposition in the pollen tube wall and subsequent inhibition of pear pollen tube growth. These results provide the theoretical basis for exploring the functional roles of CalS genes in pear pollen tube growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-022-03931-1DOI Listing
June 2022

Vessel filtering and segmentation of coronary CT angiographic images.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Key Laboratory of Intelligent Computing in Medical Image, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.

Purpose: Coronary artery segmentation in coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) images plays a crucial role in diagnosing cardiovascular diseases. However, due to the complexity of coronary CTA images and coronary structure, it is difficult to automatically segment coronary arteries accurately and efficiently from numerous coronary CTA images.

Method: In this study, an automatic method based on symmetrical radiation filter (SRF) and D-means is presented. The SRF, which is applied to the three orthogonal planes, is designed to filter the suspicious vessel tissue according to the features of gradient changes on vascular boundaries to segment coronary arteries accurately and reduce computational cost. Additionally, the D-means local clustering is proposed to be embedded into vessel segmentation to eliminate noise impact in coronary CTA images.

Results: The results of the proposed method were compared against the manual delineations in 210 coronary CTA data sets. The average values of true positive, false positive, Jaccard measure, and Dice coefficient were [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text], respectively. Moreover, comparing the delineated data sets and public data sets showed that the proposed method is better than the related methods.

Conclusion: The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can perform complete, robust, and accurate segmentation of coronary arteries with low computational cost. Therefore, the proposed method is proven effective in vessel segmentation of coronary CTA images without extensive training data and can meet clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11548-022-02655-7DOI Listing
June 2022

A promising Prognostic risk model for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with immune-related genes.

BMC Cancer 2022 Jun 23;22(1):691. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Urology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a third most common tumor of the urinary system. Nowadays, Immunotherapy is a hot topic in the treatment of solid tumors, especially for those tumors with pre-activated immune state.

Methods: In this study, we downloaded genomic and clinical data of RCC samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Four immune-related genetic signatures were used to predict the prognosis of RCC by Cox regression analysis. Then we established a prognostic risk model consisting of the genes most related to prognosis from four signatures to value prognosis of the RCC samples via Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival analysis. An independent data from International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) database were used to test the predictive stability of the model. Furthermore, we performed landscape analysis to assess the difference of gene mutant in the RCC samples from TCGA. Finally, we explored the correlation between the selected genes and the level of tumor immune infiltration via Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) platform.

Results: We used four genetic signatures to construct prognostic risk models respectively and found that each of the models could divide the RCC samples into high- and low-risk groups with significantly different prognosis, especially in advanced RCC. A comprehensive prognostic risk model was constructed by 8 candidate genes from four signatures (HLA-B, HLA-A, HLA-DRA, IDO1, TAGAP, CIITA, PRF1 and CD8B) dividing the advanced RCC samples from TCGA database into high-risk and low-risk groups with a significant difference in cancer-specific survival (CSS). The stability of the model was verified by independent data from ICGC database. And the classification efficiency of the model was stable for the samples from different subgroups. Landscape analysis showed that mutation ratios of some genes were different between two risk groups. In addition, the expression levels of the selected genes were significantly correlated with the infiltration degree of immune cells in the advanced RCC.

Conclusions: Sum up, eight immune-related genes were screened in our study to construct prognostic risk model with great predictive value for the prognosis of advanced RCC, and the genes were associated with infiltrating immune cells in tumors which have potential to conduct personalized treatment for advanced RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-022-09755-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9229885PMC
June 2022

Qualitative Distribution of Endogenous Cholesteryl Esters in Plasma of Humans and Three Rodent Species Using Stepwise UPLC-Q-Exactive-MS.

Curr Med Sci 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Objective: Cholesteryl esters (CEs) are composed of various fatty acyl chains attached to the hydroxyl groups of cholesterol, and abnormalities in their metabolism are related to many diseases. This study aimed to develop an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole exactive mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive MS) method to identify the CEs in plasma.

Methods: First, the MS fragmentation patterns were investigated using seven commercial CE standards. Then, the CEs in plasma were characterized through the accurate mass data of precursor ions and characteristic product ions. A strategy of step-by-step m/z scans in a narrow range was proposed to identify more trace CEs by the full-scan data-dependent MS/MS (ddMS2) mode.

Results: A total of 50 CE species consisting of 55 regioisomers were identified in human plasma. Among them, two species were reported for the first time.

Conclusion: This study is the most comprehensive identification of CE species in human plasma to date. These results will contribute to the in-depth profiling of CEs in human plasma and provide guidance for animal model selection when studying lipid-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-022-2577-5DOI Listing
June 2022

Deep learning for emergency ascites diagnosis using ultrasonography images.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2022 Jul 20;23(7):e13695. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Purpose: The detection of abdominal free fluid or hemoperitoneum can provide critical information for clinical diagnosis and treatment, particularly in emergencies. This study investigates the use of deep learning (DL) for identifying peritoneal free fluid in ultrasonography (US) images of the abdominal cavity, which can help inexperienced physicians or non-professional people in diagnosis. It focuses specifically on first-response scenarios involving focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) technique.

Methods: A total of 2985 US images were collected from ascites patients treated from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2017 at the Shenzhen Second People's Hospital. The data were categorized as Ascites-1, Ascites-2, or Ascites-3, based on the surrounding anatomy. A uniform standard for regions of interest (ROIs) and the lack of obstruction from acoustic shadow was used to classify positive samples. These images were then divided into training (90%) and test (10%) datasets to evaluate the performance of a U-net model, utilizing an encoder-decoder architecture and contracting and expansive paths, developed as part of the study.

Results: Test results produced sensitivity and specificity values of 94.38% and 68.13%, respectively, in the diagnosis of Ascites-1 US images, with an average Dice coefficient of 0.65 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.21). Similarly, the sensitivity and specificity for Ascites-2 were 97.12% and 86.33%, respectively, with an average Dice coefficient of 0.79 (SD = 0.14). The accuracy and area under the curve (AUC) were 81.25% and 0.76 for Ascites-1 and 91.73% and 0.91 for Ascites-2.

Conclusion: The results produced by the U-net demonstrate the viability of DL for automated ascites diagnosis. This suggests the proposed technique could be highly valuable for improving FAST-based preliminary diagnoses, particularly in emergency scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acm2.13695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9278686PMC
July 2022

Evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Microsurgical Efficacy and Relapse of Rolandic Meningioma.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 6;2022:1026494. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Changde First People's Hospital, Changde 415000, Hunan, China.

In this study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate the relapse features of patients with Rolandic meningioma after the microsurgery. 53 patients with Rolandic meningioma were selected as the research objects, and they were divided into the relapse group ( = 16) and nonrelapse group ( = 37) according to whether patients had a relapse during the follow-up period. Differences in quality of life, H-MRS index, vascular density, and cell proliferation between the two groups were assessed as well as imaging differences between the two groups were analyzed using MRI. The results showed that the patients' quality-of-life scores in the two groups increased notably after the surgical treatment ( < 0.05). Compared with the nonrelapse group, the proportion of irregular boundary and uneven enhancement of focal tissue in the relapse group was signally increased ( < 0.05). Compared with the nonrelapse group, cell proliferation index, vascular density and imaging index, mean tumor diameter, mean transit time (MTT), time to peak (TTP), fractional anisotropy (FA), choline (Cho)/N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA), Cho/creatine (Cr), lactic acid (Lac)/Cr, and the maximum value of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBVmax) in the relapse group were obviously increased ( < 0.05). However, the apparent dispersion coefficient, NAA/Cr, and Lac/NAA values decreased greatly ( < 0.05). To sum up, the microsurgical treatment helped improve the quality of life of patients with Rolandic meningioma, and MR imaging could be used to determine the relapse of Rolandic meningioma after microsurgical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/1026494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9192267PMC
June 2022

Ancient Mitogenomes Reveal the Origins and Genetic Structure of the Neolithic Shimao Population in Northern China.

Front Genet 2022 27;13:909267. Epub 2022 May 27.

Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Shimao City is considered an important political and religious center during the Late Neolithic Longshan period of the Middle Yellow River basin. The genetic history and population dynamics among the Shimao and other ancient populations, especially the Taosi-related populations, remain unknown. Here, we sequenced 172 complete mitochondrial genomes, ranging from the Yangshao to Longshan period, from individuals related to the Shimao culture in northern Shaanxi Province and Taosi culture in southern Shanxi Province, Middle Yellow River basin. Our results show that the populations inhabiting Shimao City had close genetic connections with an earlier population in the Middle Neolithic Yangshao period of northern Shaanxi Province, revealing a mostly local origin for the Shimao Society. In addition, among the populations in other regions of the Yellow River basin, the Shimao-related populations had the closest maternal affinity with the contemporaneous Taosi populations from the Longshan period. The Shimao-related populations also shared more affinity with present-day northern Han populations than with the minorities and southern Han in China. Our study provides a new perspective on the genetic origins and structure of the Shimao people and the population dynamics in the Middle Yellow River basin during the Neolithic period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.909267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9185412PMC
May 2022

Motion-resolved and free-breathing liver MRF.

Magn Reson Imaging 2022 09 26;91:69-80. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To develop a motion-resolved and free-breathing liver magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) protocol.

Methods: The deformation maps were obtained from the first singular image of MRF data. The reconstruction method enforced the consistency of the MRF data with the deformation maps by adding the deformation maps to the encoding matrix. A sliding window reconstruction was inherently assumed, with a window size of 60 repetition times (TRs) and a step size of 30 TRs. L1 wavelet regularization was applied to reduce the undersampling artifact. MRF was tested on four healthy volunteers with parameters: 13 s/slice, 0.39 s/frame, and 33 time frames/slice.

Results: For measuring the accuracy of the deformation map, the typical normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of the first singular image after motion correction was 0.19. In the sagittal scan, the liver T1 and T2 were 808.7±96.8 ms and 52.7±11.6 ms, respectively. They agreed with our previously reported values, i.e., T1 = 759 ms and T2 = 51 ms at 3 T, using free-breathing liver MRF. Compared to breath-hold MRF, the NRMSEs for T1 and T2 maps (without considering vessel pixels) from the proposed method were 0.13 and 0.18, respectively.

Conclusion: We demonstrated a motion-resolved MRF with a nominal frame rate of 2.5 Hz for free-breathing liver imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mri.2022.05.015DOI Listing
September 2022

Correlation between the fatty infiltration of paraspinal muscles and disc degeneration and the underlying mechanism.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2022 May 30;23(1):509. Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Orthopedics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 197 Ruijin Er Road, Shanghai, 200025, China.

Background: Low back pain (LBP) is associated with lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) and fatty infiltration of paraspinal muscles. However, there are some controversies about the relationship between LDD and fatty infiltration of paraspinal muscles, and the causation of them is also not clear. Thus, we investigated whether the degree of LDD was associated with fatty infiltration of paraspinal muscles and preliminarily explored the underlying mechanism.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 109 patients with chronic LBP. The degree of LDD was assessed by the Pfirrmann classification. Total muscle cross-sectional area, L4 vertebral body endplate area, and fat cross-sectional area at axial T2-weighted MRI were measured. Multifidus and lumbar disc specimens were taken from eight individuals undergoing discectomy for disc herniation. Gene and protein expression levels of TNF were quantified through qPCR assays and ELISA, respectively.

Results: The relative cross-sectional area, total muscle cross-sectional area, and muscle cross-sectional area asymmetry were not related to LDD. Pfirrmann grades correlated strongly with fatty infiltration of the multifidus and moderately with fatty infiltration of the erector spinae and the psoas muscles. Linear regression analysis suggested that Pfirrmann grades were most associated with fatty infiltration of the multifidus. Compared with II-degree degeneration discs (mild-degeneration group), fatty infiltration of the multifidus in IV-degree degeneration discs (severe-degeneration group) significantly increased, accompanied by increased mRNA expression of TNF. Meanwhile, the protein expression levels of TNF (pg/g protein) in discs (16.62 ± 4.33) and multifidus (13.10 ± 2.76) of the severe-degeneration group were higher than those in the mild-degeneration group (disc: 9.75 ± 2.18; multifidus: 7.84 ± 2.43). However, the mRNA expression of TNF in the multifidus was not significantly different between the two groups.

Conclusions: The results suggest that LDD is associated with fatty infiltration of the multifidus. The possible underlying mechanism is that LDD induces fatty infiltration by inflammation. Furthermore, compared with the erector spinae and the psoas muscles, fatty infiltration of the multifidus shows an optimal correlation with LDD, which may contribute to further understanding of LDD pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-022-05466-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9150320PMC
May 2022

A Novel Clinically Prognostic Stratification Based on Prognostic Nutritional Index Status and Histological Grade in Patients With Gallbladder Cancer After Radical Surgery.

Front Nutr 2022 4;9:850971. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, China.

Purpose: Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, with a 5-year survival rate of 5%. The prognostic models to predict the prognosis of patients with GBC remain controversial. Therefore, to construct a prognosis prediction of GBC, a retrospective cohort study was carried out to investigate the prognostic nutritional index and histological grade in the long-term outcome of patients with GBC after radical surgery (RS).

Methods: A retrospective study of a total of 198 patients with GBC who underwent surgical treatment were enrolled. The hematological indicators, imageological data, and perioperative clinical data were acquired for statistical analysis and poor prognosis model construction.

Results: Prognostic nutrition index (PNI) < 45.88, maximum tumor diameter (MTD) > 2.24 cm, and jaundice (JD) were all associated with a poor prognosis in multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prognosis prediction model was based on the three risk factors, which indicated a superior predictive ability in the primary cohort [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.951] and validation cohort (AUC = 0.888). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, poorly differentiation (PD) was associated with poor 3-year survival. In addition, Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival analysis suggested that GBC patients with high-risk scores and PD had a better prognosis after RS ( < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in prognosis for patients with non-poorly differentiation (NPD) or low-risk scores after RS ( > 0.05).

Conclusion: Our prediction model for GBC patients with prognosis evaluation is accurate and effective. For patients with PD and high-risk scores, RS is highly recommended; a simple cholecystectomy can also be considered for acceptance for patients with NPD or low-risk score. The significant findings provide a new therapeutic strategy for the clinical treatment of GBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.850971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9116425PMC
May 2022

Medicinal Chemistry Strategies for the Development of Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors against Resistance.

J Med Chem 2022 06 20;65(11):7415-7437. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Organic Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China.

Despite significant efficacy, one of the major limitations of small-molecule Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) agents is the presence of clinically acquired resistance, which remains a major clinical challenge. This Perspective focuses on medicinal chemistry strategies for the development of BTK small-molecule inhibitors against resistance, including the structure-based design of BTK inhibitors targeting point mutations, e.g., (i) developing noncovalent inhibitors from covalent inhibitors, (ii) avoiding steric hindrance from mutated residues, (iii) making interactions with the mutated residue, (iv) modifying the solvent-accessible region, and (v) developing new scaffolds. Additionally, a comparative analysis of multi-inhibitions of BTK is presented based on cross-comparisons between 2916 unique BTK ligands and 283 other kinases that cover 7108 dual/multiple inhibitions. Finally, targeting the BTK allosteric site and uding proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC) as two potential strategies are addressed briefly, while also illustrating the possibilities and challenges to find novel ligands of BTK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.2c00030DOI Listing
June 2022

Work Stress, Health Status and Presenteeism in Relation to Task Performance Among Chinese Medical Staff During COVID-19 Pandemic.

Front Public Health 2022 27;10:836113. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the direct effects of work stress, health status and presenteeism on task performance, and further explore the mediating effects of health status and presenteeism, hoping to provide theoretical basis for improving the performance of medical staff.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical staff in Jilin Province, Northeast China. The Challenge and Hindrance-Related Self-Reported Stress scale, Short Form-8 Health Survey scale, Stanford Presenteeism Scale and Task Performance Scale were adopted to assess the work stress, health status, presenteeism and task performance of medical staff.

Results: A total of 4,347 questionnaires were distributed among medical staff, and 4261 were valid, for an effective rate of 98.02%. The mean scores for work stress, health status, presenteeism and task performance were 2.05 ± 0.84, 4.18 ± 0.68, 2.15 ± 0.79 and 4.49 ± 0.64, respectively. The ANOVA results showed that there were significant differences in the task performance scores between different genders, ages, marital statuses, professional titles, departments and work years ( < 0.05). Work stress (β = -0.136, < 0.001) and presenteeism (β = -0.171, < 0.001) were negative predictors of task performance. Health status (β = 0.10; < 0.001) was positive predictor of task performance. Health status (β = -0.070; < -0.001) and presenteeism (β = -0.064; < 0.001) mediated the relationship between work stress and task performance ( < 0.001). Presenteeism mediated the relationship between health status and task performance (β = 0.07; < 0.001).

Conclusion: Work stress and presenteeism had significant negative impact on the task performance of medical staff; health status had a significant positive effect on task performance. Meanwhile, health status and presenteeism played a mediating role in the relationship between work stress and task performance, and presenteeism played a mediating role in the relationship between health status and task performance. Reasonable assignment of tasks can reduce the work stress, but to improve the performance of medical staff, we should pay more attention on improving health, such as making health-related safeguard measures, raising awareness, building a platform, etc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.836113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9092281PMC
April 2022

Natural Compound Shikonin Is a Novel PAK1 Inhibitor and Enhances Efficacy of Chemotherapy against Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

Molecules 2022 Apr 24;27(9). Epub 2022 Apr 24.

Affiliated Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210028, China.

Shikonin is the main component of root extracts from the Chinese herbal medicine , which is commonly used for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Previous research showed that shikonin suppressed pancreatic cancer growth; nevertheless, its molecular targets and mechanisms have not been elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the interaction and regulatory mechanisms of shikonin on its potential target p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). Through a labchip-based screening method, shikonin was identified as a potential bioactive PAK1 inhibitor. Molecular docking technology was used to detect the interaction sites of shikonin and PAK1 kinase. Western blot was performed to validate the mechanism. MTT and flow cytometry were practiced to investigate the effect of shikonin against pancreatic cancer cells. The results show that shikonin significantly inhibited the activity of PAK1 kinase with IC value of 7.252 ± 0.054 μM. Molecular docking studies showed that shikonin binds to the ATP-binding pocket of the PAK1 kinase domain. Moreover, shikonin inhibited PAK1 activation and its downstream signaling pathway proteins, while reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells. Further studies showed that the treatment of shikonin sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. These results suggest that shikonin, a potential natural inhibitor targeting PAK1 kinase, has promising potent applications in the treatment of pancreatic cancer and chemotherapy sensitization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092747DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9102431PMC
April 2022

Modeling the dynamic brain network representation for autism spectrum disorder diagnosis.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2022 Jul 6;60(7):1897-1913. Epub 2022 May 6.

Alberta Machine Intelligence Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

The dynamic functional connectivity analysis provides valuable information for understanding functional brain activity underlying different cognitive processes. Modeling spatio-temporal dynamics in functional brain networks is critical for underlying the functional mechanism of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In our study, we propose a machine learning approach for the classification of neurological disorders while providing an interpretable framework, which thoroughly captures spatio-temporal features in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data. Specifically, we first transform rs-fMRI time-series into temporal multi-graph using the sliding window technique. A temporal multi-graph clustering is then designed to eliminate the inconsistency of the temporal multi-graph series. Then, a graph structure-aware LSTM (GSA-LSTM) is further proposed to capture the spatio-temporal embedding for temporal graphs. Furthermore, The proposed GSA-LSTM can not only capture discriminative features for prediction but also impute the incomplete graphs for the temporal multi-graph series. Extensive experiments on the autism brain imaging data exchange (ABIDE) dataset demonstrate that the proposed dynamic brain network embedding learning outperforms the state-of-the-art brain network classification models. Furthermore, the obtained clustering results are consistent with the previous neuroimaging-derived evidence of biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11517-022-02558-4DOI Listing
July 2022
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