Publications by authors named "Pei-Chun Shih"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Potential Impacts of Promoter Polymorphisms on the Mutation Status and Progression of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in Taiwan.

Genes (Basel) 2021 03 17;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a typical inflammation-associated cancer, and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common histopathological subtype. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are the most common driver mutations of LUAD, and they have been identified as important therapeutic targets by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Interleukin (IL)-17A secreted by T-helper 17 lymphocytes is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in cancer pathogenesis. The present study was designed to investigate the possible associations among IL-17A genetic polymorphisms, EGFR mutation status, and the clinicopathologic development of LUAD in a Taiwanese population. Our study population consisted of 277 LUAD patients harboring the wild-type (WT) EGFR or a mutant (MT) EGFR. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-17A in the peripheral blood, including rs8193036(C > T), rs8193037(G > A), rs2275913(G > A), and rs3748067(C > T) loci, were genotyped using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Our results showed that none of these IL-17A SNPs were correlated with the risk of developing mutant EGFR. However, patients with a smoking habit who carried the GA genotype of IL-17A rs8193037 had a significantly lower susceptibility to EGFR mutations (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.225; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.056~0.900, = 0.035). Moreover, compared to individuals carrying the CC genotype of rs8193036 at IL-17A, T-allele carriers (CT + TT) were at higher risk of developing more-advanced stages (stage III or IV; = 0.020). In the WT EGFR subgroup analysis, IL-17A rs8193036 T-allele carriers had higher risks of developing an advanced tumor stage ( = 0.016) and lymphatic invasion ( = 0.049). Further analyses of clinical datasets revealed correlations of IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) and IL-17RC expressions with a poor prognosis of LUAD patients with a smoking history or with higher levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. In conclusion, our results suggested that two functional promoter polymorphisms of IL-17A, i.e., rs8193036 and rs8193037, were associated with the EGFR mutation status and progression in LUAD patients, indicating that these two genetic variants might act as possible markers for predicting patients' clinical prognoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12030427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002550PMC
March 2021

Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy programme with and without videoconference guidance sessions: A randomized controlled trial to treat work-related symptoms of anxiety and depression.

Clin Psychol Psychother 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Biological and Health Psychology, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

This study provides the results from the implementation of a highly structured therapist-guided iCBT programme for people with work-related anxiety and depression, in terms of programme efficacy, participants' adherence and satisfaction. Seventy-seven national police workers were randomly allocated to one of two groups: without additional videoconference sessions (web platform with guidance of therapist) and with additional videoconference sessions (same intervention as the previous group, plus two videoconference guidance sessions with a psychologist). The intervention was composed of 12 sessions and took place for 17-20 weeks. We found an adherence rate of 36.4%, with no differences between groups. All participants endorsed lower depression (BDI-II F(1) = 36.98, p < .001; ATQ F(1) = 24.22, p < .001), and anxiety (STAI-State F(1) = 76.62, p < .001) after the programme. As a variable related to anxiety and depression in workplace, participants also showed higher assertiveness levels (RAS F(1) = 8.96, p < .001). A significant reduction of the mean level of anxiety perceived by participants as the intervention programme progressed was observed in both groups (F(2) = 7.44; p = .003). Participants were satisfied with the therapists' intervention and with the programme. No significant group effects were found for any of the measures. Reduction in depression levels was maintained in the 12-month follow-up, but levels of anxiety increased. This study is innovative, as it is the first controlled trial to analyse the effect of two added videoconference sessions, and it includes short- and long-term measures, which is not usual. The results are discussed to clarify the role of the contact with the therapist to improve treatment adherence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2571DOI Listing
February 2021

Associations of Genetic Polymorphisms with Statuses and Cancer Clinicopathologic Development in Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Oct 28;21(21). Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Pulmonary Research Center, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 116, Taiwan.

Lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) is a major subtype of lung cancer, particularly among populations of East Asia. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is the most frequently mutated oncogene promoting LADC progression and can serve as a therapeutic target in LADC. The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-3 is a major regulator of extracellular matrix turnover via targeting of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and thus, plays a critical role in tumor development and progression. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential associations among TIMP-3 genetic polymorphisms, EGFR statuses, and cancer clinicopathologic development in patients with LADC. In this study, 277 LADC patients with different EGFR statuses were recruited to dissect the allelic discrimination of TIMP-3 -1296 T>C (rs9619311), TIMP3 249T>C (rs9862), and TIMP3 261C>T (rs11547635) polymorphisms using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Our data showed that compared to those LADC patients with wild-type CC homozygotes of TIMP-3 rs9862, patients harboring TT homozygotes of rs9862 were at a higher risk of developing mutant EGFR (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.530; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.230-5.205; = 0.012), particularly the EGFR L858R point mutation (AOR = 2.975; 95% CI: 1.182-7.488; = 0.021). Moreover, we observed that TIMP-3 TT homozygotes of rs9862 were correlated with the incidence of EGFR mutations in patients with a smoking habit ( = 0.045). Within male patients harboring a mutant EGFR, TIMP-3 rs9862 T (CT+TT) allele carriers were at higher risk of developing an advanced stage ( = 0.025) and lymph node metastasis ( = 0.043). Further analyses of clinical datasets revealed correlations of TIMP-3 expression with a favorable prognosis in patients with LADC. In conclusion, the data suggest that TIMP-3 rs9862 polymorphisms may contribute to identify subgroups of lung cancer patients at high risk for tumor progression, among carriers of LADC-bearing mutant EGFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662501PMC
October 2020

Iron Deficiency in Menstruating Adult Women: Much More than Anemia.

Womens Health Rep (New Rochelle) 2020 29;1(1):26-35. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Hematology Laboratory Department, Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is highly prevalent in women of child-bearing age. However, their nonhematological symptoms have been overlooked. This study aims to analyze the nonhematological features and symptoms of IDA in a group of women of reproductive age and the changes occurred during iron therapy. IDA women underwent dietary, physical activity, menstrual blood loss, and cognitive function assessment at baseline. Hematological and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Executive attention was tested by the flanker task and working memory by the 2-back task. Oral iron therapy (ferrous sulfate) was given to 35 women for 8 weeks and the changes in iron status, biochemical markers, cognitive function, and nonhematological symptoms were evaluated. Patients presented nonhematological symptoms: pica, 32.4%; cheilitis, 20.6%; restless legs syndrome (RLS), 20.6%; diffuse hair loss, 55.9%; and ungual alterations, 38.2%. Two or more symptoms were present in 58.8% of women. Serum iron and working memory were correlated at baseline. Multivariate analyses show associations (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]) between pica and reaction time in the working memory test (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.19-3.87,  = 0.012); RLS with total serum protein (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.06-0.92,  = 0.043); and cheilitis with mean corpuscular hemoglobin (OR 0.388, 95% CI 0.189-0.799,  = 0.01). Pica, cheilitis, and RLS completely resolved with iron therapy, and ungual alterations and hair loss improved in 92.3% and 84.2% of women, respectively. Better performance in executive attention and working memory was observed after iron therapy. More attention should be given to the nonhematological manifestations of IDA to improve the quality of life of menstruating women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/whr.2019.0011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7784796PMC
January 2020

A multistage adaptive test of fluid intelligence.

Psicothema 2016 Aug;28(3):346-52

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.

Background: Multistage adaptive testing has recently emerged as an alternative to the computerized adaptive test. The current study details a new multistage test to assess fluid intelligence.

Method: An item pool of progressive matrices with constructed response format was developed, and divided into six subtests. The subtests were applied to a sample of 724 college students and their psychometric properties were studied (i.e., reliability, dimensionality and validity evidence). The item pool was calibrated under the graded response model, and two multistage structures were developed, based on the automatic test assembly principles. Finally, the test information provided by each structure was compared in order to select the most appropriate one.

Results: The item pool showed adequate psychometric properties. From the two compared multistage structures, the simplest structure (i.e., routing test and two modules in the next stages) were more informative across the latent trait continuum and were therefore kept.

Discussion: Taken together, the results of the two studies support the application of the FIMT (Fluid Intelligence Multistage Test), a multistage test to assess fluid intelligence accurately and innovatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2015.287DOI Listing
August 2016

Hippocampal structure and human cognition: key role of spatial processing and evidence supporting the efficiency hypothesis in females.

Intelligence 2013 Mar;41(2):129-140

Laboratory of Neuroimaging (LONI), UCLA School of Medicine, 635 Charles E. Young Drive South, Suite 225, Los Angeles, CA 90095-7334 (USA).

Here we apply a method for automated segmentation of the hippocampus in 3D high-resolution structural brain MRI scans. One hundred and four healthy young adults completed twenty one tasks measuring abstract, verbal, and spatial intelligence, along with working memory, executive control, attention, and processing speed. After permutation tests corrected for multiple comparisons across vertices ( < .05) significant relationships were found for spatial intelligence, spatial working memory, and spatial executive control. Interactions with sex revealed significant relationships with the general factor of intelligence (), along with abstract and spatial intelligence. These correlations were mainly positive for males but negative for females, which might support the efficiency hypothesis in women. Verbal intelligence, attention, and processing speed were not related to hippocampal structural differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2013.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4306583PMC
March 2013

Effect of silymarin on curcumin-induced mortality in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae.

Indian J Exp Biol 2011 Jul;49(7):491-7

Department of Beauty Science, Chienkuo Technology University, Changhua 50058, Taiwan.

In presence of 7.5 microM of curcumin, no embryos or larva of zebrafish survived 3 days of incubation; however, coincubation with 144 microg/ml silymarin increased the survival rates of curcumin-treated embryos and larvae to about 70%. Moreover, in presence of 12.5 microM curcumin, all embryos died after 2 days of incubation; however, co-treatment with 144 microg/ml silymarin increased the survival rates of curcumin-treated embryos and larvae up to 60 and 50%, respectively. This protective effect was not found in the other phenolic compounds viz., ferulic acid, naringin, or crocin, tested. Finally, using a fluorescence microscope, accumulation of less curcumin has observed in the edema sac area of the larvae co-treated with curcumin and silymarin than in the larvae treated with curcumin only. The result suggests that the protective effects of silymarin may be due to a decreased accumulation of curcumin in the fish body.
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July 2011

Performance as a function of ability, resources invested, and strategy used.

J Gen Psychol 2009 Jan;136(1):41-69

Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Ivan Pavlov, 6, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

Computerized tasks allow a more fine-grained analysis of the strategy deployed in a task designed to map a specific ability than the usual assessment on the basis of only the level of performance. Manipulations expected to impair performance sometimes do not have that effect, probably because the level of performance alone can confound the assessment of the ability level if researchers ignore the strategy used. In a study with 1,872 participants, the authors applied the Spatial Orientation Dynamic Test-Revised (J. Santacreu, 1999) in single and dual task settings, identifying 3 different strategies. Strategy shifts were associated with the level of performance, as more apt individuals were more likely to shift to better strategies. Ignoring the strategies yields counterintuitive results that cannot be explained by simple, direct relations among the constructs involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/GENP.136.1.41-70DOI Listing
January 2009

[Convergent validity of two tests of conscientiousness].

Psicothema 2009 Feb;21(1):133-40

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain.

Convergent validity of two tests of conscientiousness. The absence of correspondence between objective measurement of behavior and measurement based on self-report along with generalized use of questionnaires as personality assessment instruments raises a problem with regard to the validity of assessment instruments in this area of study. The goal of this work is to obtain a convergent validity measure for an objective assessment computerized task of conscientiousness based on the development of a functional equally but morphologically different task. The features of the designed assessment task are commented upon. The sample was made up of 267 university graduates (194 males and 73 females). The high convergent validity value obtained (r= .638, p<.001) is a first step in the validation process of both tasks.
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February 2009

Influence of impulsivity-reflexivity when testing dynamic spatial ability: sex and g differences.

Span J Psychol 2007 Nov;10(2):294-302

Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.

This work analyzes the possibility that the differences in the performance of men and women in dynamic spatial tasks such as the Spatial Orientation Dynamic Test-Revised (SODT-R; Santacreu & Rubio, 1998), obtained in previous works, are due to cognitive style (Reflexivity-Impulsivity) or to the speed-accuracy tradeoff (SATO) that the participants implement. If these differences are due to cognitive style, they would be independent of intelligence, whereas if they are due to SATO, they may be associated with intelligence. In this work, 1652 participants, 984 men and 668 women, ages between 18 and 55 years, were assessed. In addition to the SODT-R, the "Test de Razonamiento Analitico, Secuencial e Inductivo" (TRASI [Analytical, Sequential, and Inductive Reasoning Test]; Rubio & Santacreu, 2003) was administered as a measure of general intelligence. Impulsivity scores (Zi) of Salkind and Wright (1977) were used to analyze reflexivity-impulsivity and SATO. The results obtained indicate that (a) four performance groups can be identified: Fast-accurate, Slow-inaccurate, Impulsive, and Reflexive. The first two groups solve the task as a function of a competence variable and the last two as a function of a personality variable; (b) performance differences should be attributed to SATO; (c) SATO differs depending on sex and intelligence level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1138741600006569DOI Listing
November 2007

Solution strategies as possible explanations of individual and sex differences in a dynamic spatial task.

Acta Psychol (Amst) 2008 May 30;128(1):1-14. Epub 2007 Oct 30.

Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

When individuals perform spatial tasks, individual differences emerge in accuracy and speed as well as in the response patterns used to cope with the task. The purpose of this study is to identify, through empirical criteria, the different response patterns or strategies used by individuals when performing the dynamic spatial task presented in the Spatial Orientation Dynamic Test-Revised (SODT-R). Results show that participants can be classified according to their response patterns. Three different ways of solving a task are described, and their relation to (a) performance factors (response latency, response frequency, and invested time) and (b) ability tests (analytical reasoning, verbal reasoning, and spatial estimation) are investigated. Sex differences in response patterns and performance are also analyzed. It is found that the frequency with which men and women employ each one of the strategies described here, is different and statistically significant. Thus, employed strategy plays an important role when interpreting sex differences on dynamic spatial tasks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2007.09.005DOI Listing
May 2008

Fluid intelligence, working memory and executive functioning.

Psicothema 2006 Nov;18(4):816-21

Faculty of Psychology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

The causes underlying the correlation between working memory and fluid intelligence remain unknown. There are some researchers who argue that the answer can be found on the presumed executive component of working memory. However, the available empirical evidence is far from conclusive. The present study tested a sample of 229 participants. Intelligence, working memory, and executive functioning were measured by one analytic reasoning test (TRASI), a dual task combining a primary task of deductive reasoning with a secondary task of counting, and the Tower of Hanoi task, respectively. All the 3 measures were computer administered. The results indicate that the shared variance between executive functioning and working memory do not account for the relationship between intelligence and working memory. Some theoretical implications are discussed.
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November 2006

The real relationship between short-term memory and working memory.

Memory 2006 Oct;14(7):804-13

Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain.

Storage-oriented memory span tasks with no explicit concurrent processing are usually referred as short-term memory (STM) tasks, whereas tasks involving storage plus concurrent processing requirements are designated as working memory (WM) tasks. The present study explores a question that remains unsolved: Do STM and WM tasks clearly tap distinguishable theoretical constructs? For that purpose, a large sample of 403 participants was tested through 12 diverse memory span tasks. Half of those tasks are widely accepted as measures of STM, whereas the other half measure WM. The results show that STM and WM share largely overlapping underlying capacity limitations, suggesting that all memory span tasks tap essentially the same construct. Some implications are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09658210600680020DOI Listing
October 2006

Enhancing stability and oxidation activity of cytochrome C by immobilization in the nanochannels of mesoporous aluminosilicates.

J Phys Chem B 2005 Jun;109(25):12277-86

Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Hydrothermally stable and structrurally ordered mesoporous and microporous aluminosilicates with different pore sizes have been synthesized to immobilize cytochrome c (cyt c): MAS-9 (pore size 90 A), MCM-48-S (27 A), MCM-41-S (25 A), and Y zeolites (7.4 A). The amount of cyt c adsorption could be increased by the introduction of aluminum into the framework of pure silica materials. Among these mesoprous silicas (MPS), MAS-9 showed the highest loading capacity due to its large pore size. However, cyt c immobilized in MAS-9 could undergo facile unfolding during hydrothermal treatments. MCM-41-S and MCM-48-S have the pore sizes that match well the size of cyt c (25 x 25 x 37 A). Hence the adsorbed cyt c in these two medium pore size MPS have the highest hydrothermal stability and overall catalytic activity. On the other hand, the pore size of NaY zeolite is so small that cyt c is mostly adsorbed only on the outer surface and loses its enzymatic activity rapidly. The improved stability and high catalytic activity of cyt c immobilized in MPS are attributed to the electrostatic attraction between the pore surface and cyt c and the confinement provided by nanochannels. We further observed that cyt c immobilized in MPS exists in both high and low spin states, as inferred from the ESR and UV-vis studies. This is different from the native cyt c, which shows primarily the low spin state. The high spin state arises from the replacement of Met-80 ligands of heme Fe (III) by water or silanol group on silica surface, which could open up the heme groove for easy access of oxidants and substrates to iron center and facilitate the catalytic activity. In the catalytic study, MAS-9-cyt c showed the highest specific activity toward the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which arises from the fast mass transfer rate of reaction substrate due to its large pore size. For pinacyanol (a hydrophilic substrate), MCM-41-S-cyt c and MCM-48-S-cyt c showed higher specific activity than NaY-cyt c and MAS-9-cyt c. The result indicated that cyt c embedded in the channels of MCM-41-S and MCM-48-S was protected against unfolding and loss of activity. By increasing the concentration of the spin trapping agent, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) in ESR experiments, we showed that cyt c catalyzes a homolytic cleavage of the O-O bond of hydroperoxide and generates a protein cation radical (g = 2.00). Possible mechanisms for MPS-cyt c catalytic oxidation of hydroperoxides and PAHs are proposed based on the spectroscopic characterizations of the systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp050535kDOI Listing
June 2005

Complex span tasks, simple span tasks, and cognitive abilities: a reanalysis of key studies.

Mem Cognit 2006 Jan;34(1):158-71

Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain.

There is great interest in the relationships between memory span tasks and cognitive abilities. However, the causes underlying their correlation remain unknown. In the present article, five key data sets were reanalyzed according to two criteria: They must consider complex span tasks (so-called working memory [WM] tasks) and simple span tasks (so-called short-term memory [STM] tasks), and they must comprise cognitive ability measures. The obtained results offer several points of interest. First, memory span tasks should be conceived from a hierarchical perspective: They comprise both general and specific components. Second, the general component explains about four times the variance explained by the specific components. Third, STM and WM measures are closely related. Fourth, STM and WM measures share the same common variance with cognitive abilities. Finally, the strong relationship usually found between memory span tasks and cognitive abilities could be tentatively interpreted by the component shared by STM and WM--namely, the capacity for temporarily preserving a reliable memory representation of any given information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/bf03193395DOI Listing
January 2006

Interference caused by the contents of serum separator tubes in the Vitros CRP assay.

Ann Clin Biochem 2003 May;40(Pt 3):249-51

Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7, Chung-Shan S. Rd, Taipei 100, Taiwan.

Background: We have observed discrepancies between C-reactive protein (CRP) measured in serum prepared from a serum separator tube (SST) and that obtained from a plain tube, when using the Vitros CRP assay. Our study aimed at elucidating the cause of these discrepancies.

Methods: Eighty-seven specimens from hospitalized patients with various types of inflammatory disease were analysed using a fixed-point immuno-rate method on a Vitros CRP slide. The serum was prepared simultaneously in both vacuum and SSTs. We also performed mixing tests by adding 47 samples of serum prepared from plain tubes to SSTs and incubating for 15 min before CRP analysis.

Results: Lower values of CRP were found in serum prepared from plain tubes than in serum from SSTs. Addition of serum prepared from plain tubes to SSTs and incubating for 15 min increased the CRP values significantly. The ratio of CRP measured in serum prepared from plain tubes and from SSTs did not differ significantly from the ratio obtained when serum was prepared in a plain tube then added to an SST.

Discussion: We propose that SSTs can adsorb some macromolecules that form complexes with CRP. The addition of SST gel to serum results in the release of CRP molecules from these complexes, which enhances the antigen-antibody reaction on the Vitros CRP slide and increases the measured CRP concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/000456303321610556DOI Listing
May 2003
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