Publications by authors named "Pei Zhou"

432 Publications

Anti-Hyperlipidemia and Gut Microbiota Community Regulation Effects of Selenium-Rich Polysaccharides on the High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice Model.

Foods 2021 Sep 23;10(10). Epub 2021 Sep 23.

School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Supplementation of polysaccharides is a promising gut microbiota-targeted therapeutic method for obesity and metabolic diseases. Biological activities of polysaccharides have been well reported, but the effect of selenium (Se)-rich polysaccharides (SeCMP) on obesity and associated metabolic disorder and gut microbiota composition has been rarely studied. This study aimed to investigate the anti-obesity and gut microbiota modulatory effect of crude polysaccharides separated from Se-rich on a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice model. Mice were treated with a normal diet (CHOW), HFD alone, HFD plus polysaccharides (CMP), or low/medium/high dosage of SeCMP for 8 weeks. Body weight, fat content, serum lipid, appetite hormone, lipid gene expression, inflammation cytokines, thermogenic protein, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and gut microbiota structure of the mice were determined. Compared with HFD-fed mice, the serum triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the SeCMP-200 group were decreased by 51.5% and 44.1%, respectively. Furthermore, serum lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins (LBP), adiponectin level, and pro-inflammation gene expression in the colon and subcutaneous fat were inhibited, whereas anti-inflammation gene expression was improved, reflecting SeCMP-200 might mitigate obese-induced inflammation. Meanwhile, SeCMP-200 promoted satiety and thermogenesis of obese mice. It also significantly decreased gut bacteria, such as , , , that negatively correlated with obesity traits and increased mucosal beneficial bacteria . There was no significant difference between CMP and SeCMP-100 groups. Our results revealed a high dose of SeCMP could prevent HFD-induced dyslipidemia and gut microbiota dysbiosis and was potential to be used as functional foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10102252DOI Listing
September 2021

Maternal High-Fat Diet Programs Renal Peroxisomes and Activates NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated Pyroptosis in the Rat Fetus.

J Inflamm Res 2021 5;14:5095-5110. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Key Laboratory of Maternal-Fetal Medicine of Liaoning Province, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 110004, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Maternal obesity impairs kidney development and function of the offspring and leads to a greater risk of kidney disease in adulthood. The present study aimed to investigate the link between peroxisomes, oxidative stress (OS), and inflammasomes in the fetal kidney of maternal obesity rats and to explore the potential therapeutic effects of the antioxidant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ).

Methods: Maternal obesity rats were developed by administration of a high fat diet plus supplementation with PQQ (40 mg/kg body weight) as a potential therapy. Renal histology was observed by Periodic Acid-Schiff staining. The expression profiles of peroxins, fatty acid β-oxidation enzymes, antioxidants, and the regulators of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome were analyzed in the kidneys and tubular epithelial cells (TECs) from near-term fetuses (embryonic day 20).

Results: The present work revealed that: 1) a maternal high fat diet (MHF) led to higher blood pressure in adult offspring; 2) MHF led to downregulation of peroxisome markers PEX3 and 14 in fetal kidneys; 3) the antioxidant SOD2 and catalase were decreased, and oxidative stress marker Ephx2 was increased; 4) MHF-induced activation of the UPR pathway; 5) the KEAP1-NRF2 pathway was activated; 6) activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome led to secretion of pro-inflammation factors; 7) in TECs, the changes in PEXs and NLRP3 are similar to tissues, but UPR and NRF2 pathways showed opposite trends; 8) and the antioxidant PQQ alleviated maternal lipotoxicity by decreasing ROS levels and inhibiting activation of ER stress and inflammasome in fetal kidney.

Conclusion: A maternal high fat diet decreased the number of peroxisomes, subsequently activated OS and inflammasomes, resulting in pyroptosis and apoptosis in fetal kidney. The antioxidant PQQ served a protective role against the effects of lipotoxicity on kidney programming and, thus, is a potential candidate to prevent maternal obesity-induced renal programming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S329972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8502058PMC
October 2021

Genome-Wide Analysis of the UDP-Glycosyltransferase Family Reveals Its Roles in Coumarin Biosynthesis and Abiotic Stress in .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 6;22(19). Epub 2021 Oct 6.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Grassland Livestock Industry Innovation, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730020, China.

Coumarins, natural products abundant in , confer features in response to abiotic stresses, and are mainly present as glycoconjugates. UGTs (UDP-glycosyltransferases) are responsible for glycosylation modification of coumarins. However, information regarding the relationship between coumarin biosynthesis and stress-responsive s remains limited. Here, a total of 189 genes were identified from the genome, which were distributed differentially among its eight chromosomes. According to the phylogenetic relationship, s can be classified into 13 major groups. Sixteen genes were differentially expressed between genotypes of Ma46 (low coumarin content) and Ma49 (high coumarin content), suggesting that these genes are likely involved in coumarin biosynthesis. About 73.55% and 66.67% of the genes were differentially expressed under ABA or abiotic stress in the shoots and roots, respectively. Furthermore, the functions of and , which were upregulated under stress and potentially involved in coumarin glycosylation, were characterized by heterologous expression in yeast and . These results extend our knowledge of the gene family along with gene functions, and provide valuable findings for future studies on developmental regulation and comprehensive data on genes in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8509628PMC
October 2021

Optical chaos generated in semiconductor lasers with intensity-modulated optical injection:a numerical study.

Appl Opt 2021 Sep;60(26):7963-7972

We numerically report on an optical chaos signal generation scheme based on a semiconductor laser subject to intensity-modulated (IM) optical injection. In this scheme, the characteristics of the chaos signal obtained by destabilizing period-one nonlinear dynamics are numerically investigated. With the aid of bifurcation diagrams and the 0-1 tests for chaos, the chaotic dynamics excited by continuous-wave and IM optical injection are located, and the effects of injection and modulation parameters on chaotic regions are illustrated. Moreover, effective bandwidths and auto-correlation characteristics of chaos signals from the IM optical injection system are systematically investigated. The results show that although chaotic signals under the IM optical injection scenario have a limitation in unambiguous range detection in most parameter regions, wideband chaotic dynamics in large injection and modulation parameter regions can be easily achieved. This study paves the way for potential applications requiring no time-delay signature and broad bandwidth chaos, such as high-speed chaos communications and random bit generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.431984DOI Listing
September 2021

Corrigendum: Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) Concentrations Among Children and Adolescents With Diabetes in Middle- and Low-Income Countries, 2010-2019: A Retrospective Chart Review and Systematic Review of Literature.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 20;12:714389. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2021.651589.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.714389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8485776PMC
September 2021

Post-hysteroscopy Duration of the Cook Balloon Uterine Stent Effect on the Re-adhesion Formation.

Authors:
Shuyun Qu Pei Zhou

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2021 Oct;31(10):1163-1167

Department of Gynaecology, No. 215 Hospital of Shaanxi Nuclear Industry, Shaanxi Province, China.

Objective: To compare duration of Cook balloon uterine stent on re-adhesions formation, and observe its effect on serum transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in patients with intrauterine adhesions (IUA) undergoing hysteroscopic transcervical resection of adhesion (TCRA).

Study Design: Randomised controlled trial.

Place And Duration Of Study: No. 215 Hospital of Shaanxi Nuclear Industry, Shaanxi Province, China, from January 2018 to January 2019.

Methodology: A total of 98 patients with IUA, who underwent hysteroscopic TCRA with cold scissors, were randomly divided into Group A (n=49) and Group B (n=49). Cook balloon uterine stent was placed for 37 days in Group A and 7 days in Group B. Efficacy of two groups was compared.

Results: Total effective rate in Group A was higher than that in Group B (p=0.021). After treatment, levels of serum TGF-β1 and PAI-1 in Group A were lower than those in Group B (p <0.001, and p=0.001, respectively). Recurrence rate of IUA at three months after treatment and total incidence of complications in Group A were lower than those in Group B (p=0.012, and 0.037, respectively). Pregnancy rate in the 2-year follow-up period in Group A was higher than that in Group B (p= 0.043).

Conclusion: Placement of Cook balloon uterine stent for 37 days after hysteroscopic TCRA in patients with IUA can effectively prevent postoperative intrauterine re-adhesion, have few complications, low recurrence rate of IUA and high re-pregnancy rate, and reduce levels of serum TGF-β1 and PAI-1. Key Words: Intrauterine adhesions (IUA), Transcervical resection of adhesion (TCRA), Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), Pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2021.10.1163DOI Listing
October 2021

SARS-CoV-2 triggers DNA damage response in Vero E6 cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 11 15;579:141-145. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA; Division of Immunobiology, Department of Medicine, Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA; University of Vermont Cancer Center, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA. Electronic address:

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic and has now infected more than 200 million people with more than 4 million deaths globally. Recent data suggest that symptoms and general malaise may continue long after the infection has ended in recovered patients, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infection has profound consequences in the host cells. Here we report that SARS-CoV-2 infection can trigger a DNA damage response (DDR) in African green monkey kidney cells (Vero E6). We observed a transcriptional upregulation of the Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related protein (ATR) in infected cells. In addition, we observed enhanced phosphorylation of CHK1, a downstream effector of the ATR DNA damage response, as well as H2AX. Strikingly, SARS-CoV-2 infection lowered the expression of TRF2 shelterin-protein complex, and reduced telomere lengths in infected Vero E6 cells. Thus, our observations suggest SARS-CoV-2 may have pathological consequences to host cells beyond evoking an immunopathogenic immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.09.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440005PMC
November 2021

Evaluation of droplet digital PCR for the detection of black canker disease in tomato.

Plant Dis 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Southwest University, NO. 1, Tiansheng Road, Beibei Distrct, Chongqing , Chongqing, China, 400715;

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), the cause of bacterial canker disease, is one of the most destructive pathogens in greenhouse and field tomato. The pathogen is now present in all main production areas of tomato and is quite widely distributed in the EPPO(European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization)region. The inspection and quarantine of the plant pathogens relies heavily on accurate detection tools. Primers and probes reported in previous studies do not distinguish the Cmm pathogen from other closely related subspecies of C. michiganensis, especially the non-pathogenic subspecies that were identified from tomato seeds recently. Here, we have developed a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) method for the identification of this specific bacterium with primers/TaqMan probe set designed based on the pat-1 gene of Cmm. This new primers/probe set has been evaluated by qPCRthe real time PCR(qPCR) and ddPCR. The detection results suggest that the ddPCR method established in this study was highly specific for the target strains. The result showed the positive amplification for all 5 Cmm strains,and no amplification was observed for the other 43 tested bacteria, including the closely related C. michiganensis strains. The detection threshold of ddPCR was 10.8 CFU/mL for both pure Cmm cell suspensions and infected tomato seed, which was 100 times-fold more sensitive than that of the real-time PCR (qPCR ) performed using the same primers and probe. The data obtained suggest that our established ddPCR could detect Cmm even with low bacteria load, which could facilitate both Cmm inspection for pathogen quarantine and the routine pathogen detection for disease control of black canker in tomato.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-02-21-0317-REDOI Listing
September 2021

Direct photoresponsive inhibition of a p53-like transcription activation domain in PIF3 by Arabidopsis phytochrome B.

Nat Commun 2021 09 23;12(1):5614. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA.

Photoactivated phytochrome B (PHYB) binds to antagonistically acting PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING transcription FACTORs (PIFs) to regulate hundreds of light responsive genes in Arabidopsis by promoting PIF degradation. However, whether PHYB directly controls the transactivation activity of PIFs remains ambiguous. Here we show that the prototypic PIF, PIF3, possesses a p53-like transcription activation domain (AD) consisting of a hydrophobic activator motif flanked by acidic residues. A PIF3mAD mutant, in which the activator motif is replaced with alanines, fails to activate PIF3 target genes in Arabidopsis, validating the functions of the PIF3 AD in vivo. Intriguingly, the N-terminal photosensory module of PHYB binds immediately adjacent to the PIF3 AD to repress PIF3's transactivation activity, demonstrating a novel PHYB signaling mechanism through direct interference of the transactivation activity of PIF3. Our findings indicate that PHYB, likely also PHYA, controls the stability and activity of PIFs via structurally separable dual signaling mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25909-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8460787PMC
September 2021

Comparative cytology combined with transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses of Solanum nigrum L. in response to Cd toxicity.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Sep 11;423(Pt B):127168. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China; Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Areas, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) triggers molecular alterations in plants, perturbs metabolites and damages plant growth. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the Cd tolerance in plants is necessary for assessing the persistent environmental impact of Cd. In this study, Solanum nigrum was selected as the test plant to investigate changes in biomass, Cd translocation, cell ultrastructure, metabolites and genes under hydroponic conditions. The results showed that the plant biomass was significantly decreased under Cd stress, and the plant has a stronger Cd transport capability. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that increased Cd concentration gradually damaged the plant organs (roots, stems and leaves) cell ultrastructure, as evidenced by swollen chloroplasts and deformed cell walls. Additionally, metabolomics analyses revealed that Cd stress mainly affected seven metabolism pathways, including 19 differentially expressed metabolites (DEMs). Moreover, 3908 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs, 1049 upregulated and 2859 downregulated) were identified via RNA-seq among five Cd treatments. Meanwhile, conjoint analysis found several DEGs and DEMs, including laccase, peroxidase, D-fructose, and cellobiose etc., are associated with cell wall biosynthesis, implying the cell wall biosynthesis pathway plays a critical role in Cd detoxification. Our comprehensive investigation using multiple approaches provides a molecular-scale perspective on plant response to Cd stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127168DOI Listing
September 2021

Mutations in PBP2 from ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae alter the dynamics of the β3-β4 loop to favor a low-affinity drug-binding state.

J Biol Chem 2021 Sep 13;297(4):101188. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Biochemistry, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA. Electronic address:

Resistance to the extended-spectrum cephalosporin ceftriaxone in the pathogenic bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae is conferred by mutations in penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2), the lethal target of the antibiotic, but how these mutations exert their effect at the molecular level is unclear. Using solution NMR, X-ray crystallography, and isothermal titration calorimetry, we report that WT PBP2 exchanges dynamically between a low-affinity state with an extended β3-β4 loop conformation and a high-affinity state with an inward β3-β4 loop conformation. Histidine-514, which is located at the boundary of the β4 strand, plays an important role during the exchange between these two conformational states. We also find that mutations present in PBP2 from H041, a ceftriaxone-resistant strain of N. gonorrhoeae, increase resistance to ceftriaxone by destabilizing the inward β3-β4 loop conformation or stabilizing the extended β3-β4 loop conformation to favor the low-affinity drug-binding state. These observations reveal a unique mechanism for ceftriaxone resistance, whereby mutations in PBP2 lower the proportion of target molecules in the high-affinity drug-binding state and thus reduce inhibition at lower drug concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.101188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8503634PMC
September 2021

Photonic generation of high-performance microwave frequency combs using an optically injected semiconductor laser with dual-loop optoelectronic feedback.

Opt Lett 2021 Sep;46(18):4622-4625

An approach to generating microwave frequency combs (MFCs) with superior performance is proposed and experimentally demonstrated based on an optically injected semiconductor laser (OISL). The OISL operates at the period-one (P1) oscillation state under proper injection conditions. A sinusoidal voltage signal is used to modulate the P1 state for the initial MFC generation, and then two optoelectronic feedback loops are introduced to enhance the performance of the MFC: a short-delay feedback loop is firstly applied to improve comb contrast based on Fourier domain mode locking (FDML), and a long-delay feedback loop is added to reduce the comb linewidth based on the self-injection-locking technique. In the proof-of-concept experiment, a K-band MFC (18-26 GHz) with a line spacing of 8.45 MHz is obtained, where a comb linewidth of approximately 500 Hz and a comb contrast over 45 dB are simultaneously achieved. Additionally, each comb component exhibits superior performance in terms of phase noise, all below -90/ at 10 kHz offset, demonstrating an excellent coherence among these combs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.437564DOI Listing
September 2021

Association of β-cell function and insulin resistance with pediatric type 2 diabetes among Chinese children.

World J Diabetes 2021 Aug;12(8):1292-1303

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Inherited Metabolic Diseases, National Children's Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 201102, China.

Background: In addition to insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion has recently been identified as a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Scarce clinical data exist for pediatric T2DM.

Aim: To investigate the association of β-cell function and insulin resistance with pediatric T2DM in the first Chinese multicenter study.

Methods: This multicenter cross-sectional study included 161 newly diagnosed T2DM children and adolescents between January 2017 and October 2019. Children with normal glycemic levels ( = 1935) were included as healthy control subjects. The homeostasis models (HOMAs) were used to assess the β-cell function (HOMA2-%B) and insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) levels. The HOMA index was standardized by sex and age. We performed logistic regression analysis to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for T2DM risk using the standardized HOMA index, adjusted for confounding factors including sex, Tanner stage, T2DM family history, body mass index z-score, and lipid profile.

Results: The male-female ratio of newly diagnosed T2DM patients was 1.37:1 (OR = 2.20, = 0.011), and the mean ages of onset for boys and girls were 12.5 ± 1.9 years and 12.3 ± 1.7 years, respectively. The prevalence of related comorbidities including obesity, elevated blood pressure, and dyslipidemia was 58.2%, 53.2%, and 80.0%, respectively. The T2DM group had lower HOMA2-%B levels ( < 0.001) and higher HOMA2-IR levels ( < 0.001) than the control group. Both the decrease in HOMA2-%B z-score (OR = 8.40, 95%CI: 6.40-11.02, < 0.001) and the increase in HOMA2-IR z-score (OR = 1.79, 95%CI: 1.60-2.02, < 0.001) were associated with a higher risk of T2DM, and the decrease in HOMA2-%B z-score always had higher ORs than the increase in HOMA2-IR z-score after adjusting for confounding factors.

Conclusion: Besides insulin resistance, β-cell function impairment is also strongly associated with Chinese pediatric T2DM. Gender difference in susceptibility and high comorbidities warrant specific T2DM screening and prevention strategies in Chinese children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4239/wjd.v12.i8.1292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8394231PMC
August 2021

Oncogenic KRAS is dependent upon an EFR3A-PI4KA signaling axis for potent tumorigenic activity.

Nat Commun 2021 09 9;12(1):5248. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Pharmacology & Cancer Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

The HRAS, NRAS, and KRAS genes are collectively mutated in a fifth of all human cancers. These mutations render RAS GTP-bound and active, constitutively binding effector proteins to promote signaling conducive to tumorigenic growth. To further elucidate how RAS oncoproteins signal, we mined RAS interactomes for potential vulnerabilities. Here we identify EFR3A, an adapter protein for the phosphatidylinositol kinase PI4KA, to preferentially bind oncogenic KRAS. Disrupting EFR3A or PI4KA reduces phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, phosphatidylserine, and KRAS levels at the plasma membrane, as well as oncogenic signaling and tumorigenesis, phenotypes rescued by tethering PI4KA to the plasma membrane. Finally, we show that a selective PI4KA inhibitor augments the antineoplastic activity of the KRAS inhibitor sotorasib, suggesting a clinical path to exploit this pathway. In sum, we have discovered a distinct KRAS signaling axis with actionable therapeutic potential for the treatment of KRAS-mutant cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25523-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8429657PMC
September 2021

When nanoparticle and microbes meet: The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on microbial community and nutrient cycling in hyperaccumulator system.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 28;423(Pt A):126947. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, China; Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Areas, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

Carbon nanotubes can potentially stimulate phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by promoting plant biomass and root growth. Yet, the regulating mechanism of carbon nanotubes on the rhizosphere microenvironment and their potential ecological risks remain poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MCNT) on the diversity and structure of rhizosphere soil bacterial and fungal communities, as well as soil enzyme activities and nutrients, in Solanum nigrum L. (S. nigrum)-soil system. Here, S. nigrum were cultivated in heavy metal(loid)s contaminated soils applied with MCNT (100, 500, and 1000 mg kg by concentration, none MCNT addition as control) for 60 days. Our results demonstrated more significant urease, sucrase, and acid phosphatase activities in MCNT than in control soils, which benefit to promoting plant growth. Also, there were significant reductions in available nitrogen and available potassium contents with the treatment of MCNT, while the organic carbon and available phosphorus were not affected by MCNT application. Notably, the alpha diversity of bacterial and fungal communities in the MCNT treatments did not significantly vary relative to control. However, the soil microbial taxonomic compositions were changed under the application of MCNT. Compared to the control, MCNT application increased the relative abundances of the Micrococcaceae family, Solirubrobacteraceae family, and Conexibacter genus, which were positively correlated with plant growth. In addition, the non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis revealed that the community structure of bacterial and fungal communities did not significantly change among all the treatments, and bacterial community structure was significantly correlated with soil organic carbon. At the same time, sucrase activity had the highest relation to fungal community structure. This study highlighted soil microbes have strong resistance and adaptation ability to carbon nanotubes with existence of plants, and revealed linkage between the rhizosphere microenvironment and plant growth, which well improved our understanding of carbon nanotubes in heavy metal phytoremediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126947DOI Listing
August 2021

Efficiency Comparison of a Novel E2 Subunit Vaccine and a Classic C-Strain Vaccine against Classical Swine Fever.

Vet Sci 2021 Jul 29;8(8). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Comprehensive Prevention and Control for Severe Clinical Animal Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

Classical swine fever (CSF) is one of the most important viral diseases in swine, causing severe economic losses in the swine industry. In China, CSF is one of the key diseases that needs to be controlled; the government has implemented control measures, and vaccination with C-strain vaccines (C-vacs) has been compulsory since the 1950s. C-vacs do not allow the differentiation of field virus-infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). In 2012, China proposed a goal of eradicating CSF. Additionally, a baculovirus-expressed E2 subunit vaccine (E2-vac) was licensed in 2018. However, the C-vac and E2-vac characteristics have not been compared. Here, we demonstrate that both the C-vac and E2-vac provide complete protection against CSF in pigs. The E2-vac allows DIVA, and the E2 antibody responses of stimulated pigs are developed earlier and are stronger than the C-vac antibody responses. Therefore, the E2-vac is a new candidate licensed vaccine to completely eradicate CSF on pig farms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8080148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8402791PMC
July 2021

Targeting Cd coping mechanisms for stress tolerance in under spiked-substrate system: from physiology to remediation perspective.

Int J Phytoremediation 2021 Aug 13:1-15. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, P.R. China.

Cadmium (Cd) is a prevalent, non-essential, carcinogenic, and hazardous heavy metal that reduces plant productivity and capacity of arable land area around the globe. In the present substrate-based pot study, seedlings of 180015 were grown equidistantly in the spiked-substrate medium for 60 days under increasing concentrations of Cd (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mg kg). Following harvest, the morpho-physio-biochemical, antioxidative, and Cd-induced tolerance responses were evaluated in under an increasing Cd stress regime. Additionally, these parameters were also investigated to select the plant's threshold tolerance limit for Cd under the spiked-substrate system. showed dynamic behavior regarding morpho-physio-biochemical attributes, including agronomic features, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, relative water content under increased Cd toxicity. Cd stress-induced hydrogen peroxide (HO) production with high MDA contents and passive EL, followed by the orchestration of both enzymatic (SOD, POD, APX, CAT, and GR) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (flavonoids, TPC, TPA, proline, and total soluble protein) up to a certain limit. In addition, Cd-induced stress upregulated transcriptional levels of antioxidative enzyme , , , and encoded genes in . The increasing trend of Cd accumulation in different tissues at the highest Cd concentration was as follows: root > leaf > stem. In spiked substrate system, demonstrated improved metal extractability performance and a high potential for phyto-management of low to moderate Cd contamination, implying that this study could be used for integrative breeding programs and decontaminating heavy metals in real contaminated scenarios.This study provides an insight into Cd-coping mechanisms of oilseed rape involved in alleviating toxicity and simultaneous phyto-management of increasing Cd concentration under spiked substrate system. The current study is the first scientific evidence of using a Cd-spiked soilless substrate medium. The present study will further strengthen our understanding of Cd-instigated positive responses in . Furthermore, it will provide a useful basis for integrative breeding programs and decontaminating heavy metals in real contaminated scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2021.1960479DOI Listing
August 2021

Metabolic Syndrome and Psoriasis: Mechanisms and Future Directions.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:711060. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, China.

Psoriasis is an immune-mediated systemic disease with associated comorbidities, including metabolic syndrome (MetS) which contributes substantially to premature mortality in patients with psoriasis. However, the pathological mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are unclear. Studies have shown that the pathological parameters of psoriasis mediate the development of MetS. We reviewed the potential mechanisms which mediate the association between psoriasis and MetS, including endoplasmic reticulum stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine releases, excess production of reactive oxygen species, alterations in adipocytokine levels and gut microbiota dysbiosis. Here, we highlight important research questions regarding this association and offer insights into MetS research and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.711060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8343100PMC
July 2021

Enzymatic characteristics and preventive effect of leucine aminopeptidase against Echinococcus multilocularis.

Acta Trop 2021 Oct 22;222:106066. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Research Center for High Altitude Medicine; Qinghai-Utah Joint Research Key Lab for High Altitude Medicine, Xining 810001, China. Electronic address:

Alveolar echinococcosis, a parasitic zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis infection, is a global epidemic in Eurasia and North America. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) of the M17 peptidase family could act on an ideal target antigen in diagnosis and prevention of parasitic diseases (schistosomiasis, malaria, fascioliasis) because of its good immunogenicity. In this study, the bioinformatic and enzymatic characterizations of recombinant Echinococcus multilocularis LAP (rEm-LAP) were evaluated. A prokaryotic expression system for rEm-LAP protein was established and its immunogenicity and preventive efficacy were demonstrated in a BALB/c mice model. This is the first report about the LAP of Echinococcus multilocularis and with a 57.4 KD purified rEm-LAP protein successfully expressed by pCzn1-LAP in Escherichia coli BL-21 cells. Enzymatic analysis results showed optimal rEm-LAP activity at pH 9. Serum indirect ELISA demonstrated that rEm-LAP could induce a Th1 and Th2 mixed-type immunological response and produce high levels of IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgM, and IgA. Furthermore, serum IFN-γ and IL-4 secretion were increased compared with the control groups. Finally, vaccination with rEm-LAP significantly decreased both the number and size of the cysts in Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode infected mice model. The current study provides evidence that rEm-LAP could be a potential vaccine antigen of Echinococcus multilocularis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.106066DOI Listing
October 2021

An efficient cell culture system for the studies of heterogeneous astrocytes: Time gradient digestion.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 10 22;362:109292. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Laboratory of Medical Systems Biology, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, 510623 Guangzhou, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Research in Structural Birth Defect Disease, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, 510623 Guangzhou, China; Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 450052 Zhengzhou, China; School of Medicine, South China University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cell type in mammal brain, but there exists a lot of unknown in cell development and cell function. We aim to establish an astrocytes culture system for obtaining highly enriched primary astrocytes from the neonatal mouse brain and separating Aldh1l1Gfap and Aldh1l1Gfap cells.

New Method: C57BL/J6 mouse pups at postnatal 1-4 days were used for cell preparation. Brain cortex was collected and digested with 0.25% trypsin followed by 0.5 mg/ml DNase. Cells were plated on PDL-coated flasks. After 8-10 days culture, cells were shaken at 260 rpm for 4 h at 37 ℃ to remove oligodendrocytes and microglia cells. Time gradient digestion was performed to obtain astrocyte subtypes. The digestion time was 0-2 min and 2-4 min, and 4-6 min. Flow cytometry, Immunostaining, CCK-8 assay and EdU staining was carried out to investigate the purity of the astrocytes, the ability of cell proliferation and to identify different subtypes.

Results: After shaking, percentage of oligodendrocytes significantly decreased from 22.6 ± 3.6% to 7.4 ± 1.4% (CNPase cells) and from 4.36 ± 0.6% to 0.75 ± 0.2% (Pdgfrα cells) while percentage of microglia cells reduced from 4.4 ± 0.2% to 0.6 ± 0.2%. Aldh1l1Gfap astrocytes were the dominant cell types in 0-2 min group while Aldh1l1Gfap astrocytes were the dominant cell types in 2-4 min group. Moreover, compared with Aldh1l1Gfap astrocytes, Aldh1l1Gfap astrocytes had a higher proliferative ability.

Comparison With Existing Methods: Aldh1l1Gfap and Aldh1l1Gfap cells were separated. The percentage of residual Tmem119 and Gfap cells showed no significant difference. However, the percentage of Pdgfrα cells were significant decreased, and the time consuming of the new system was lower. The astrocytes acquired possess higher viability.

Conclusions: A new astrocytes culture system with time gradient digestion was established. Highly enriched primary astrocytes from the neonatal mouse brain were obtained with short shaking time. Aldh1l1Gfap and Aldh1l1Gfap cells were separated by different digestion condition. This system has advantages of high efficiency and low cost, which deserves promising application in management of astrocytes research in central nerve system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2021.109292DOI Listing
October 2021

Dynamic regulation of membrane integrity to enhance l-malate stress tolerance in Candida glabrata.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Nov 31;118(11):4347-4359. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.

Microbial cell factories provide a sustainable and economical way to produce chemicals from renewable feedstocks. However, the accumulation of targeted chemicals can reduce the robustness of the industrial strains and affect the production performance. Here, the physiological functions of Mediator tail subunit CgMed16 at l-malate stress were investigated. Deletion of CgMed16 decreased the survival, biomass, and half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC ) by 40.4%, 34.0%, and 30.6%, respectively, at 25 g/L l-malate stress. Transcriptome analysis showed that this growth defect was attributable to changes in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. In addition, tolerance transcription factors CgUSV1 and CgYAP3 were found to interact with CgMed16 to regulate sterol biosynthesis and glycerophospholipid metabolism, respectively, ultimately endowing strains with excellent membrane integrity to resist l-malate stress. Furthermore, a dynamic tolerance system (DTS) was constructed based on CgUSV1, CgYAP3, and an l-malate-driven promoter P to improve the robustness and productive capacity of Candida glabrata. As a result, the biomass, survival, and membrane integrity of C. glabrata 012 (with DTS) increased by 22.6%, 31.3%, and 53.8%, respectively, compared with those of strain 011 (without DTS). Therefore, at shake-flask scale, strain 012 accumulated 35.5 g/L l-malate, and the titer and productivity of l-malate increased by 32.5% and 32.1%, respectively, compared with those of strain 011. This study provides a novel strategy for the rational design and construction of DTS for dynamically enhancing the robustness of industrial strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.27903DOI Listing
November 2021

The regulation of ferroptosis by MESH1 through the activation of the integrative stress response.

Cell Death Dis 2021 07 22;12(8):727. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

All organisms exposed to metabolic and environmental stresses have developed various stress adaptive strategies to maintain homeostasis. The main bacterial stress survival mechanism is the stringent response triggered by the accumulation "alarmone" (p)ppGpp, whose level is regulated by RelA and SpoT. While metazoan genomes encode MESH1 (Metazoan SpoT Homolog 1) with ppGpp hydrolase activity, neither ppGpp nor the stringent response is found in metazoa. The deletion of Mesh1 in Drosophila triggers a transcriptional response reminiscent of the bacterial stringent response. However, the function of MESH1 remains unknown until our recent discovery of MESH1 as the first cytosolic NADPH phosphatase that regulates ferroptosis. To further understand whether MESH1 knockdown triggers a similar transcriptional response in mammalian cells, here, we employed RNA-Seq to analyze the transcriptome response to MESH1 knockdown in human cancer cells. We find that MESH1 knockdown induced different genes involving endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, especially ATF3, one of the ATF4-regulated genes in the integrative stress responses (ISR). Furthermore, MESH1 knockdown increased ATF4 protein, eIF2a phosphorylation, and induction of ATF3, XBPs, and CHOP mRNA. ATF4 induction contributes to ~30% of the transcriptome induced by MESH1 knockdown. Concurrent ATF4 knockdown re-sensitizes MESH1-depleted RCC4 cells to ferroptosis, suggesting its role in the ferroptosis protection mediated by MESH1 knockdown. ATF3 induction is abolished by the concurrent knockdown of NADK, implicating a role of NADPH accumulation in the integrative stress response. Collectively, these results suggest that MESH1 depletion triggers ER stress and ISR as a part of its overall transcriptome changes to enable stress survival of cancer cells. Therefore, the phenotypic similarity of stress tolerance caused by MESH1 removal and NADPH accumulation is in part achieved by ISR to regulate ferroptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-04018-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298397PMC
July 2021

High-speed secure key distribution based on chaos synchronization in optically pumped QD spin-polarized VCSELs.

Opt Express 2021 Jun;29(13):19675-19689

We propose and numerically demonstrate a high-speed secure key distribution (SKD) based on polarization-keying chaos synchronization in two quantum dot (QD) spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) without any external feedback. In this scheme, high-quality chaos synchronization can be obtained when the response lasers have the same polarization ellipticity. The proposed SKD scheme is benefited from the feasible tunability of the pump polarization ellipticity, and no other complex components are necessary. Moreover, the open-loop configuration is constructed in the commonly driven lasers and results in a short synchronization recovery time of hundreds of picoseconds, which is much shorter than that in most previous reports. Combined with these merits, a 1.34 Gb/s SKD with a bit error ratio lower than 3.8 × 10 can be achieved. The current study provides a new way to realize high-speed physical key distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.426126DOI Listing
June 2021

3D face imaging with the spatial-temporal correlation method using a rotary speckle projector.

Appl Opt 2021 Jul;60(20):5925-5935

In this paper, a compact, cost-effective, and fast rotary speckle projector (RSP) is designed and manufactured for high-precision three-dimensional (3D) face data acquisition. Compared with the common speckle projectors, RSP uses a simple speckle pattern design method and has a good performance in high-speed projection and compact structure, which allows a flexible balance between measurement accuracy and time cost in a real acquisition task. Using a carefully designed rotation angle of the speckle mask, temporally and spatially non-correlative speckle patterns in the measurement volume can be generated. The rotation angle of the speckle mask is carefully checked and optimally selected via detailed theoretical analysis, simulation, and experiments to ensure 3D reconstruction accuracy across the reconstruction area. Subsequently, a binocular 3D face imaging system composed of the RSP and two cameras is constructed. With captured stereo speckle image pairs, we adopted our previously well-established spatial-temporal correlation method to determine the disparity. The accuracy of the 3D face imaging system was verified by using a real face mask, which is standardized by a certified, high-precision industrial 3D scanner. The real face data collection under various expressions has demonstrated that the proposed system also has a good performance for 3D face imaging in dynamic scenes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.430101DOI Listing
July 2021

Phytoremediation of secondary saline soil by halophytes with the enhancement of γ-polyglutamic acid.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 7;285:131450. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Chongqing, 400715, China. Electronic address:

Soil salinization has severely affected the quality of tillage land in China, and most greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb suffer from secondary salinization with high salinity levels dominated by Ca, Mg and NO. In this work, a sandy loam soil (Calcaric Fluvisols) contaminated by the above ions was selected as research object, and the binding conditions and abilities of γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) to water-soluble Ca and Mg in the soil were examined, and then pot experiments were conducted to remove Ca, Mg and NO by two halophytes (Sedum aizoon L., Sesbania cannabina Pers.) integrated with γ-PGA application. The results showed that under the conditions of adding 1000 mg Lγ-PGA (pH 7) and 25 °C, the binding efficiencies of Ca and Mg were 51.59% and 68.03%, respectively. Compared with Sesbania cannabina Pers., Sedum aizoon L. displayed better remediation performance for the soil with γ-PGA application in pot experiments, and the removal efficiencies of Ca, Mg and NO reached 93.25%, 94.78% and 84.26% after applying 1000 mg Lγ-PGA for 56 d, respectively. Moreover, γ-PGA application could mitigate salt stress and promote plant growth, and activate antioxidant defense systems. Compared with the control, 1000 mg Lγ-PGA application significantly increased plant height and fresh weight of Sedum aizoon L., and the removal efficiencies of Ca, Mg and NO increased by 45.48%, 82.62% and 69.91%, respectively. In the future, more in-depth mechanism of joint effect and field-scale investigation need to be further studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131450DOI Listing
July 2021

Feline Stool-Associated Circular DNA Virus (FeSCV) in Diarrheic Cats in China.

Front Vet Sci 2021 16;8:694089. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Feline stool-associated circular DNA virus (FeSCV) is an unclassified circular replication-associated protein-encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA virus that was discovered in cats in Japan in 2018. Few studies on the genomic characteristics and prevalence of FeSCV have been conducted. To investigate whether FeSCV has been circulating in domestic cats in Guangdong, China, fecal samples were collected from cats with diarrhea in an animal hospital in 2018 to promote research on FeSCV. The FeSCV genome was obtained by PCR amplification and sequencing, and the detected virus was named PY4 (GenBank No. MT732515). The genome of PY4 was 2,034 nt in size, which was 12 nt smaller than the reported genome of Japanese FeSCV strains (KU7, KU8, KU9, KU14) (2,046 nt). The PY4 strain shared 95.1 ~ 95.5% homology with Japanese FeSCV strains. Notably, the Cap protein of PY4 was mutated at 15 amino acid sites, and the PY4 genome contained a unique open reading frame 3. In addition, there were two additional base insertions in the stem-loop structure of PY4, and the nucleotide homology of the spacer region was not high. A phylogenetic tree based on Rep proteins showed that PY4, Japanese FeSCVs and rodent stool-associated circular viruses (RodSCVs) clustered together, suggesting that they might share a similar origin in their phylogenetic evolution. In this study, samples collected in Guangzhou, China, in 2018 were subjected to an etiological investigation, and 20% (2/10) of the samples were positive for FeSCV. The ORFs, stem-loop structures, Cap proteins and intergenic region sequences of PY4 were significantly different from those reported in Japan. This is the first report of FeSCV in domestic cats with diarrhea in China, and further epidemiological studies are urgently needed to assess the impact of the virus on cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.694089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242157PMC
June 2021

Broad tunable photonic microwave generation in an optically pumped spin-VCSEL with optical feedback stabilization.

Opt Lett 2021 Jul;46(13):3147-3150

We propose and numerically demonstrate a photonic microwave generation scheme based on the dynamic period-one oscillation of a solitary spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (spin-VCSEL). The evolution of the oscillation amplitude, frequency, power, and linewidth of the generated microwave is systematically investigated by using two-dimensional maps. The results show that the generated microwave signals with a dominant linewidth of about 3 MHz have a broad tunable frequency (from several gigahertz to hundreds of gigahertz), which benefits from the birefringence-induced oscillation in spin-VCSELs. Moreover, with the help of optical feedback, the microwave linewidth can be effectively minimized (∼51) by increasing the feedback strength and feedback delay time. Importantly, this Letter offers prospects for applications requiring a feasible and resource-efficient microwave source in microwave photonic fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.431184DOI Listing
July 2021

Genetic aetiology of primary adrenal insufficiency in Chinese children.

BMC Med Genomics 2021 06 30;14(1):172. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wan Yuan Road, Shanghai, 201102, People's Republic of China.

Background: Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is life-threatening, and a definitive aetiological diagnosis is essential for management and prognostication. We conducted this study to investigate the genetic aetiologies of PAI in South China and explore their clinical features.

Methods: Seventy children were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Clinical information was collected, and combined genetic tests were performed according to the children's manifestations. Statistical analysis was performed among the different groups. In silico or in vitro experiments were applied to determine the pathogenicity of novel variants.

Results: Among the 70 children, 84.3% (59/70) were diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) was genetically confirmed in 91.5% of these cases. Salt wasting (SW), simple virilization (SV), and non-classic (NC) CAH accounted for 66.1% (39/59), 30.5% (18/59), and 3.4% (2/59) of the cases, respectively. The 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and testosterone (TES) levels were significantly higher in children with SW than with SV. The 17-OHP and cortisol levels in female SW patients were significantly higher than those in males. The 17-OHP, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) and TES levels in female SW patients were significantly higher than those in female SV patients. Additionally, 72.7% (8/11) of uncharacterized PAI patients had positive genetic findings. Among all the patients, two novel variants in the CYP21A2 gene (c.833dupT and c.651 + 2T > G) were found. A microdeletion (Xp21.2-21.3) and five novel variants, including 2 in the NR0B1 gene (c.323-324CG > GA and c.1231_1234delCTCA), 2 in the AAAS gene (c.399 + 1G > A and c.250delT) and 1 in the NNT gene (c.2274delT), were detected. The novel variant c.399 + 1G > A in the AAAS gene was further confirmed to lead to exon 4 skipping during mRNA transcription and produce a truncated ALADIN protein.

Conclusions: We found ethnicity-based differences in the CYP21A2 gene variant spectrum among different study populations. Female 21-OHD patients tended to have higher 17-OHP and TES levels, which warrants caution in relation to the effects of virilization. Novel gene variants detected in the CYP21A2, NR0B1, AAAS and NNT genes expanded the genetic spectrum of PAI, however, further improvement of genetic testing tools beyond our protocol are still needed to uncover the complete aetiology of PAI in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12920-021-01021-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243448PMC
June 2021

Characterizing the chaotic dynamics of a semiconductor nanolaser subjected to FBG feedback.

Opt Express 2021 Jun;29(12):17815-17830

Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor nanolasers subjected to distributed feedbacks from fiber Bragg grating (FBG) are investigated through modified rate equations, which include the unique Purcell cavity-enhanced spontaneous emission factor F and spontaneous emission coupling factor β. In the analysis, the effects of F, β, frequency detuning, feedback strength, feedback delay, FBG bandwidth and length on chaotic performance are evaluated. It is observed that the approach of FBG feedback outperforms mirror feedback in terms of concealing time-delay signature and increasing effective bandwidth by choosing intermediate feedback strength and frequency detuning. Additionally, chaotic regions and the corresponding chaotic characteristics are revealed by dynamical mappings of nanolasers subjected to FBG feedback. The results show that decreased F, β and increased FBG bandwidth can extend the parameter range of chaos. However, the variation of feedback delay and FBG length has no obvious effect on TDS suppression and effective bandwidth enhancement. Most importantly, high quality optical chaos with low TDS and high effective bandwidth induced by increased dispersion is obtained within broad parameter regions considered, which is beneficial to achieving chaos-based applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.427541DOI Listing
June 2021

Arhgef2 regulates neural differentiation in the cerebral cortex through mRNA mA-methylation of Npdc1 and Cend1.

iScience 2021 Jun 24;24(6):102645. Epub 2021 May 24.

Laboratory of Medical Systems Biology, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, 510623 Guangzhou, China.

-methyladenosine (mA) is emerging as a vital factor regulating neural differentiation. Here, we report that deficiency of , a novel cause of a neurodevelopmental disorder we identified recently, impairs neurogenesis, neurite outgrowth, and synaptic formation by regulating mA methylation. knockout decreases expression of and total mA level significantly in the cerebral cortex. mA sequencing reveals that loss of reduces mA methylation of 1,622 mRNAs, including and which are both strongly associated with cell cycle exit and terminal neural differentiation. deficiency decreases mA methylations of the and mRNAs via down-regulation of Mettl14, and thereby inhibits the translation of and nuclear export of mRNAs. Overexpression of Mettl14, Npdc1, and Cend1 rescue the abnormal phenotypes in knockout mice, respectively. Our study provides a critical insight into a mechanism by which defective mediates mA-tagged target mRNAs to impair neural differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185223PMC
June 2021
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