Publications by authors named "Pei Dong"

256 Publications

Special issue "The advance of solid tumor research in China": 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT for evaluating primary and metastatic lesions in different histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma.

Int J Cancer 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Urology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 651 Dongfeng Road East, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Conventional imaging examinations are not sensitive enough for the early detection of recurrent or metastatic lesions in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. We aimed to explore the role of Ga- prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-11 positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the detection of primary and metastatic lesions in such patients. We retrospectively analyzed 50 RCC patients who underwent Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT from November 2017 to December 2020. We observed a higher median accuracy and tumor-to-background maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) ratio (TBR) of Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in clear cell RCC (ccRCC; 96.57% and 6.00, respectively) than in non-clear cell RCC (ncRCC; 82.05% and 2.99, respectively). The accuracies in detecting lesions in the renal region, bone, lymph nodes, and lungs in ccRCC were 100.00%, 95.00%, 98.08%, and 75.00%, respectively, and those in the renal region, bone, and lymph nodes in ncRCC were 100.00%, 86.67%, and 36.36%, respectively. The median TBRs of the lesions from the above locations were 0.38, 10.96, 6.69, and 13.71, respectively, in ccRCC and 0.13, 4.02, and 0.73, respectively, in ncRCC. The PSMA score evaluated with immunohistochemistry was correlated with the SUVmax (P = 0.046) in RCC. Higher PSMA scores were observed in ccRCC than in ncRCC (P = 0.031). Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT resulted in changes in clinical management in 12.9% (4/31) of cases because of the discovery of new metastases not detected with conventional imaging. These results indicate that Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT is a promising method for the detection of metastatic lesions in ccRCC, especially for those in the bone and lymph nodes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.34189DOI Listing
June 2022

Metabolome and Transcriptome Profiling Unveil the Mechanisms of Polyphenol Synthesis in the Developing Endopleura of Walnut ( L.).

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 14;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation of the State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China.

Walnut ( L.) is an important woody nut tree species, and its endopleura (the inner coating of a seed) is rich in many polyphenols. Thus far, the pathways and essential genes involved in polyphenol biosynthesis in developing walnut endopleura remain largely unclear. We compared metabolite differences between endopleura and embryo in mature walnuts, and analyzed the changes of metabolites in endopleura at 35, 63, 91, 119, and 147 days after pollination (DAP). A total of 760 metabolites were detected in the metabolome, and the polyphenol contents in endopleura were higher than those in embryos. A total of 15 types of procyanidins, 10 types of kaempferol glycosides, and 21 types of quercetin glycosides that accumulated during endopleura development were identified. The analysis of the phenylpropane metabolic pathway showed that phenylalanine was gradually transformed into proanthocyanidins and other secondary metabolites with the development of endopleura. A total of 49 unigenes related to polyphenol synthesis were identified by transcriptome analysis of endopleura. The expression patterns of , , , , , , , and were similar, and their expression levels were highest in endopleura at maturity. Transcriptome and metabolome analysis showed that endopleura rapidly synthesized and accumulated polyphenols during maturation. Moreover, the transcription factor MYB111 played an important role in synthesizing polyphenols in endopleura, and its expression pattern was positively correlated with the accumulation pattern of quercetin, kaempferol, and proanthocyanidins. was co-expressed with , , , and other genes related to cell senescence and abiotic stress response. Our study analyzed the composition and molecular synthesis mechanism of polyphenols in walnut endopleura, and provided new perspectives and insights regarding the nutritional research of walnut nuts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23126623DOI Listing
June 2022

Fentanyl Assay Derived from Intermolecular Interaction-Enabled Small Molecule Recognition (iMSR) with Differential Impedance Analysis for Point-of-Care Testing.

Anal Chem 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, United States.

Rapid and effective differentiation and quantification of a small molecule drug, such as fentanyl, in bodily fluids are major challenges for diagnosis and personal medication. However, the current toxicology methods used to measure drug concentration and metabolites require laboratory-based testing, which is not an efficient or cost-effective way to treat patients in a timely manner. Here, we show an assay for monitoring fentanyl levels by combining the intermolecular interaction-enabled small molecule recognition (iMSR) with differential impedance analysis of conjugated polymers. The differential interactions with the designed anchor interface were transduced through the perturbance of the electric status of the flexible conducting polymer. This assay showed excellent fentanyl selectivity against common interferences, as well as in variable body fluids through either testing strips or skin patches. Directly using the patient blood, the sensor provided 1%-5% of the average deviation compared to the "gold" standard method LC-MS results in the medically relevant fentanyl range of 20-90 nM. The superior sensing properties, in conjunction with mechanical flexibility and compatibility, enabled point-of-care detection and provided a promising avenue for applications beyond the scope of biomarker detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.2c00017DOI Listing
June 2022

Phenotypic Differences and Physiological Responses of Salt Resistance of Walnut with Four Rootstock Types.

Plants (Basel) 2022 Jun 13;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 13.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation of the State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China.

Walnut is one of the world's four largest nuts. Currently, the bottleneck in walnut breeding is the production of resistant variants. Soil salinization is a global problem, and the use of salt-tolerant rootstocks is a basic strategy to overcome the challenge of sustained walnut production. Providing a scientific basis for the selection of walnut salt-tolerant rootstocks is possible by studying the physiological and biochemical response characteristics and salt tolerance variations of different walnut genotypes under salt stress. In the present study, seedlings of four genotypes of walnut rootstocks, including J (), J (), J ( × ), and J ( × ), were employed as test materials to conduct a 28-day pot experiment under NaCl stress with five NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, and 300 mmol/L). Under different NaCl treatment concentrations, seedling morphology, growth indices, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, relative electrical conductivity (REC), malondialdehyde (MDA), proline (Pro), soluble sugar (SS), and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the leaves were examined. Salt stress altered the morphological characteristics and growth indices of seedlings from four genotypes to varying degrees. In addition, according to the analysis of physiological and biochemical data, salt stress had a considerable impact on both the physiological and biochemical processes of seedlings. Salt stress decreased the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic parameters of four genotypes, the REC, MDA content, Pro content, and SS content of each genotype increased by different degrees, and the enzymatic activities showed different trends. The salt tolerance of rootstocks was evaluated thoroughly using principal component analysis and membership function analysis based on the 16 parameters. The results of a comprehensive evaluation of salt tolerance showed that the order of salt tolerance of the four genotypes was J > J > J > J, which corresponded to the order of the morphological symptoms of salt injury. In conclusion, J has strong salt tolerance and is an important germplasm resource for walnut salt-tolerant rootstock breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants11121557DOI Listing
June 2022

Synergistic anti-proliferative activity of JQ1 and GSK2801 in triple-negative breast cancer.

BMC Cancer 2022 Jun 8;22(1):627. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Biostatistics & Data Science, University of Kansas, Medical Center, KS, Kansas City, USA.

Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) constitutes 10-20% of breast cancers and is challenging to treat due to a lack of effective targeted therapies. Previous studies in TNBC cell lines showed in vitro growth inhibition when JQ1 or GSK2801 were administered alone, and enhanced activity when co-administered. Given their respective mechanisms of actions, we hypothesized the combinatorial effect could be due to the target genes affected. Hence the target genes were characterized for their expression in the TNBC cell lines to prove the combinatorial effect of JQ1 and GSK2801.

Methods: RNASeq data sets of TNBC cell lines (MDA-MB-231, HCC-1806 and SUM-159) were analyzed to identify the differentially expressed genes in single and combined treatments. The topmost downregulated genes were characterized for their downregulated expression in the TNBC cell lines treated with JQ1 and GSK2801 under different dose concentrations and combinations. The optimal lethal doses were determined by cytotoxicity assays. The inhibitory activity of the drugs was further characterized by molecular modelling studies.

Results: Global expression profiling of TNBC cell lines using RNASeq revealed different expression patterns when JQ1 and GSK2801 were co-administered. Functional enrichment analyses identified several metabolic pathways (i.e., systemic lupus erythematosus, PI3K-Akt, TNF, JAK-STAT, IL-17, MAPK, Rap1 and signaling pathways) enriched with upregulated and downregulated genes when combined JQ1 and GSK2801 treatment was administered. RNASeq identified downregulation of PTPRC, MUC19, RNA5-8S5, KCNB1, RMRP, KISS1 and TAGLN (validated by RT-qPCR) and upregulation of GPR146, SCARA5, HIST2H4A, CDRT4, AQP3, MSH5-SAPCD1, SENP3-EIF4A1, CTAGE4 and RNASEK-C17orf49 when cells received both drugs. In addition to differential gene regulation, molecular modelling predicted binding of JQ1 and GSK2801 with PTPRC, MUC19, KCNB1, TAGLN and KISS1 proteins, adding another mechanism by which JQ1 and GSK2801 could elicit changes in metabolism and proliferation.

Conclusion: JQ1-GSK2801 synergistically inhibits proliferation and results in selective gene regulation. Besides suggesting that combinatorial use could be useful therapeutics for the treatment of TNBC, the findings provide a glimpse into potential mechanisms of action for this combination therapy approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-022-09690-2DOI Listing
June 2022

BSA-Cu(PO) hybrid nanoflowers as a high-performance redox indicator for robust label-free electrochemical immunoassay.

Anal Chim Acta 2022 Jun 26;1210:339873. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710127, PR China. Electronic address:

In this work, we report that copper ion-centered hybrid nanoflowers (HNFs) can directly act as high-performance redox indicator via a facile one-step coprecipitation methodology. By altering the bovine serum albumin (BSA) concentration in the coprecipitation synthesis system, the nucleation, growth and electrochemical activities of BSA-Cu(PO) HNFs could be well regulated. Thanks to the intrinsic redox activity and high specific surface area of BSA-Cu(PO) HNFs, it could be utilized not only as the direct electrochemical signal indicator, but also acted as nanocarriers for loading numerous detection antibodies, which was further employed for robust label-free electrochemical immunoassay of α-fetoprotein (AFP). This assay evaded the fussy labeling procedure and the addition of extra redox-active substances in the test solutions, greatly improved the accuracy and stability of the immunosensor. The strategy sheds light on exploring the electrochemical redox indicator, with great adaptability for the routine biosensing application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2022.339873DOI Listing
June 2022

Electron transport layer assisted by nickel chloride hexahydrate for open-circuit voltage improvement in MAPbI perovskite solar cells.

RSC Adv 2022 May 9;12(22):13820-13825. Epub 2022 May 9.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Light Conversion Materials and Biophotonics, Department of Chemistry, Renmin University of China Beijing 100872 China

SnO is a promising electron transport layer (ETL) material with important applications in planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, electron-hole recombination and charge extraction between SnO and the perovskite layer necessitates further exploration. Nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl·6HO) was introduced into the SnO ETL, which significantly increased the power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 15.49 to 17.36% and the open-circuit voltage ( ) from 1.078 to 1.104 V. The improved PCE and were attributed to the reduced defect states and increased energy level of the conduction band minimum. This work provides new insights into optimizing the and PCE of PSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra01913bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9082779PMC
May 2022

Locoregional recurrence after nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma: Feasibility and outcomes of different treatment modalities.

Cancer Med 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Locoregional recurrence after nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rare with diverse manifestations. The selection criteria and efficacy of different treatments are unanswered. The objective was to compare different treatment modalities and present data on stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for recurrent RCC.

Materials And Methods: Patients with locoregional recurrence after nephrectomy without distant metastasis were identified from institutional big data intelligence platform between 2001 and 2020. Patients receiving local therapy (surgery or SBRT) or systemic therapy alone (targeted therapy or PD-1 inhibitors) were divided into two groups. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method, Cox regression model. Patients were matched with propensity score matching.

Results: Among 106 patients, 33 (31.1%) received systemic therapy alone and 73 (68.9%) received local therapy. Local therapy was surgery in 34 patients (32.1%) and SBRT in 39 (36.8%) patients. Patients treated with systemic therapy alone had more non-clear cell type (p = 0.044), more advanced T stage (p = 0.006), higher number (p = 0.043) but smaller size of lesions (p = 0.042). Patients receiving local therapy had significantly longer PFS than systemic therapy (19.7 vs. 7.5 months, p = 0.001). After matching, the PFS in the local therapy group remained higher (23.9 vs. 7.5 months, p = 0.001). The 2-year OS of the local therapy group and systemic therapy group was 91.6% and 71.8%, respectively (p = 0.084). Local therapy was associated with better PFS (HR 0.37; p = 0.0003) and OS (HR 0.23; p = 0.002) in multivariate analysis. Grade 2 or higher toxicities related to local therapy occurred in nine patients.

Conclusions: Local therapy could delay disease progression compared with systemic therapy alone. SBRT is safe and effective for locally recurrent RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4790DOI Listing
May 2022

Role of Sam68 in Sunitinib induced renal cell carcinoma apoptosis.

Cancer Med 2022 Apr 10. Epub 2022 Apr 10.

Department of Urology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.

Sunitinib is one of the first-line targeted drugs for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with dual effects of antiangiogensis and proapoptosis. Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis, 68 KDa), is found being involved in cell apoptosis. This article reveals that Sam68 impacts the sensitivity to sunitinib by mediating the apoptosis of RCC cells. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that the Sam68 expression levels in sunitinib sensitive tumor tissues were markedly higher than those in sunitinib resistant tumor tissues. Sunitinib induced RCC cell apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner and inhibited the expression of total and phosphorylated Sam68 (p-Sam68). Downregulation of Sam68 expression inhibited RCC cell apoptosis induced by sunitinib. While upregulation of Sam68 expression could enhance apoptosis induced by sunitinib. Xenograft models showed that tumors in the Sam68-knockdown group did not shrink as much as those in the control group after treatment with sunitinib for 4 weeks. Together, our results suggest that Sam68 expression is associated with the sensitivity of ccRCC patients to sunitinib. Sam68 may promote cell apoptosis induced by sunitinib, and the Sam68 expression level may be a biomarker for predicting sunitinib sensitivity in ccRCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4743DOI Listing
April 2022

A MOF derived bifunctional electrocatalyst NiZnC-MoC with enhanced performance for overall water splitting.

Dalton Trans 2022 May 3;51(17):6654-6662. Epub 2022 May 3.

Institute of Special Materials and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

The efficiency and cost of electrocatalysts are critical factors restricting their application in water electrochemical decomposition. In recent years, transition metal carbides (TMCs) have been highlighted due to their unique characteristics for water splitting: good conductivity and stability. However, their electrochemical performance required further optimization. In this work, a distinct non-solvent method was utilized to achieve a NiZnC-MoC/Ni foam (NF) catalyst, which exhibited a nanoflower structure with efficient exposed active sites. Moreover, the synergistic effect between the Mo and Ni species greatly affected its HER and OER performance. NiZnC-MoC/NF showed excellent electrocatalytic performance with small overpotentials of 58 mV and 257 mV at 10 mA cm for the HER and OER, respectively. To our delight, the overall water splitting could be driven by only 1.56 V. This work not only demonstrates an excellent bifunctional electrocatalyst for overall water splitting but also provides another method for polymetallic carbide preparation and activity optimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2dt00673aDOI Listing
May 2022

Immune checkpoint inhibitors further aggravate proteinuria in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma after long-term targeted therapy.

Transl Androl Urol 2022 Mar;11(3):386-396

Department of Urology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Increasing number of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) are receiving subsequent programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) inhibitor combination therapy following tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance. To explore whether PD-1 inhibitor would further deteriorate proteinuria and renal function, we observed their proteinuria's and renal function's condition since the administration of PD-1 inhibitor.

Methods: To assess the change in proteinuria and renal function, the data of 141 patients with mRCC treated with TKI were collected, 66 of whom were further prescribed PD-1 inhibitor. Proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were measured and analyzed. Logistic regression models were established to identify the predictors of proteinuria deterioration and significant eGFR decline (≥15%).

Results: Of the 141 patients, 74 (52%) had an increase in proteinuria level after an average of 22.98 months of TKI treatment. In multivariate analysis, longer duration of TKI (>12 months) and administration of PD-1 inhibitor were independent predictors for proteinuria deterioration. The median eGFR decreased from 81.56 mL/min/1.73 m to 66.75 mL/min/1.73 m after TKI treatment. Logistic regression identified older age (>60 years old) and longer duration of TKI (>12 months) as independent predictors for significant eGFR decline. Finally, of the 66 patients who received subsequent PD-1 inhibitor, 34 had sufficient proteinuria and eGFR data at follow-up. The level of proteinuria increased further after the administration of PD-1 inhibitor, although the decrease in eGFR was not statistically significant (P=0.182). Log-rank analysis identified proteinuria deterioration and eGFR decline were both significantly associated with patent's survival (P<0.001).

Conclusions: Targeted therapy was associated with an increase in proteinuria level and a decrease in eGFR in patients with mRCC. The administration of PD-1 inhibitor contributed to exacerbation in proteinuria, but no significant difference in a decrease of eGFR was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-21-1015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8984970PMC
March 2022

Comprehensive separation of a wide variety of compounds from olive leaves by counter-current chromatography with three-phase solvent system.

J Sep Sci 2022 Jun 6;45(11):1942-1951. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

CAS Key Laboratory of Chemistry of Northwestern Plant Resources and Key Laboratory of Natural Medicine of Gansu Province, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Lanzhou, P. R. China.

The three-phase solvent system counter-current chromatography has been of great research interest, because it can separate compounds with a wide range of polarity. The solvent system of n-hexane/methyl tert-butyl ether/acetonitrile/water (5:5:7:5, v/v) was used for counter-current chromatographic comprehensive separation of olive leaves. The study adopted the normal elution mode. The middle phase and the lower phase (at a volume ratio of 7:3) were pumped into the column simultaneously, followed by eluting with the upper, middle, and lower phases in sequence. The retention rate of the stationary phase measured by the experiment was 73.5%. The upper phase was used to elute the nonpolar compounds, then the mobile phase was switched to the middle phase to elute the moderately hydrophobic compounds, finally, the polar compounds were eluted by the lower phase remaining in the chromatographic column. This method successfully separated eight compounds in one step within 270 min and five compounds were identified. The logP values of these five compounds were 7.44, 7.86, 4.16, -0.11, and 0.96, respectively, covering a wide range of polarities. The present study demonstrated that the three-phase solvent has a strong extraction capacity for ingredients from extremely hydrophilic compounds to extremely hydrophobic compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202200050DOI Listing
June 2022

Liquid metal-tailored gluten network for protein-based e-skin.

Nat Commun 2022 03 8;13(1):1206. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Institute of Special Materials and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Designing electronic skin (e-skin) with proteins is a critical way to endow e-skin with biocompatibility, but engineering protein structures to achieve controllable mechanical properties and self-healing ability remains a challenge. Here, we develop a hybrid gluten network through the incorporation of a eutectic gallium indium alloy (EGaIn) to design a self-healable e-skin with improved mechanical properties. The intrinsic reversible disulfide bond/sulfhydryl group reconfiguration of gluten networks is explored as a driving force to introduce EGaIn as a chemical cross-linker, thus inducing secondary structure rearrangement of gluten to form additional β-sheets as physical cross-linkers. Remarkably, the obtained gluten-based material is self-healing, achieves synthetic material-like stretchability (>1600%) and possesses the ability to promote skin cell proliferation. The final e-skin is biocompatible and biodegradable and can sense strain changes from human motions of different scales. The protein network microregulation method paves the way for future skin-like protein-based e-skin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-28901-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8904466PMC
March 2022

Bifunctional catalysts of Ni nanoparticle coupled MoO nanorods for overall water splitting.

Dalton Trans 2022 Mar 15;51(11):4532-4540. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Institute of Special Materials and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

The development of active and cost-effective bifunctional catalysts is crucial for water dissociation through electrolysis. In this study, bifunctional catalysts with Ni nanoparticles (NPs) anchored on MoO nanorods have been synthesized dissolution of NiMoO-ZIF under an inert atmosphere without using hydrogen gas. The Ni-MoO catalyst exhibits high electrocatalytic activity by modulating the calcination temperature. Benefitingfrom the MOF transformation and accompanying Ni particles' outward diffusion, a precisely designed interface heterostructure between Ni and MoO was constructed. As a result, the optimized Ni-MoO catalyst achieves extremely low overpotentials of only 24 mV and 275 mV at 10 mA cm for the hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction, respectively. Furthermore, the catalyst required a small cell voltage of 1.55 V to deliver a current density of 10 mA cm and remained stable over 20 h for overall water splitting. The proposed MOF-derived heterojunction protocol provides a general approach for designing and fabricating transition metal oxide catalysts for water electrolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2dt00022aDOI Listing
March 2022

Deep learning-based single-shot autofocus method for digital microscopy.

Biomed Opt Express 2022 Jan 14;13(1):314-327. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Tencent AI Lab, Shenzhen 518054, China.

Digital pathology is being transformed by artificial intelligence (AI)-based pathological diagnosis. One major challenge for correct AI diagnoses is to ensure the focus quality of captured images. Here, we propose a deep learning-based single-shot autofocus method for microscopy. We use a modified MobileNetV3, a lightweight network, to predict the defocus distance with a single-shot microscopy image acquired at an arbitrary image plane without secondary camera or additional optics. The defocus prediction takes only 9 ms with a focusing error of only ∼1/15 depth of field. We also provide implementation examples for the augmented reality microscope and the whole slide imaging (WSI) system. Our proposed technique can perform real-time and accurate autofocus which will not only support pathologists in their daily work, but also provide potential applications in the life sciences, material research, and industrial automatic detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.446928DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8803042PMC
January 2022

Acute exercise rapidly activates hepatic mitophagic flux.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2022 03 10;132(3):862-873. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Missouri.

Exercise is critical for improving metabolic health and putatively maintains or enhances mitochondrial quality control in metabolic tissues. Although previous work has shown that exercise elicits hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis, it is unknown if acute exercise activates hepatic mitophagy, the selective degradation of damaged or low-functioning mitochondria. We tested if an acute bout of treadmill running increased hepatic mitophagic flux both right after and 2-h postexercise in 15- to 24-wk-old C57BL/6J female mice. Acute exercise did not significantly increase markers of autophagic flux, however, mitophagic flux was activated 2-h post-treadmill running as measured by accumulation of both LC3-II and p62 in isolated mitochondria in the presence of leupeptin, an inhibitor of autophagosome degradation. Furthermore, mitochondrial-associated ubiquitin, which recruits the autophagy receptor protein p62, was also significantly increased at 2 h. Further examination via Western blot and proteomics analysis revealed that acute exercise elicits a time-dependent, dynamic activation of mitophagy pathways. Moreover, the results suggest that exercise-induced hepatic mitophagy is likely mediated by both polyubiquitination and receptor-mediated signaling pathways. Overall, we provide evidence that acute exercise activates hepatic mitophagic flux while also revealing specific receptor-mediated proteins by which exercise maintains mitochondrial quality control in the liver. This study provides evidence that acute exercise activates hepatic mitophagic flux and mitochondrial polyubiquitination while additionally revealing specific receptor-mediated proteins by which exercise maintains mitochondrial quality control in the liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00704.2021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8934677PMC
March 2022

Complete plastome sequence of Y. Ling (Malvaceae): a rare medicinal tree species in South Asia.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2022 3;7(2):343-345. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresources, College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou, China.

Here, we report and characterize the complete plastome of Y. Ling 1951, which is a rare tree in the plant family Malvaceae. It is distributed in central and southern Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, Hunan, and other provinces of China, where it is endemic. It grows in subtropical climates at middle and low altitudes of 200-800 meters within valleys, along mountain foothills, or on hillsides, in evergreen broad-leaved forests or at forest edges. Our results show that the length of the complete plastome is 161,964 bp, including 129 genes consisted of 81 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. It exhibits the typical quadripartite structure and gene content of angiosperms plastomes and comprises two inverted repeat (IRS) regions of 2,469 bp, a large single copy (LSC) region of 90,657 bp, and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 20,315 bp. The total G/C content in the plastome of ,Y. Ling 1951 is 36.8%. The complete plastome sequence of Y. Ling 1951will make contributions to the conservation genetics of this species as well as to phylogenetic studies in Malvaceae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2022.2032439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8820787PMC
February 2022

Single-cell transcriptomics reveals a low CD8 T cell infiltrating state mediated by fibroblasts in recurrent renal cell carcinoma.

J Immunother Cancer 2022 02;10(2)

Department of Urology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China

Purpose: Recurrent renal cell carcinoma(reRCC) is associated with poor prognosis and the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. A comprehensive understanding of tumor microenvironment (TME) of reRCC may aid in designing effective anticancer therapies, including immunotherapies. Single-cell transcriptomics holds great promise for investigating the TME, however, this technique has not been used in reRCC. Here, we aimed to explore the difference in the TME and gene expression pattern between primary RCC (pRCC) and reRCC at single-cell level.

Experimental Design: We performed single-cell RNA sequencing analyses of 32,073 cells from 2 pRCC, 2 reRCC, and 3 adjacent normal kidney samples. 41 pairs of pRCC and reRCC samples were collected as a validation cohort to assess differences observed in single-cell sequencing. The prognostic significance of related cells and markers were studied in 47 RCC patients underwent immunotherapy. The function of related cells and markers were validated via in vitro and in vivo experiments.

Results: reRCC had reduced CD8 T cells but increased cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) infiltration compared with pRCC. Reduced CD8 T cells and increased CAFs infiltration were significantly associated with a worse response from immunotherapy. Remarkably, CAFs showed substantial expression of LGALS1 (Gal1). In vitro, CAFs could induce CD8 T cells apoptosis via Gal1. In vivo, knockdown of Gal1 in CAFs suppressed tumor growth, increased CD8 T cells infiltration, reduced the proportion of apoptotic CD8 T cells and enhanced the efficacy of immunotherapy.

Conclusions: We delineated the heterogeneity of reRCC and highlighted an innovative mechanism that CAFs acted as a suppressor of CD8 T cells via Gal1. Targeting Gal1 combined with anti-PD1 showed promising efficacy in treating RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2021-004206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8819783PMC
February 2022

What Happens to the Preserved Renal Parenchyma After Clamped Partial Nephrectomy?

Eur Urol 2022 05 19;81(5):492-500. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Department of Urology, Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Most partial nephrectomies (PNs) are performed with hilar occlusion to reduce blood loss and optimize visualization. However, the histologic status of the preserved renal parenchyma years after PN is unknown.

Objective: To compare the histologic chronic kidney disease (CKD) score of renal parenchyma before and years after PN, and to explore factors associated with CKD-score increase and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A retrospective review of 147 renal cell carcinoma patients who underwent PN and subsequent radical nephrectomy (RN) due to tumor recurrence was performed in 19 Chinese centers and Cleveland Clinic. Macroscopic normal renal parenchyma was evaluated at least 5 mm away from the tumor in PN specimens and at remote sites in RN specimens.

Intervention: PN/RN and ischemia.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Histologic CKD score (0-12) represents a summary of glomerular/tubular/interstitial/vascular status. Predictive factors for a substantial increase of CKD score (≥3) were evaluated by logistic regression.

Results And Limitations: Sixty-five patients with all necessary data were analyzed. The median interval between PN and RN was 2.4 yr. Median durations of warm ischemia (n = 42) and hypothermia (n = 23) were both 23 min. The histologic CKD score was increased after RN in 47 (72%) patients, with 29 (45%) experiencing more substantial increase (≥3). There was no significant difference in the change of CKD score related to the type and duration of ischemia (p = 0.7 and p = 0.4, respectively) or interval from PN to RN (p > 0.9). However, patients with comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes, and/or pre-existing CKD (hypertension [HTN]/diabetes mellitus [DM]/CKD) demonstrated increased rate and extent of CKD-score increase. On univariate analysis, HTN/DM/CKD was the only predictor of a substantial CKD-score increase (odds ratio: 3.53 [1.12-11.1]). Decline of GFR was modest and similar between patients with/without a substantial CKD-score increase.

Conclusions: Within the context of conventional, limited durations of ischemia, histologic deterioration of preserved parenchyma after PN appears to be primarily due to pre-existing medical comorbidities rather than ischemia. A subsequent decline in renal function was mild and independent of histologic changes.

Patient Summary: After clamped PN, the preserved renal parenchyma demonstrated histologic deterioration in many cases, which correlated with the presence of comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or chronic kidney disease. In contrast, the type and duration of ischemia did not correlate with histologic changes after PN, suggesting that ischemia insult had only limited impact on parenchyma deterioration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2021.12.036DOI Listing
May 2022

Loofah Sponge-Derived Hygroscopic Photothermal Absorber for All-Weather Atmospheric Water Harvesting.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jan 16;14(3):4680-4689. Epub 2022 Jan 16.

Institute of Special Materials and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, P. R. China.

The loofah gourd is like a natural water tank that stores underground water and drains it out after aging, leaving only a three-dimensional network consisting of hollow and interconnected fibers. This phenomenon inspired us to fabricate a solar-energy-powered sorption-based atmospheric water harvesting device using a loofah sponge. Herein, moisture absorption and photothermal conversion strategies are rationally designed to fast release the absorbed water. This is accomplished by filling the hollow and connected loofah fiber with LiCl and replacing the original luffa peel with a bacterial cellulose (BC)/carbon nanotube (CNT) photothermal conversion membrane. As a result, loofah/BC/CNT (LBC)@LiCl presents a high water absorption capacity of 2.65 g g at 90% relative humidity (RH) and fast water release performance of 1.33 kg m h under 1.0 sun. Noticeably, ∼1.92-2.40 kg [email protected] can produce daily drinking water for adults (2000-2500 mL) in one night outdoors at ∼66% RH, proving that it is a feasible method to overcome the drinking water shortage of poor and arid areas using cheap and renewable biomass material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c20576DOI Listing
January 2022

Stereotactic body radiotherapy-induced abscopal effect twice after pembrolizumab failure in hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma: a case report with genetic and immunologic analysis.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Nov;10(11):4304-4312

Department of Urology Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center; State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is a rare but aggressive disease. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been an indispensable component for the management of advanced renal cell carcinoma, and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has offered additional immunological effect boost for improving the treatment outcomes of the patients. However, the synergistic effect of ICIs with SBRT in HLRCC remains largely unexplored. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman with advanced HLRCC who underwent radical nephrectomy but soon relapsed at the retroperitoneal lymph nodes (RPLN). She was prescribed sunitinib but still progressed on twenty cycles with bulky RPLN and ascites. She was then treated with axitinib and pembrolizumab for twenty months, and received SBRT for the progression of RPLN upon which the first abscopal effect was observed via significant shrinkage of in-field and out-field tumor lesions. Five months later, she underwent a second course of SBRT for pelvic mass progression and the second abscopal effect was observed. Genetic and immunologic characteristics revealed a large number of tumor-infiltrating immune cells and high levels of PD-L1 expression. This case report demonstrates the synergistic effect of ICIs and SBRT in HLRCC and the potential mechanism for the repeated SBRT-induced abscopal effect, supporting the application of SBRT to oligometastatic lesion during ICIs treatment to delay disease progression. Further studies are needed to verify the strategy of combining ICIs and SBRT in advanced HLRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-21-644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8661262PMC
November 2021

Preparation and chiral resolution properties of bridged bis(cyclodextrin)s hybrid spheres for high performance liquid chromatography.

J Sep Sci 2022 Feb 28;45(4):845-855. Epub 2021 Dec 28.

School of Pharmacy, Jining Medical University, Rizhao, P. R. China.

Selenium-bridged bis(β-cyclodextrin)s organic-inorganic hybrid silica material with regular spherical shape as new type of chiral stationary phase was directly synthesized under the one-pot hydrothermal synthesis method, and the chiral stationary phase was further characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, and elemental analysis. The results of chiral separation showed that eight chiral compounds including various types of chiral alcohols and flavanone were successfully separated in the reversed-phase separation mode by high performance liquid chromatography, which showed the better chiral resolution effect than that on the C2 position of single β-cyclodextrin. The mechanism of chiral separation was likely due to multiple interactions such as inclusion, hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interaction, dipole-dipole interaction, and the synergistic effect of two cyclodextrins during the chiral resolution process. The synergy of the two cyclodextrins has great potential for development in chiral resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202100629DOI Listing
February 2022

Extraperitonealization of ileal conduit reduces parastomal hernia after cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion.

Urol Oncol 2022 04 15;40(4):162.e17-162.e23. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine Guangzhou, P. R. China; Department of Urology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Objective: Parastomal hernia (PSH) is a common complication of ileal conduit diversion after radical cystectomy. Novel surgical techniques for preventing PSH formation are needed. We aimed to evaluate surgical technique of extraperitonealizing the ileal conduit (modified ileal conduit) for preventing PSH.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 375 consecutive patients who underwent ileal conduit after cystectomy at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 1, 2000 and June 31, 2019 was conducted. 214 patients had modified ileal conduit diversion and 161 patients conventional ileal conduit (Bricker) diversion. The demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics of patients in the 2 groups were compared using the t test and Chi square test. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to predict the risk of PSH formation.

Results: The 2 groups were comparable in regard to all demographic and clinicopathologic variables. The incidence of PSH diagnosed by CT scan was 7.5% in the modified group and 21.1% in the conventional group (P < 0.001). High BMI and history of prior abdominal surgery was identified by univariable analysis as risk factors of PSH formation. Multivariable analyses revealed that technique of extraperitonealizing ileal conduit significantly reduced incidence of PSH in patients with or without risk factors of PSH formation (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.16-0.54, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Technique of extraperitonealizing ileal conduit appeared to be effective in reducing PSH formation after ileal conduit diversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.11.022DOI Listing
April 2022

Comparison analysis of widely-targeted metabolomics revealed the variation of potential astringent ingredients and their dynamic accumulation in the seed coats of both Carya cathayensis and Carya illinoinensis.

Food Chem 2022 Apr 29;374:131688. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A&F University, Lin'an, Zhejiang 311300, China. Electronic address:

Pecan and hickory nuts are two of consumers' favorite ones. Pecan seeds can be eaten fresh, while hickory ones must remove astringency before eating. Here, we reported that total phenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins of hickory seeds were reduced after de-astringent treatments. They gradually increased with development, showing higher levels in hickory seed coat at mid-late periods than that in pecan's. Widely-targeted metabonomics analysis of developing testa identified 424 kinds of components, including 101, 38, 58, 27 classes of flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids, organic acids and others, showing 16 different changing trends. Notably, most kinds of flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins and phenolic acids at maturity were more than that of pecan's, while oligomeric condensed tannins were opposite. Gene expression analysis provided further explanations for their dynamic accumulation. These results unraveled potential astringent components in hickory testa and preliminary molecular mechanisms of their dynamic changes, offering theoretical basis for the targeted de-astringency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131688DOI Listing
April 2022

LRPPRC regulates redox homeostasis via the circANKHD1/FOXM1 axis to enhance bladder urothelial carcinoma tumorigenesis.

Redox Biol 2021 Nov 27;48:102201. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, No. 651, Dongfeng Road East, Guangzhou, PR China; Department of Urology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, No. 651, Dongfeng Road East, Guangzhou, PR China. Electronic address:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are continuously generated mainly by mitochondria, have been proved to play an important role in the stress signaling of cancer cells. Moreover, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins have been suggested to take part in mitochondrial metabolism. However, the mechanisms integrating the actions of these distinct networks in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) pathogenesis are elusive. In this study, we found that leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing (LRPPRC) was frequently upregulated in UCB and that it was an independent prognostic factor in UCB. We further revealed that LRPPRC promoted UCB tumorigenesis by regulating the intracellular ROS homeostasis. Mechanistically, LRPPRC modulates ROS balance and protects UCB cells from oxidative stress via mt-mRNA metabolism and the circANKHD1/FOXM1 axis. In addition, the SRA stem-loop interacting RNA binding protein (SLIRP) directly interacted with LRPPRC to protect it from ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Notably, we showed that LRPPRC modulated the tumorigenesis of UCB cells in a circANKHD1-FOXM1-dependent manner. In conclusion, LRPPRC exerts critical roles in regulating UCB redox homeostasis and tumorigenesis, and is a prognostic factor for UCB; suggesting that LRPPRC may serve as an exploitable therapeutic target in UCB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.102201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8645923PMC
November 2021

Effect and mechanism of "Danggui-kushen" herb pair on ischemic heart disease.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 Jan 25;145:112450. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin 150040, China. Electronic address:

Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism and effects of "Danggui-kushen" herb pair (DKHP) better than single drug in ischemic heart disease (IHD).

Methods: IHD model was established by left anterior descending branch of coronary artery in rats. Rats were randomized into six groups and oral administration for 7 days: control, model, Danshen dripping pills (DS) (5.103 g/kg), Danggui (DG) (2.7 g/kg), Kushen (KS) (2.7 g/kg) and DKHP (2.7 g/kg). Electrocardiogram (ECG), myocardial infarction and damage assessment, histological inspection analysis, and various biochemical indexes of myocardial tissue were measured to evaluate the myocardial damage and the protective effects of drugs. The inflammatory levels were identified by HE staining and serum cytokine, and the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), inhibitor kappa B kinaseβ (IKKβ) and nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) were measured by immunohistochemistry.

Key Findings: The results suggested that: compared with the control group, model group showed significantly myocardial tissue abnormalities, and increased levels of inflammatory cytokine. Treatment with drugs inhibited the increase of α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (α-HBDH), creatine kinase (CK), creatinekinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), interleukin 1 (IL-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). The results of immunohistochemical showed that drugs-treatment inhibited the expression of IKKβ and the P-p65, increased the expression of HIF-1α, which demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effects of DKHP was achieved by suppressing of NF-κB signaling.

Conclusion: These observations indicated that DKHP can ameliorate myocardial injury better than single. And these are related to the inhibition of NF-κB and actives HIF-1α signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112450DOI Listing
January 2022

Stereotactic body radiotherapy in combination with non-frontline PD-1 inhibitors and targeted agents in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

Radiat Oncol 2021 Nov 2;16(1):211. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Department of Urology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, 651 Dongfeng Road East, Guangzhou, 510060, People's Republic of China.

Background: Radiotherapy may work synergistically with immunotherapy and targeted agents. We aimed to assess the safety and outcomes of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plus non-first-line programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitors and targeted agents (TA) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 74 patients treated with non-first-line PD-1 inhibitors plus TA in non-first-line setting. Survival outcomes were calculated from the anti-PD-1 treatment using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: Thirty-two (43.2%) patients received anti-PD-1/TA therapy alone (anti-PD-1/TA alone group), and 42 (56.8%) received SBRT in addition (anti-PD-1/TA + SBRT group). The median duration of first-line therapy was 8.6 months. Patients in the anti-PD-1/TA + SBRT group had significantly longer overall survival (OS) (38.5 vs 15.4 months; P = 0.022). On multivariate analysis, oligometastasis, ECOG performance status 0-1, anti-PD-1/TA + SBRT, and duration of first-line therapy ≥ 8.6 months were predictors for OS. The addition of SBRT was associated with improved OS in patients with clear-cell type (HR 0.19; 95% CI 0.07-0.55; P = 0.002) and duration of first-line therapy ≥ 8.6 months (HR 0.22; 95% CI 0.06-0.88; P = 0.032). Grade ≥ 3 toxicities occurred in 23 patients (54.8%) in the anti-PD-1/TA + SBRT group, and in 21 patients (65.6%) in the anti-PD-1/TA alone group.

Conclusions: Incorporating SBRT into anti-PD-1/TA therapy is safe and tolerable. Further investigation is needed, particularly in patients with clear-cell histology and a longer duration of response to first-line antiangiogenic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-021-01937-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8561986PMC
November 2021

Prognostic, clinicopathological, and immune correlation of NLRP3 promoter methylation in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma.

Clin Transl Med 2021 10;11(10):e528

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8530444PMC
October 2021

Pt Edge-Doped MoS : Activating the Active Sites for Maximized Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Performance.

Small 2021 12 28;17(52):e2104245. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Institute of Special materials and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, P. R. China.

The demand of clean energy calls for efficient and low-cost hydrogen evolution reaction electrocatalysts. Fabricating hybrid catalysts from noble/non-noble catalysts is a practical route to reducing the consumption of noble metals and enhancing catalytic efficiency. Here, 2H-MoS is etched and edge-doped with Pt nanoparticles using focused ion beam and photoreduction techniques. Precise comparison of as-prepared samples demonstrates that the enhancement of catalytic performance can be controlled through tuning the catalyst defect length. On this basis, remarkably high performance is obtained by designing a specific defect array that is superior to commercial Pt/C with less Pt loading and higher mass activity. It has been proved by experimentation and COMSOL Multiphysics simulations that the promotion of catalytic activity not only benefits from the synergistic effect of Pt and edge active sites, but also contributes to the increased potential at the edges of the designed defect. This study sheds light on the mechanism of understanding nanoscale edge-doped hybrid catalysts and provides a feasible strategy for the full utilization of noble metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202104245DOI Listing
December 2021

A genome variation map provides insights into the genetics of walnut adaptation and agronomic traits.

Genome Biol 2021 10 27;22(1):300. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation of the State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, 100091, China.

Background: Common walnut (Juglans regia L.) is one of the top four most consumed nuts in the world due to its health benefits and pleasant taste. Despite its economic importance, the evolutionary history and genetic control of its adaptation and agronomic traits remain largely unexplored.

Results: We report a comprehensive walnut genomic variation map based on whole-genome resequencing of 815 walnut accessions. Evolutionary analyses suggest that Chinese J. regia diverged from J. sigillata with extensive hybridizations after the split of the two species. In contrast to annual crops, the genetic diversity and heterozygous deleterious mutations of Chinese common walnut trees have continued to increase during the improvement process. Selective sweep analyses identify 902 genes uniquely selected in the improved common walnut compared to its progenitor population. Five major-effect loci are identified to be involved in walnut adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and altitude. Genome-wide association studies reveal 27 genomic loci responsible for 18 important agronomic traits, among which JrFAD2 and JrANR are the potentially major-effect causative genes controlling linoleic acid content and color of the endopleura of the nut, respectively.

Conclusions: The largest genomic resource for walnuts to date has been generated and explored in this study, unveiling their evolutionary history and cracking the genetic code for agronomic traits and environmental adaptation of this economically crucial crop tree.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02517-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8554829PMC
October 2021
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