Publications by authors named "Peggy Wan"

31 Publications

Association of Anthropometric Measures With the Risk of Prostate Cancer in the Multiethnic Cohort.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 09;190(9):1770-1783

In studies of anthropometric measures and prostate cancer risk, conducted primarily in White men, positive associations with advanced disease have been reported. We assessed body size in relation to incident prostate cancer risk in 79,950 men from the Multiethnic Cohort, with 8,819 cases identified over 22 years (1993-2015). Height was associated with increased risk of advanced prostate cancer (≥68 inches (≥ 173 cm) vs. < 66 inches (168 cm); hazard ratio (HR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.48) and high-grade disease (HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.31). Compared with men of normal weight, men overweight at baseline were at higher risk of high-grade cancer (HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.26). Greater weight was positively associated with localized and low-grade disease in Blacks and Native Hawaiians (by race, P for heterogeneity = 0.0002 and 0.008, respectively). Weight change since age 21 years was positively associated with high-grade disease (for ≥ 40 pounds (18 kg) vs. 10 pounds (4.5 kg), HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.37; P for trend = 0.005). Comparing highest versus lowest quartile, waist-to-hip ratio was associated with a 1.78-fold increase (95% CI: 1.28, 2.46) in the risk of advanced prostate cancer. Positive associations with the majority of anthropometric measures were observed in all 5 racial/ethnic groups, suggesting a general impact of anthropometric measures on risk across populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwab054DOI Listing
September 2021

Trans-ancestry genome-wide association meta-analysis of prostate cancer identifies new susceptibility loci and informs genetic risk prediction.

Nat Genet 2021 01 4;53(1):65-75. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Prostate cancer is a highly heritable disease with large disparities in incidence rates across ancestry populations. We conducted a multiancestry meta-analysis of prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (107,247 cases and 127,006 controls) and identified 86 new genetic risk variants independently associated with prostate cancer risk, bringing the total to 269 known risk variants. The top genetic risk score (GRS) decile was associated with odds ratios that ranged from 5.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.84-5.29) for men of European ancestry to 3.74 (95% CI, 3.36-4.17) for men of African ancestry. Men of African ancestry were estimated to have a mean GRS that was 2.18-times higher (95% CI, 2.14-2.22), and men of East Asian ancestry 0.73-times lower (95% CI, 0.71-0.76), than men of European ancestry. These findings support the role of germline variation contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk, with the GRS offering an approach for personalized risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00748-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8148035PMC
January 2021

Germline Sequencing DNA Repair Genes in 5545 Men With Aggressive and Nonaggressive Prostate Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 May;113(5):616-625

Center for Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: There is an urgent need to identify factors specifically associated with aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We investigated whether rare pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or deleterious (P/LP/D) germline variants in DNA repair genes are associated with aggressive PCa risk in a case-case study of aggressive vs nonaggressive disease.

Methods: Participants were 5545 European-ancestry men, including 2775 nonaggressive and 2770 aggressive PCa cases, which included 467 metastatic cases (16.9%). Samples were assembled from 12 international studies and germline sequenced together. Rare (minor allele frequency < 0.01) P/LP/D variants were analyzed for 155 DNA repair genes. We compared single variant, gene-based, and DNA repair pathway-based burdens by disease aggressiveness. All statistical tests are 2-sided.

Results: BRCA2 and PALB2 had the most statistically significant gene-based associations, with 2.5% of aggressive and 0.8% of nonaggressive cases carrying P/LP/D BRCA2 alleles (odds ratio [OR] = 3.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.94 to 5.25, P = 8.58 × 10-7) and 0.65% of aggressive and 0.11% of nonaggressive cases carrying P/LP/D PALB2 alleles (OR = 6.31, 95% CI = 1.83 to 21.68, P = 4.79 × 10-4). ATM had a nominal association, with 1.6% of aggressive and 0.8% of nonaggressive cases carrying P/LP/D ATM alleles (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.10 to 3.22, P = .02). In aggregate, P/LP/D alleles within 24 literature-curated candidate PCa DNA repair genes were more common in aggressive than nonaggressive cases (carrier frequencies = 14.2% vs 10.6%, respectively; P = 5.56 × 10-5). However, this difference was non-statistically significant (P = .18) on excluding BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. Among these 24 genes, P/LP/D carriers had a 1.06-year younger diagnosis age (95% CI = -1.65 to 0.48, P = 3.71 × 10-4).

Conclusions: Risk conveyed by DNA repair genes is largely driven by rare P/LP/D alleles within BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. These findings support the importance of these genes in both screening and disease management considerations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa132DOI Listing
May 2021

Population-specific reference panels are crucial for genetic analyses: an example of the CREBRF locus in Native Hawaiians.

Hum Mol Genet 2020 08;29(13):2275-2284

Center for Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

Statistical imputation applied to genome-wide array data is the most cost-effective approach to complete the catalog of genetic variation in a study population. However, imputed genotypes in underrepresented populations incur greater inaccuracies due to ascertainment bias and a lack of representation among reference individuals, further contributing to the obstacles to study these populations. Here we examined the consequences due to the lack of representation by genotyping in a large number of self-reported Native Hawaiians (N = 3693) a functionally important, Polynesian-specific variant in the CREBRF gene, rs373863828. We found the derived allele was significantly associated with several adiposity traits with large effects (e.g. ~ 1.28 kg/m2 per allele in body mass index as the most significant; P = 7.5 × 10-5), consistent with the original findings in Samoans. Due to the current absence of Polynesian representation in publicly accessible reference sequences, rs373863828 or its proxies could not be tested through imputation using these existing resources. Moreover, the association signals at the entire CREBRF locus could not be captured by alternative approaches, such as admixture mapping. In contrast, highly accurate imputation can be achieved even if a small number (<200) of internally constructed Polynesian reference individuals were available; this would increase sample size and improve the statistical evidence of associations. Taken together, our results suggest the alarming possibility that lack of representation in reference panels could inhibit discovery of functionally important loci such as CREBRF. Yet, they could be easily detected and prioritized with improved representation of diverse populations in sequencing studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddaa083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399533PMC
August 2020

A Germline Variant at 8q24 Contributes to Familial Clustering of Prostate Cancer in Men of African Ancestry.

Eur Urol 2020 09 12;78(3):316-320. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Surgery, Center for Prostate Disease Research, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Although men of African ancestry have a high risk of prostate cancer (PCa), no genes or mutations have been identified that contribute to familial clustering of PCa in this population. We investigated whether the African ancestry-specific PCa risk variant at 8q24, rs72725854, is enriched in men with a PCa family history in 9052 cases, 143 cases from high-risk families, and 8595 controls of African ancestry. We found the risk allele to be significantly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, more aggressive disease, and enriched in men with a PCa family history (32% of high-risk familial cases carried the variant vs 23% of cases without a family history and 12% of controls). For cases with two or more first-degree relatives with PCa who had at least one family member diagnosed at age <60 yr, the odds ratios for TA heterozygotes and TT homozygotes were 3.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.13-7.22) and 33.41 (95% CI = 10.86-102.84), respectively. Among men with a PCa family history, the absolute risk by age 60 yr reached 21% (95% CI = 17-25%) for TA heterozygotes and 38% (95% CI = 13-65%) for TT homozygotes. We estimate that in men of African ancestry, rs72725854 accounts for 32% of the total familial risk explained by all known PCa risk variants. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that rs72725854, an African ancestry-specific risk variant, is more common in men with a family history of prostate cancer and in those diagnosed with prostate cancer at younger ages. Men of African ancestry may benefit from the knowledge of their carrier status for this genetic risk variant to guide decisions about prostate cancer screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2020.04.060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805560PMC
September 2020

The Four-Kallikrein Panel Is Effective in Identifying Aggressive Prostate Cancer in a Multiethnic Population.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 07 8;29(7):1381-1388. Epub 2020 May 8.

Center for Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Background: The four-kallikrein (4K) panel has been demonstrated to improve prediction of aggressive prostate cancer compared with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) among men with moderately elevated PSA levels. However, the development and testing of the 4K panel has been conducted primarily in White men, with limited data in African Americans and no studies in other racial and ethnic groups.

Methods: We evaluated the 4K panel in a nested case-control study among African American, Latino, Japanese, Native Hawaiian, and White men in the Multiethnic Cohort. Prediagnostic blood levels of free, intact, and total PSA and human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 were measured among 1,667 incident prostate cancer cases and 691 controls with PSA ≥2 ng/mL. We evaluated the discriminative ability of the 4K panel within and across all racial/ethnic groups.

Results: The 4K panel enhanced discrimination of overall prostate cancer compared with free plus total PSA and total PSA alone (AUC 0.748 vs. 0.711 and 0.669, respectively). Discrimination was further enhanced for Gleason 8+ prostate cancer, aggressive prostate cancer, and death due to prostate cancer, and to a lesser degree for nonaggressive prostate cancer. Improvement of the 4K panel over PSA was observed in each population. Adding a prostate cancer polygenic risk score slightly improved upon the discriminative ability of the 4K panel.

Conclusions: The superior discriminative ability of the 4K panel over PSA for overall and aggressive prostate cancer across multiethnic populations indicates the broad clinical applicability of the 4K panel.

Impact: Our multiethnic investigation suggests potential for the 4K panel to improve current prostate cancer screening practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-1560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334056PMC
July 2020

Genetic risk of prostate cancer in Ugandan men.

Prostate 2018 04 21;78(5):370-376. Epub 2018 Jan 21.

Uro Care, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Men of African-ancestry have elevated prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality compared to men of other racial groups. There is support for a genetic contribution to this disparity, with evidence of genetic heterogeneity in the underlying risk alleles between populations. Studies of PCa among African men may inform the contribution of genetic risk factors to the elevated disease burden in this population.

Methods: We conducted an association study of >100 previously reported PCa risk alleles among 571 incidence cases and 485 controls among Uganda men. Unconditional logistic regression was used to test genetic associations and a polygenic risk score (PRS) was derived to assess the cumulative effect of the known risk alleles in association with PCa risk. In an exploratory analysis, we also tested associations of 17 125 421 genotyped and imputed markers genome-wide in association with PCa risk.

Results: Of the 111 known risk loci with a frequency >1%, 75 (68%) had effects that were directionally consistent with the initial discovery population,14 (13%) of which were nominally significantly associated with PCa risk at P < 0.05. Compared to men with average risk (25 -75 percentile in PRS distribution), Ugandan men in the top 10% of the PRS, constructed of alleles outside of 8q24, had a 2.9-fold (95%CI: 1.75, 4.97) risk of developing PCa; risk for the top 10% increased to 4.86 (95%CI: 2.70, 8.76) with the inclusion of risk alleles at 8q24. In genome-wide association testing, the strongest associations were noted with known risk alleles located in the 8q24 region, including rs72725854 (OR = 3.37, P = 2.14 × 10 ) that is limited to populations of African ancestry (6% frequency).

Conclusions: The ∼100 known PCa risk variants were shown to effectively stratify PCa risk in Ugandan men, with 10% of men having a >4-fold increase in risk. The 8q24 risk region was also found to be a major contributor to PCa risk in Ugandan men, with the African ancestry-specific risk variant rs72725854 estimated to account for 12% of PCa in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.23481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7534689PMC
April 2018

Two Novel Susceptibility Loci for Prostate Cancer in Men of African Ancestry.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2017 08;109(8)

Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL.

Prostate cancer incidence is 1.6-fold higher in African Americans than in other populations. The risk factors that drive this disparity are unknown and potentially consist of social, environmental, and genetic influences. To investigate the genetic basis of prostate cancer in men of African ancestry, we performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis using two-sided statistical tests in 10 202 case subjects and 10 810 control subjects. We identified novel signals on chromosomes 13q34 and 22q12, with the risk-associated alleles found only in men of African ancestry (13q34: rs75823044, risk allele frequency = 2.2%, odds ratio [OR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37 to 1.76, P = 6.10 × 10-12; 22q12.1: rs78554043, risk allele frequency = 1.5%, OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.39 to 1.89, P = 7.50 × 10-10). At 13q34, the signal is located 5' of the gene IRS2 and 3' of a long noncoding RNA, while at 22q12 the candidate functional allele is a missense variant in the CHEK2 gene. These findings provide further support for the role of ancestry-specific germline variation in contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djx084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5448553PMC
August 2017

Genome-wide association study of colorectal cancer in Hispanics.

Carcinogenesis 2016 06 18;37(6):547-556. Epub 2016 Apr 18.

Department of Preventive Medicine.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 58 susceptibility alleles across 37 regions associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) with P < 5×10(-8) Most studies have been conducted in non-Hispanic whites and East Asians; however, the generalizability of these findings and the potential for ethnic-specific risk variation in Hispanic and Latino (HL) individuals have been largely understudied. We describe the first GWAS of common genetic variation contributing to CRC risk in HL (1611 CRC cases and 4330 controls). We also examine known susceptibility alleles and implement imputation-based fine-mapping to identify potential ethnicity-specific association signals in known risk regions. We discovered 17 variants across 4 independent regions that merit further investigation due to suggestive CRC associations (P < 1×10(-6)) at 1p34.3 (rs7528276; Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.86 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47-2.36); P = 2.5×10(-7)], 2q23.3 (rs1367374; OR = 1.37 (95% CI: 1.21-1.55); P = 4.0×10(-7)), 14q24.2 (rs143046984; OR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.36-2.01); P = 4.1×10(-7)) and 16q12.2 [rs142319636; OR = 1.69 (95% CI: 1.37-2.08); P=7.8×10(-7)]. Among the 57 previously published CRC susceptibility alleles with minor allele frequency ≥1%, 76.5% of SNPs had a consistent direction of effect and 19 (33.3%) were nominally statistically significant (P < 0.05). Further, rs185423955 and rs60892987 were identified as novel secondary susceptibility variants at 3q26.2 (P = 5.3×10(-5)) and 11q12.2 (P = 6.8×10(-5)), respectively. Our findings demonstrate the importance of fine mapping in HL. These results are informative for variant prioritization in functional studies and future risk prediction modeling in minority populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgw046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4876992PMC
June 2016

Atopic allergic conditions and colorectal cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2015 Jun 8;181(11):889-97. Epub 2015 Apr 8.

Studies have provided evidence of an inverse association between atopic allergic conditions (AACs) and invasive colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality in predominantly white populations. We examined the association between AACs (asthma, hay fever, or allergy) and CRC among white, African-American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese-American, and Latino men and women in the Multiethnic Cohort Study within Hawaii and Los Angeles, California. The prospective analysis included 4,834 incident CRC cases and 1,363 CRC-related deaths ascertained between 1993 and 2010. We examined associations by ethnicity, location, stage, and potential effect modification by CRC risk factors. AACs were associated with a reduced risk of CRC incidence among both men and women (relative risk (RR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 0.92). The reduction in risk was noted in all populations except Latinos and was significant in whites (RR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.98), African Americans (RR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.70, 0.95), Native Hawaiians (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.96), and Japanese Americans (RR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.98). Individuals with AACs also had a 20% reduction in CRC-related mortality (P = 0.001). These findings provide evidence for the potential protective role of the reactive immune system in colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwu361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4445393PMC
June 2015

A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer.

Nat Genet 2014 Oct 14;46(10):1103-9. Epub 2014 Sep 14.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, US National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of > 10 million SNPs in 43,303 prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three new susceptibility loci were identified at association P < 5 × 10(-8); 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 were identified in multi-ancestry analyses and 1 was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk for this disease in European-ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the usefulness of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4383163PMC
October 2014

Genetic variants associated with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in an ethnically diverse population: results from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study.

BMC Med Genet 2013 Sep 25;14:98. Epub 2013 Sep 25.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis MN, USA.

Background: Multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) within European populations have implicated common genetic variants associated with insulin and glucose concentrations. In contrast, few studies have been conducted within minority groups, which carry the highest burden of impaired glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes in the U.S.

Methods: As part of the 'Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Consortium, we investigated the association of up to 10 GWAS-identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 genetic regions with glucose or insulin concentrations in up to 36,579 non-diabetic subjects including 23,323 European Americans (EA) and 7,526 African Americans (AA), 3,140 Hispanics, 1,779 American Indians (AI), and 811 Asians. We estimated the association between each SNP and fasting glucose or log-transformed fasting insulin, followed by meta-analysis to combine results across PAGE sites.

Results: Overall, our results show that 9/9 GWAS SNPs are associated with glucose in EA (p = 0.04 to 9 × 10-15), versus 3/9 in AA (p= 0.03 to 6 × 10-5), 3/4 SNPs in Hispanics, 2/4 SNPs in AI, and 1/2 SNPs in Asians. For insulin we observed a significant association with rs780094/GCKR in EA, Hispanics and AI only.

Conclusions: Generalization of results across multiple racial/ethnic groups helps confirm the relevance of some of these loci for glucose and insulin metabolism. Lack of association in non-EA groups may be due to insufficient power, or to unique patterns of linkage disequilibrium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2350-14-98DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3849560PMC
September 2013

A genome-wide scan for breast cancer risk haplotypes among African American women.

PLoS One 2013 28;8(2):e57298. Epub 2013 Feb 28.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) simultaneously investigating hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have become a powerful tool in the investigation of new disease susceptibility loci. Haplotypes are sometimes thought to be superior to SNPs and are promising in genetic association analyses. The application of genome-wide haplotype analysis, however, is hindered by the complexity of haplotypes themselves and sophistication in computation. We systematically analyzed the haplotype effects for breast cancer risk among 5,761 African American women (3,016 cases and 2,745 controls) using a sliding window approach on the genome-wide scale. Three regions on chromosomes 1, 4 and 18 exhibited moderate haplotype effects. Furthermore, among 21 breast cancer susceptibility loci previously established in European populations, 10p15 and 14q24 are likely to harbor novel haplotype effects. We also proposed a heuristic of determining the significance level and the effective number of independent tests by the permutation analysis on chromosome 22 data. It suggests that the effective number was approximately half of the total (7,794 out of 15,645), thus the half number could serve as a quick reference to evaluating genome-wide significance if a similar sliding window approach of haplotype analysis is adopted in similar populations using similar genotype density.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0057298PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3585353PMC
September 2013

Reproducibility, performance, and clinical utility of a genetic risk prediction model for prostate cancer in Japanese.

PLoS One 2012 10;7(10):e46454. Epub 2012 Oct 10.

Laboratory for Biomarker Development, Center for Genomic Medicine, RIKEN, Tokyo, Japan.

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is widely used as a diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer (PC). However, due to its low predictive performance, many patients without PC suffer from the harms of unnecessary prostate needle biopsies. The present study aims to evaluate the reproducibility and performance of a genetic risk prediction model in Japanese and estimate its utility as a diagnostic biomarker in a clinical scenario. We created a logistic regression model incorporating 16 SNPs that were significantly associated with PC in a genome-wide association study of Japanese population using 689 cases and 749 male controls. The model was validated by two independent sets of Japanese samples comprising 3,294 cases and 6,281 male controls. The areas under curve (AUC) of the model were 0.679, 0.655, and 0.661 for the samples used to create the model and those used for validation. The AUCs were not significantly altered in samples with PSA 1-10 ng/ml. 24.2% and 9.7% of the patients had odds ratio <0.5 (low risk) or >2 (high risk) in the model. Assuming the overall positive rate of prostate needle biopsies to be 20%, the positive biopsy rates were 10.7% and 42.4% for the low and high genetic risk groups respectively. Our genetic risk prediction model for PC was highly reproducible, and its predictive performance was not influenced by PSA. The model could have a potential to affect clinical decision when it is applied to patients with gray-zone PSA, which should be confirmed in future clinical studies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0046454PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3468627PMC
April 2013

A genome-wide association study of breast cancer in women of African ancestry.

Hum Genet 2013 Jan 25;132(1):39-48. Epub 2012 Aug 25.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in diverse populations are needed to reveal variants that are more common and/or limited to defined populations. We conducted a GWAS of breast cancer in women of African ancestry, with genotyping of >1,000,000 SNPs in 3,153 African American cases and 2,831 controls, and replication testing of the top 66 associations in an additional 3,607 breast cancer cases and 11,330 controls of African ancestry. Two of the 66 SNPs replicated (p < 0.05) in stage 2, which reached statistical significance levels of 10(-6) and 10(-5) in the stage 1 and 2 combined analysis (rs4322600 at chromosome 14q31: OR = 1.18, p = 4.3 × 10(-6); rs10510333 at chromosome 3p26: OR = 1.15, p = 1.5 × 10(-5)). These suggestive risk loci have not been identified in previous GWAS in other populations and will need to be examined in additional samples. Identification of novel risk variants for breast cancer in women of African ancestry will demand testing of a substantially larger set of markers from stage 1 in a larger replication sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-012-1214-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3749077PMC
January 2013

Evaluating genetic risk for prostate cancer among Japanese and Latinos.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2012 Nov 24;21(11):2048-58. Epub 2012 Aug 24.

Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, 1236 Lauhala Street, Suite 407, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA.

Background: There have been few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of prostate cancer among diverse populations. To search for novel prostate cancer risk variants, we conducted GWAS of prostate cancer in Japanese and Latinos. In addition, we tested prostate cancer risk variants and developed genetic risk models of prostate cancer for Japanese and Latinos.

Methods: Our first-stage GWAS of prostate cancer included Japanese (cases/controls = 1,033/1,042) and Latino (cases/controls = 1,043/1,057) from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). Significant associations from stage I (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)) were examined in silico in GWAS of prostate cancer (stage II) in Japanese (cases/controls = 1,583/3,386) and Europeans (cases/controls = 1,854/1,894).

Results: No novel stage I single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) outside of known risk regions reached genome-wide significance. For Japanese, in stage I, the most notable putative novel association was seen with 10 SNPs (P ≤ 8.0 × 10(-6)) at chromosome 2q33; however, this was not replicated in stage II. For Latinos, the most significant association was observed with rs17023900 at the known 3p12 risk locus (stage I: OR = 1.45; P = 7.01 × 10(-5) and stage II: OR = 1.58; P = 3.05 × 10(-7)). The majority of the established risk variants for prostate cancer, 79% and 88%, were positively associated with prostate cancer in Japanese and Latinos (stage I), respectively. The cumulative effects of these variants significantly influence prostate cancer risk (OR per allele = 1.10; P = 2.71 × 10(-25) and OR = 1.07; P = 1.02 × 10(-16) for Japanese and Latinos, respectively).

Conclusion And Impact: Our GWAS of prostate cancer did not identify novel genome-wide significant variants. However, our findings show that established risk variants for prostate cancer significantly contribute to risk among Japanese and Latinos.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3494732PMC
November 2012

Consistent directions of effect for established type 2 diabetes risk variants across populations: the population architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Consortium.

Diabetes 2012 Jun 3;61(6):1642-7. Epub 2012 Apr 3.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Common genetic risk variants for type 2 diabetes (T2D) have primarily been identified in populations of European and Asian ancestry. We tested whether the direction of association with 20 T2D risk variants generalizes across six major racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology Consortium (16,235 diabetes case and 46,122 control subjects of European American, African American, Hispanic, East Asian, American Indian, and Native Hawaiian ancestry). The percentage of positive (odds ratio [OR] >1 for putative risk allele) associations ranged from 69% in American Indians to 100% in European Americans. Of the nine variants where we observed significant heterogeneity of effect by racial/ethnic group (P(heterogeneity) < 0.05), eight were positively associated with risk (OR >1) in at least five groups. The marked directional consistency of association observed for most genetic variants across populations implies a shared functional common variant in each region. Fine-mapping of all loci will be required to reveal markers of risk that are important within and across populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db11-1296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3357304PMC
June 2012

A common variant at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus is associated with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer.

Nat Genet 2011 Oct 30;43(12):1210-4. Epub 2011 Oct 30.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, USA.

Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer shows a higher incidence in women of African ancestry compared to women of European ancestry. In search of common risk alleles for ER-negative breast cancer, we combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from women of African ancestry (1,004 ER-negative cases and 2,745 controls) and European ancestry (1,718 ER-negative cases and 3,670 controls), with replication testing conducted in an additional 2,292 ER-negative cases and 16,901 controls of European ancestry. We identified a common risk variant for ER-negative breast cancer at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5p15 (rs10069690: per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.18 per allele, P = 1.0 × 10(-10)). The variant was also significantly associated with triple-negative (ER-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2)-negative) breast cancer (OR = 1.25, P = 1.1 × 10(-9)), particularly in younger women (<50 years of age) (OR = 1.48, P = 1.9 × 10(-9)). Our results identify a genetic locus associated with estrogen receptor negative breast cancer subtypes in multiple populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3279120PMC
October 2011

Characterizing genetic risk at known prostate cancer susceptibility loci in African Americans.

PLoS Genet 2011 May 26;7(5):e1001387. Epub 2011 May 26.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

GWAS of prostate cancer have been remarkably successful in revealing common genetic variants and novel biological pathways that are linked with its etiology. A more complete understanding of inherited susceptibility to prostate cancer in the general population will come from continuing such discovery efforts and from testing known risk alleles in diverse racial and ethnic groups. In this large study of prostate cancer in African American men (3,425 prostate cancer cases and 3,290 controls), we tested 49 risk variants located in 28 genomic regions identified through GWAS in men of European and Asian descent, and we replicated associations (at p≤0.05) with roughly half of these markers. Through fine-mapping, we identified nearby markers in many regions that better define associations in African Americans. At 8q24, we found 9 variants (p≤6×10(-4)) that best capture risk of prostate cancer in African Americans, many of which are more common in men of African than European descent. The markers found to be associated with risk at each locus improved risk modeling in African Americans (per allele OR = 1.17) over the alleles reported in the original GWAS (OR = 1.08). In summary, in this detailed analysis of the prostate cancer risk loci reported from GWAS, we have validated and improved upon markers of risk in some regions that better define the association with prostate cancer in African Americans. Our findings with variants at 8q24 also reinforce the importance of this region as a major risk locus for prostate cancer in men of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3102736PMC
May 2011

Genome-wide association study of prostate cancer in men of African ancestry identifies a susceptibility locus at 17q21.

Nat Genet 2011 Jun 22;43(6):570-3. Epub 2011 May 22.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

In search of common risk alleles for prostate cancer that could contribute to high rates of the disease in men of African ancestry, we conducted a genome-wide association study, with 1,047,986 SNP markers examined in 3,425 African-Americans with prostate cancer (cases) and 3,290 African-American male controls. We followed up the most significant 17 new associations from stage 1 in 1,844 cases and 3,269 controls of African ancestry. We identified a new risk variant on chromosome 17q21 (rs7210100, odds ratio per allele = 1.51, P = 3.4 × 10(-13)). The frequency of the risk allele is ∼5% in men of African descent, whereas it is rare in other populations (<1%). Further studies are needed to investigate the biological contribution of this allele to prostate cancer risk. These findings emphasize the importance of conducting genome-wide association studies in diverse populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3102788PMC
June 2011

Hormone therapy, DNA methylation and colon cancer.

Carcinogenesis 2010 Jun 11;31(6):1060-7. Epub 2010 Jan 11.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Observational epidemiological studies and randomized trials have reported a protective effect of estrogen and progestin therapy (EPT) on the risk of colorectal cancer but the findings on estrogen-alone therapy (ET) are less consistent. The mechanism by which menopausal hormones influence risk of colorectal cancer has not been well studied. To further investigate the relationship between menopausal hormones and risk of colon cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control study in Los Angeles County involving 831 women with newly diagnosed colon cancer and 755 population-based control women. Risk of colon cancer decreased significantly with increasing duration of current use of ET and EPT; the adjusted relative risk was 0.83 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.76-0.99)] per 5 years of ET use and 0.88 (95% CI = 0.78-0.99) per 5 years of EPT use. Risk of colon cancer was unrelated to past ET or EPT use. We explored if current use of menopausal hormones is associated with DNA methylation of estrogen receptor (ESR1 and ESR2), progesterone receptor and other genes in the colonic tissues of a subset of colon cancer patients (n = 280) we interviewed. Our results suggest that current menopausal hormone users compared with non-current users displayed increased DNA methylation of progesterone receptor in the 'normal' colonic tissues (P = 0.055) and increased DNA methylation of ESR1 in the 'tumorous' colonic tissues (P = 0.056). These findings on DNA methylation and hormone therapy use need confirmation in larger studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgq009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2878358PMC
June 2010

Association of diabetes with prostate cancer risk in the multiethnic cohort.

Am J Epidemiol 2009 Apr 24;169(8):937-45. Epub 2009 Feb 24.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, USA.

Among men of European ancestry, diabetics have a lower risk of prostate cancer than do nondiabetics. The biologic basis of this association is unknown. The authors have examined whether the association is robust across populations in a population-based prospective study. The analysis included 5,941 prostate cancer cases identified over a 12-year period (1993-2005) among 86,303 European-American, African-American, Latino, Japanese-American, and Native Hawaiian men from the Multiethnic Cohort. The association between diabetes and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels (n = 2,874) and PSA screening frequencies (n = 46,970) was also examined. Diabetics had significantly lower risk of prostate cancer than did nondiabetics (relative risk = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74, 0.87; P < 0.001), with relative risks ranging from 0.65 (95% CI: 0.50, 0.84; P = 0.001) among European Americans to 0.89 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.03; P = 0.13) among African Americans. Mean PSA levels were significantly lower in diabetics than in nondiabetics (mean PSA levels, 1.07 and 1.28, respectively; P = 0.003) as were PSA screening frequencies (44.7% vs. 48.6%; P < 0.001); however, this difference could explain only a small portion ( approximately 20%) of the inverse association between these diseases. Diabetes is a protective factor for prostate cancer across populations, suggesting shared risk factors that influence a common mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwp003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2727229PMC
April 2009

Established risk factors account for most of the racial differences in cardiovascular disease mortality.

PLoS One 2007 Apr 18;2(4):e377. Epub 2007 Apr 18.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality varies across racial and ethnic groups in the U.S., and the extent that known risk factors can explain the differences has not been extensively explored.

Methods: We examined the risk of dying from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and other heart disease (OHD) among 139,406 African-American (AA), Native Hawaiian (NH), Japanese-American (JA), Latino and White men and women initially free from cardiovascular disease followed prospectively between 1993-1996 and 2003 in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC). During this period, 946 deaths from AMI and 2,323 deaths from OHD were observed. Relative risks of AMI and OHD mortality were calculated accounting for established CVD risk factors: body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, amount of vigorous physical activity, educational level, diet and, for women, type and age at menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use.

Results: Established CVD risk factors explained much of the observed racial and ethnic differences in risk of AMI and OHD mortality. After adjustment, NH men and women had greater risks of OHD than Whites (69% excess, P<0.001 and 62% excess, P = 0.003, respectively), and AA women had greater risks of AMI (48% excess, P = 0.01) and OHD (35% excess, P = 0.007). JA men had lower risks of AMI (51% deficit, P<0.001) and OHD (27% deficit, P = 0.001), as did JA women (AMI, 37% deficit, P = 0.03; OHD, 40% deficit, P = 0.001). Latinos had underlying lower risk of AMI death (26% deficit in men and 35% in women, P = 0.03).

Conclusion: Known risk factors explain the majority of racial and ethnic differences in mortality due to AMI and OHD. The unexplained excess in NH and AA and the deficits in JA suggest the presence of unmeasured determinants for cardiovascular mortality that are distributed unequally across these populations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0000377PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1847707PMC
April 2007

Dense breast stromal tissue shows greatly increased concentration of breast epithelium but no increase in its proliferative activity.

Breast Cancer Res 2006 28;8(2):R24. Epub 2006 Apr 28.

Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 2011 Zonal Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA.

Introduction: Increased mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. The reasons for this are not clear; two obvious possibilities are increased epithelial cell proliferation in mammographically dense areas and increased breast epithelium in women with mammographically dense breasts. We addressed this question by studying the number of epithelial cells in terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) and in ducts, and their proliferation rates, as they related to local breast densities defined histologically within individual women.

Method: We studied deep breast tissue away from subcutaneous fat obtained from 12 healthy women undergoing reduction mammoplasty. A slide from each specimen was stained with the cell-proliferation marker MIB1. Each slide was divided into (sets of) areas of low, medium and high density of connective tissue (CT; highly correlated with mammographic densities). Within each of the areas, the numbers of epithelial cells in TDLUs and ducts, and the numbers MIB1 positive, were counted.

Results: The relative concentration (RC) of epithelial cells in high compared with low CT density areas was 12.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 10.9 to 13.8) in TDLUs and 34.1 (95% CI 26.9 to 43.2) in ducts. There was a much smaller difference between medium and low CT density areas: RC = 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.6) in TDLUs and 1.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.3) in ducts. The relative mitotic rate (RMR; MIB1 positive) of epithelial cells in high compared with low CT density areas was 0.59 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.66) in TDLUs and 0.65 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.79) in ducts; the figures for the comparison of medium with low CT density areas were 0.58 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.70) in TDLUs and 0.66 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.97) in ducts.

Conclusion: Breast epithelial cells are overwhelmingly concentrated in high CT density areas. Their proliferation rate in areas of high and medium CT density is lower than that in low CT density areas. The increased breast cancer risk associated with increased mammographic densities may simply be a reflection of increased epithelial cell numbers. Why epithelium is concentrated in high CT density areas remains to be explained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/bcr1408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1557710PMC
July 2006

Postmenopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk: the Multiethnic Cohort.

Int J Cancer 2006 Mar;118(5):1285-91

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90033-0800, USA.

Epidemiological studies indicate that menopausal estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT) use is associated with an increase in breast cancer risk. Further data are needed on whether this association varies by specific prognostic factors and ethnicity. We conducted a cohort study among 55,371 African-American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese-American, Latina and White postmenopausal women aged 45-75 years old in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC). A total of 1,615 incident invasive breast cancer cases were identified over an average of 7.3 years. Adjusted relative risks (RRs) were computed for the various forms of hormone therapy (HT). Assuming current users continued HT use to the end of follow-up, current EPT use was associated with a 29% increased risk of breast cancer per 5 years of use (95% confidence interval (CI) = 23-35%), and current estrogen therapy (ET) use with a 10% increase in risk per 5 years of use (95% CI = 5-16%). These figures increased to only a very small extent when we adjusted for the estimated 3% of such women who stop HT use per year of follow-up. EPT and ET use were associated with greater risk among leaner women, but the increase in risk with EPT use was still very evident in women with BMI > or =30 kg/m(2). Current EPT use was associated with increased risk for ER+/PR+, ER+/PR- and ER-/PR- tumors. There was little difference in risk by stage of disease or histologic subtype. The increase with EPT use was clearly seen in all 5 ethnic groups; and the increase with ET in 4 of the 5 groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.21481DOI Listing
March 2006

Hormonal factors and the risk of invasive ovarian cancer: a population-based case-control study.

Fertil Steril 2004 Jul;82(1):186-95

USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA.

Objective: To examine the influence of hormone-related factors on the risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (ovarian cancer).

Design: Population-based case-control study using in-person interviews.

Setting: Academic department of preventive medicine.

Patient(s): Four hundred seventy-seven ovarian cancer patients and 660 controls.

Intervention(s): None.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Numbers of and ages at births, oral contraceptive use, and use of menopausal hormone therapy.

Result(s): Compared with nulliparous women, women whose only (last) birth was after age 35 years had an estimated 51% (95% confidence interval: 21%-70%) reduction in risk. If this birth occurred earlier, the reduction in risk was progressively less. Additional (earlier) births reduced the risk further. Oral contraceptive use also reduced risk. Increased body mass index increased risk, but this effect was confined to localized disease and is likely to be a diagnostic bias, as a consequence of other problems associated with being overweight and in itself having no etiological significance.

Conclusion(s): If the major protective effect of a late birth can be confirmed, our most challenging task will be to understand the mechanism to develop a chemoprevention approach to exploit this finding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2004.03.013DOI Listing
July 2004

Breast cancer in a multiethnic cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles: risk factor-adjusted incidence in Japanese equals and in Hawaiians exceeds that in whites.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002 Sep;11(9):795-800

Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA.

Few data exist on the extent to which the differences in breast cancer risk between "racial-ethnic" groups in the United States (US) are "explained" by differences in their distribution of risk factors. We have determined this for African-American (AA), native Hawaiian (NH), Japanese-American (JA), Latina-US-born (L-US), Latina-non-US-born (L-NUS), and white (W) women using prospective incidence data on 88,712 postmenopausal women recruited in 1993-1996. We identified 1,757 incident breast cancer cases through 1999 among these women (1,116 cases after excluding women with a simple hysterectomy or missing risk factor data). Data were available on seven "known" risk factors: ages at menarche and first birth; parity; age at and type of menopause; weight; hormone replacement therapy use; and alcohol consumption. The relative risks (RRs) of breast cancer (with the RR in Ws set to 1.0) for the groups were as follows: W = 1.0; AA = 0.78; NH = 1.33; JA = 0.99; L-US = 0.77; and L-NUS = 0.60. After adjustment for the risk factors, the RRs were as follows: W = 1.0; AA = 0.98; NH = 1.65; JA = 1.11; L-US = 0.95; and L-NUSB = 0.84. The slightly greater risk of the JAs compared with the Ws is in sharp contrast to the very low breast cancer rates that were observed in "traditional" Japanese women and in early Japanese migrants. The adjusted RR of NHs is 65% greater than that of Ws, and that of migrant Latinas is 16% lower than that of Ws. Elucidating the causes of the high rates in NHs is now a major focus of our efforts.
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September 2002

Adolescent and adult soy intake and risk of breast cancer in Asian-Americans.

Carcinogenesis 2002 Sep;23(9):1491-6

Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The association between soyfood intake and breast cancer risk is controversial. Most of the epidemiologic studies published on this topic in the 1990s were not designed to specifically address this question. We conducted a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese, Japanese and Filipino women in Los Angeles County to further investigate the role of soy. Our primary objective was to quantify breast cancer risks associated with intake of soy during adolescence and adult life among Asian-American women. During 1995-1998, we successfully interviewed 501 breast cancer patients and 594 control subjects. Intake of soy among Asian-Americans is still relatively high; the median intake was 12 mg isoflavones/day, approximately one-third of that reported in a recent study in Shanghai, China. The risk of breast cancer was significantly inversely associated with soy intake during adolescence and adult life. After adjusting for age, specific Asian ethnicity, education, migration history and menstrual and reproductive factors, women who reported soy intake at least once per week during adolescence showed a statistically significantly reduced risk of breast cancer. There was also a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing soy intake during adult life. When we considered soy intake during both adolescence and adult life, subjects who were high-soy consumers during both time periods showed the lowest risk (OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.36-0.78) compared with those who were low consumers during both time periods. Risk of breast cancer was intermediate among subjects who were high-soy consumers during adolescence and low-soy consumers during adult life (OR=0.77, 95% CI=0.51-1.10). Based on a relatively small number of subjects, the risk did not appear to differ between those who were low consumers during adolescence and high consumers during adult life. Results remained similar after adjustment for other potential confounders including other dietary and non-dietary risk factors for breast cancer. These results show that high soy intake in childhood in Asian-Americans is associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Risk may be further reduced by intake as an adult.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/23.9.1491DOI Listing
September 2002

Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) genotype and phenotype, galactose consumption, and the risk of borderline and invasive ovarian cancer (United States).

Cancer Causes Control 2002 Mar;13(2):113-20

Department of Preventive Medicine, USC Keck School of Medicine, USC/Norris Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

Objective: Previous studies have suggested that high levels of galactose consumption and/or low levels of galactose-I-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) activity may result in an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Similarly, some have reported that carriers of the N314D (asparagine at codon 314 replaced by aspartate) GALT polymorphism, which can be associated with low GALT activity, may have a higher risk of ovarian cancer. We examined these issues as part of a large case-control study of ovarian cancer conducted in Los Angeles between 1992 and 1998.

Methods: A total of 1,439 histologically confirmed borderline and invasive ovarian cancer cases among English-speaking non-Asian women were ascertained through the population-based cancer registry for Los Angeles County and completed in-person interviews were obtained from 689 of these (78% of cases approached). Controls consisted of 645 English-speaking non-Asian women with at least one intact ovary matched to cases on race/ethnicity (African-American, Latina, non-Latina White), date of birth (+/-3 years), and neighborhood of residence. Interviewer-administered questionnaires included information on reproductive factors, exogenous hormone use, medical history, and diet. Dietary information for the year before each case's diagnosis (and the same period for her matched control) was obtained using a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained from 452 controls, 136 cases with borderline ovarian cancer, and 312 cases with invasive ovarian cancer. The N314D polymorphism was characterized using PCR-RFLP and GALT enzyme activity, and was determined for a sample of the subjects with GALT genotype using an erythrocyte-based radioactive enzyme assay.

Results: We found no effect of N314D GALT genotype on the risk of borderline ovarian cancer (odds ratio (OR)=0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.54-1.6) or invasive ovarian cancer (OR=0.78; 95% CI= 0.53-1.2). Neither did we observe a relationship between GALT activity or lactose/galactose intake and risk of borderline or invasive ovarian cancer. Among N314D carriers, galactose consumption was associated with an increased risk of borderline (OR = 2.7, p = 0.01), but not invasive (OR = 1.2, p = 0.34), ovarian cancer; however, this result was based on only 24 N314D-positive borderline cases.

Conclusions: Differences in galactose intake and GALT metabolism do not contribute significantly to the risk of ovarian cancer. There is some evidence that galactose intake may play a role in the development of borderline ovarian cancer among women who carry the uncommon GALT N314D polymorphism. More data are needed if this latter suggestion is to be definitively addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1014384027523DOI Listing
March 2002
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