Publications by authors named "Pedro W M Souza Filho"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Changes in soil properties during iron mining and in rehabilitating minelands in the Eastern Amazon.

Environ Monit Assess 2022 Mar 7;194(4):256. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Instituto Tecnológico Vale, R. Boaventura da Silva, 955, Nazaré, Belém, Pará, CEP 66055-090, Brazil.

Open-cast iron mining causes drastic disturbances in soil properties. Recovery of soil chemical and physical properties is essential for successful revegetation and landscape rehabilitation. To identify changes in soil properties during the mining and revegetation process, soil samples were collected from undisturbed sites represented by forest and ferriferous savannas stocking above iron outcrops, called "cangas," in open-pit benches, and in rehabilitation chronosequences of iron waste piles in the Carajás Mineral Province (CMP), Eastern Amazon, Brazil. The samples were analyzed for chemical and physical properties. Our results showed that iron mining operations resulted in significant alteration of the chemical soil properties when forest and canga vegetation are suppressed to form open-pit benches or waste piles in the CMP. Mining substrates showed lower contents of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrients than undisturbed areas of forests and cangas. In order to achieve the success of revegetation, nutrients have been added prior to plant establishment. We have demonstrated how soil fertility changes along with mineland rehabilitation, and the variation among chronosequence was attributable mainly due to contents of SOM, K, and B in the soil. The slight improvement of SOM found in rehabilitated waste piles reinforces the notion that recovery of soil quality can be a slow process in iron minelands in the CMP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-022-09892-yDOI Listing
March 2022

Amazon Sediment Transport and Accumulation Along the Continuum of Mixed Fluvial and Marine Processes.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2021 01 7;13:501-536. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA; email:

Sediment transfer from land to ocean begins in coastal settings and, for large rivers such as the Amazon, has dramatic impacts over thousands of kilometers covering diverse environmental conditions. In the relatively natural Amazon tidal river, combinations of fluvial and marine processes transition toward the ocean, affecting the transport and accumulation of sediment in floodplains and tributary mouths. The enormous discharge of Amazon fresh water causes estuarine processes to occur on the continental shelf, where much sediment accumulation creates a large clinoform structure and where additional sediment accumulates along its shoreward boundary in tidal flats and mangrove forests. Some remaining Amazon sediment is transported beyond the region near the river mouth, and fluvial forces on it diminish. Numerous perturbations to Amazon sediment transport and accumulation occur naturally, but human actions will likely dominate future change, and now is the time to document, understand, and mitigate their impacts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060457DOI Listing
January 2021

Morphology and morphometry of upland lakes over lateritic crust, Serra dos Carajás, southeastern Amazon region.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2018 Apr-Jun;90(2):1309-1325. Epub 2018 May 17.

Gerência de Meio Ambiente - Minas de Carajás, Departamento de Ferrosos Norte, Estrada Raymundo Mascarenhas, s/n, Mina de N4, 68516-000 Parauapebas, PA, Brazil.

High-resolution satellite images, digital elevation models, bathymetric and sedimentological surveys coupled with statistical analysis were used to understand the physical environment and discuss their influence on water quality of the five upland lakes of Serra Sul dos Carajás, southeast Amazonia. The lakes have mid-altitude ranges (elevation), very small (catchment) and shallow to very shallow (central basins). Based on the length, area and volume, Violão and TI (Três Irmãs)-3 lakes may present large vertical movements of the water due to wind action and weakly stratified waters. Trophic conditions based on depth and shore development (Ld) parameters must be used with caution, since Amendoim Lake is relatively deep, but it is oligotrophic to ultra-oligotrophic. Ld values suggest that the lakes are circular to subcircular and are likely formed by solution process, as also suggested by volume development. TI-2 Lake is only presenting convex central basin and has highest dynamic ratio (DR), thus it may have high sedimentation and erosion rates. Based on the relationship between studied parameters, morphometric index and DR likely influence temperature and dissolved oxygen of waters of TI-2 Lake due to its depth profile and wind-induced surface mixing. Nevertheless, water quality parameters are controlled by catchment characteristics of the lakes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201820170349DOI Listing
June 2018

Conserving relics from ancient underground worlds: assessing the influence of cave and landscape features on obligate iron cave dwellers from the Eastern Amazon.

PeerJ 2018 20;6:e4531. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Instituto Tecnológico Vale, Belém, PA, Brazil.

The degradation of subterranean habitats is believed to represent a serious threat for the conservation of obligate subterranean dwellers (troglobites), many of which are short-range endemics. However, while the factors influencing cave biodiversity remain largely unknown, the influence of the surrounding landscape and patterns of subterranean connectivity of terrestrial troglobitic communities have never been systematically assessed. Using spatial statistics to analyze the most comprehensive speleological database yet available for tropical caves, we first assess the influence of iron cave characteristics and the surrounding landscape on troglobitic communities from the Eastern Amazon. We then determine the spatial pattern of troglobitic community composition, species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and the occurrence of frequent troglobitic species, and finally quantify how different landscape features influence the connectivity between caves. Our results reveal the key importance of habitat amount, guano, water, lithology, geomorphology, and elevation in shaping iron cave troglobitic communities. While mining within 250 m from the caves influenced species composition, increasing agricultural land cover within 50 m from the caves reduced species richness and phylogenetic diversity. Troglobitic species composition, species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and the occurrence of frequent troglobites showed spatial autocorrelation for up to 40 km. Finally, our results suggest that the conservation of cave clusters should be prioritized, as geographic distance was the main factor determining connectivity between troglobitic communities. Overall, our work sheds important light onto one of the most overlooked terrestrial ecosystems, and highlights the need to shift conservation efforts from individual caves to subterranean habitats as a whole.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5865468PMC
March 2018

Three decades of reference evapotranspiration estimates for a tropical watershed in the eastern Amazon.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2017 26;89(3 Suppl):1985-2002. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Ambientais, Universidade Federal do Pará, Instituto Geociências, Av. Augusto Correa, 1 Guamá, 66075-110 Belém, PA, Brazil.

This study estimated the reference evapotranspiration rate (ETo) for the Itacaiúnas River Watershed (IRW), Eastern Amazonia, and measured the accuracy of eight empirical equations: Penman-Monteith (PM), Priestley-Taylor (PT), Hargreaves and Samani (HS), Camargo (CAM), Thornthwaite (TH), Hamon (HM), Kharrufa (KF) and Turc (TC) using monthly data from 1980 to 2013. In addition, it verifies the regional applicability to the IRW using a for the Marabá-PA station. The methods TC and PM (FAO56) presented the best results, which demonstrate that radiation and higher temperatures are the dominant drivers in the Evapotranspiration process, while relative humidity and wind speed have a much smaller impact. The temporal and spatial variability of ETo for IRW show has strong seasonality, increasing during the dry season and decreasing during the rainy season. The statistical analyses at 1% level of significance, indicates that there is no correlation of the residuals between the dry and rainy seasons, and test of the physical parameters such as mean temperature, solar radiation and relative air humidity explains the variations of ETo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201720170147DOI Listing
January 2018

Holocene history of a lake filling and vegetation dynamics of the Serra Sul dos Carajás, southeast Amazonia.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 24;91Suppl 2(Suppl 2):e20160916. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Gerência de Meio Ambiente - Minas de Carajás, Departamento de Ferrosos Norte, Estrada Raymundo Mascarenhas, s/n, Mina de N4, 68516-000 Parauapebas, PA, Brazil.

Down-core changes in sedimentary facies, elemental geochemistry, pollen, spore, δ13C, δ15N and radiocarbon records from a filled lake, named R4, of the Serra Sul dos Carajás were used to study the relationship between the paleomorphological and paleoecological processes and their significance for Holocene paleoclimatology of the southeast Amazonia. The sediment deposition of the R4 lake started around 9500 cal yr BP. Increase of detrital components from 9500 to 7000 cal yr BP suggests high weathering of surrounding catchment rocks and soils, and deposition into the lake basin under mudflows. At that time, montane savanna and forest formation were already established suggesting predominance of wet climate. However, from 7000 to 3000 cal yr BP, a decline of detrital input occurred. Also, forest formation and pteridophytes were declined, while palms and macrophytes were remained relatively stable, indicating that water levels of the lake is likely dropped allowing the development of plants adapted to subaerial condition under drier climate conditions. After 3000 cal yr BP, eutrophication and low accommodation space lead to high lake productivity and the final stage of the lake filling respectively, and forest formation may has acquired its current structure, which suggests return of wetter climate conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201720160916DOI Listing
February 2019

Influence of seasonal variation on the hydro-biogeochemical characteristics of two upland lakes in the Southeastern Amazon, Brazil.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2016 Oct-Dec;88(4):2211-2227

Vale Institute of Technology, Rua Boaventura da Silva 955, Nazaré, 66055-090 Belém, PA, Brazil.

Limnological characteristics of the Violão and Amendoim lakes, in the Serra dos Carajás, Amazon, were studied interannually (2013-2014). Climate data indicate anomalous conditions during the 2013 rainy period with higher rainfall and lower temperature in the beginning (November). Lake levels were influenced after the first and second hour of each rainfall, which showed a strong synchronization between seasonal fluctuation of lake levels and local weather patterns. Based on the water quality, both lakes are classified as classes "1" and "2" in the CONAMA (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente) scheme and as "excellent" to "good" in the WQI (Water Quality Index) categories. However, the limnology is distinctly different between the lakes and seasons. Higher trophic state and phytoplankton productivity were observed mainly during the rainy period in Violão Lake compared to Amendoim Lake. This may be due to deposition of leached nutrients in the former, mainly total phosphorus (TP), which was probably derived from mafic soils and guano. This is consistent with the significant positive correlation between Chlorophyll-a and TP at the end of the rainy period (March-April), whereas this was not observed in the beginning (November). This could possibly be a consequence of the more intense cloud cover, and unusual high rainfall that limits nutrient availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201620160354DOI Listing
January 2018
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