Publications by authors named "Paweena Thuwanut"

10 Publications

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Characterization of stem cells from human ovarian follicular fluid; a potential source of autologous stem cell for cell-based therapy.

Hum Cell 2021 Mar 4;34(2):300-309. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Human ovarian follicular fluid (HOFF) contains proteins, extracellular matrixes necessary for growth and maturation of oocytes as well as granulosa cells. Epithelial cells and stem cells can be isolated from HOFF. However, information regarding stem cells derived from HOFF is still lacking. The objectives of the present study were to isolate, characterize, and differentiate cells derived from HOFF. HOFF was collected during the routine aspiration of oocytes in an assisted fertilization program and subjected to cell isolation, characterization, and in vitro culture. After 24 h of culture, different cell morphologies including epithelial-like-, neural-like- and fibroblast-like cells were observed. Immunocytochemistry reveals the expression of pluripotent stem cell markers (OCT4, NANOG, SSEA4), epithelial marker (CK18), FSH- and LH-receptor. For in vitro culture, the isolated cells were continuously cultured in a growth medium; alpha MEM containing 10% FBS and epidermal growth factor (EGF). After 2 weeks of in vitro culture, cells with fibroblast-like morphology dominantly grow in the culture vessels and resemble mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). HOFF-derived cells exhibited MSC expression of CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146, and STRO-1, and were capable of differentiation into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. After induction of neural differentiation, HOFF-derived cells formed spheroidal structures and expressed neural stem cell markers including Nestin, β-tubulin III, and O4. Besides, the oocyte-like structure was observed after prolonged culture of HOFF. In conclusion, cells derived from follicular fluid exhibited stem cell characteristics, which could be useful for regenerative medicine applications and cell-based therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13577-020-00439-2DOI Listing
March 2021

Effect of incubation temperature on lactogenic function of goat milk-derived mammary epithelial cells.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2020 Dec 16;56(10):842-846. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand.

In general, goat mammary epithelial cells (MECs) are cultured in vitro under 37 °C. We demonstrated previously that goat MECs differentiate under 37 °C although their body temperature is approximately 39 °C. This study aimed to investigate the influence of 39 °C on lactogenic differentiation of goat milk-derived MECs. The results revealed that HSP70 gene was significantly elevated at 1 h after an exposure to 39 °C but declined at 48 h thereafter. Oxidative stress status was not significantly affected by 39 °C. Expressions of CSN2, β-GALT1, α-LA, and Akt genes tended to increase after the differentiation under 39 °C. Secretion of lactose under 39 °C was not significantly lower than 37 °C. In conclusion, incubation temperature at 39 °C does not dramatically affect lactogenic function of goat milk-derived MECs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11626-020-00529-3DOI Listing
December 2020

Responsiveness of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) ovary to exogenous gonadotropins after preemptive oral progestin treatment.

Theriogenology 2019 Oct 2;138:39-46. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Center for Species Survival, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute and National Zoological Park, Front Royal, Virginia, Washington DC, 20008, USA. Electronic address:

Control of ovarian function in cheetahs is sub-optimal, which currently limits the integration of assisted reproductive techniques into the genetic management of that endangered species. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of preemptive progestin treatment on the quality of ovarian responses after exogenous gonadotropin stimulation in cheetahs. Adult females received either 1) 200 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) followed with 3,000 IU porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) (intramuscular route) (n = 5; control group) or 2) similar eCG/pLH administration preceded by a 7-day treatment with oral progestin (0.1 mg/kg altrenogest; ALT group; n = 7). At 42 h post-pLH administration, a series of metrics was assessed via laparoscopy (number of follicles ≥ 2 mm, number of corpora lutea, oviduct and uterine cornua diameter and overall vascularization). Concentrations of fecal estradiol, progesterone and glucocorticoid metabolites (FEM, FPM, and FGM, respectively) were measured by enzyme immunoassay for 3 wk before ALT treatment (Period 1), 7 d during ovarian suppression period (Period 2), throughout eCG/LH treatment and laparoscopy (Period 3), and 6 wk following laparoscopy (Period 4). Overall, nine out of 12 cheetahs (4/5 in control and 5/7 ALT group) had freshly-formed corpora lutea at the time of laparoscopy. Mean follicle and corpora lutea numbers in the control versus ALT group were not different (P > 0.05). Overall measurements and vascularization scores also did not differ (P > 0.05) among groups. FEM average concentrations increased (P ≤ 0.05) in response to eCG for the ALT-treated females between Periods 2 and 3 and were sustained during Period 4. However, FEM average concentrations did not vary (P > 0.05) for control females throughout Periods 1-4. Post-ovulatory FPM average concentrations (Period 4) did not differ (P > 0.05) between the ALT-treated females and controls. FPM average concentration from both groups increased in Period 4 compared to Periods 1-3 (P ≤ 0.05). Females receiving the ALT treatment also had lower (P ≤ 0.05) FGM metabolite average concentrations than control females during ovarian suppression (suggesting adrenal suppression). Collective results suggest that ovarian response to gonadotropin treatment in the cheetah was improved following oral progestin administration due to the normative increase in estradiol following stimulation for these females compared with control. This treatment should lead to more effective timed assisted reproduction procedures for this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2019.07.001DOI Listing
October 2019

Activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) enhances energy metabolism, motility, and fertilizing ability of cryopreserved spermatozoa in domestic cat model.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2019 Jul 11;36(7):1401-1412. Epub 2019 May 11.

Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Front Royal, Virginia and Washington DC, USA.

Purpose: Increasing intracellular energy storage by chemically activating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPKα) prior to sperm cryopreservation may improve post-thawed sperm function. Using the domestic cat as a biomedical model, the objectives were to (1) confirm the expression of AMPKα and its regulatory kinases in epididymal spermatozoa and (2) assess the influence of AMPK activator, 5'-aminoimidasole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) on epididymal sperm function before and after cryopreservation.

Methods: In study I, sperm samples of different qualities were obtained from cauda epididymides of domestic cats and evaluated for AMPKα expression. In study II, epididymal spermatozoa were equilibrated for either 30 or 60 min in the presence of 0 (control), 0.5, 2.0, and 5.0 mM AICAR and sperm functions were assessed before and after cryopreservation. In study III, epididymal spermatozoa were treated as in study II and evaluated for AMPKα signaling protein expressions (phospho-AMPKα Thr172 and GLUT1) as well as ATP levels.

Results: AMPKα protein expression was higher in high-motility vs poor-motility samples. Thirty-minute equilibration with 0.5 mM AICAR improved motion characteristics and fertilizing ability of cryopreserved sperm to the control. Increased expressions of phospho-AMPKα Thr172 and GLUT1 as well as intracellular ATP level were confirmed in sperm samples equilibrated with 0.5 or 2.0 mM AICAR for 30 min.

Conclusions: Presence and role of AMPKα protein in cat regulating sperm function were demonstrated before and after cryopreservation. Findings could be used to potentially enhance cryopreserved sperm function in sub-fertile men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10815-019-01470-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6642251PMC
July 2019

SUCCESSFUL LAPAROSCOPIC OVIDUCTAL ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN THE CLOUDED LEOPARD (NEOFELIS NEBULOSA) IN THAILAND.

J Zoo Wildl Med 2017 09;48(3):804-812

Captive breeding of clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) is challenging because of mating incompatibility, high incidence of teratospermia in males, and inconsistent ovulation patterns in females. Assisted reproductive techniques, therefore, are necessary to overcome these issues and maintain the genetic diversity in the captive population. The objective was to use laparoscopic oviductal artificial insemination (AI) to breed genetically valuable females (n = 4; aged 4.5-5 yr) that were unsuccessfully paired. Fecal hormone metabolites (estrogen and progesterone) were extracted and measured by enzyme immunoassay for monitoring of ovarian activity 45 days before and 65 days after laparoscopic AI. For timed insemination, females were injected with 200 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin and 1,000 IU porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) at the 82-hr interval. Ovarian assessment was performed by laparoscopy 44 hr after pLH administration. One nulliparous female out of four presented two ovulation sites on each ovary. The single female that had ovulated was inseminated with chilled semen collected from two males (8 × 10 and 2.7 × 10 motile spermatozoa, respectively, in each oviduct). A significant increase in fecal progesterone concentrations was observed after AI with a concentration peak (500 μg/g dry feces) detected on day 24 after pLH injection, which was then sustained for more than 45 days after the pLH injection. The delivery of two cubs occurred on day 92 after pLH. Microsatellite marker analysis determined that both cubs were sired by the same male. This is the first report of a successful oviductal AI in the clouded leopard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2016-0287.1DOI Listing
September 2017

Stem cell factor promotes in vitro ovarian follicle development in the domestic cat by upregulating c-kit mRNA expression and stimulating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2017 Jul;29(7):1356-1368

Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, National Zoological Park, Front Royal, VA 22630 and Washington, DC 20008, USA.

In the present study we examined the effects of stem cell factor (SCF; 50 vs 100ngmL) alone or in combination with epidermal growth factor (EGF; 100ngmL) on: (1) the in vitro viability and growth of cat follicles within ovarian cortices; (2) phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation; and (3) c-kit and FSH receptor (FSHr) mRNA expression. At 100ngmL, SCF increased (P≤0.05) the percentage and size of secondary follicles after 14 days of in vitro culture and sustained AKT phosphorylation after 3 days incubation. EGF suppressed this beneficial effect and reduced (P≤0.05) the percentage of structurally normal follicles and FSHr expression when combined with 100ngmL SCF. Expression of c-kit mRNA was higher (P≤0.05) in the presence of 100ngmL SCF compared with fresh follicles and cohorts cultured under other conditions. A c-kit inhibitor suppressed follicle growth and reduced AKT phosphorylation. Collectively, the results demonstrate that SCF promotes cat follicle development by upregulating c-kit mRNA expression and AKT phosphorylation. EGF suppresses the stimulating effect of SCF, leading to downregulation of FSHr expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD16071DOI Listing
July 2017

The development of cat testicular sperm cryopreservation protocols: Effects of tissue fragments or sperm cell suspension.

Theriogenology 2016 Jan 26;85(2):200-6. Epub 2015 Sep 26.

Division of Reproduction, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Science (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.

In endangered animals that have been found dead or sterilized for medical reasons, testis is the ultimate source of haploid DNA or sperm. Thus, preservation of testicular sperm may be performed to rescue their genetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate protocols for testicular sperm freezing: as tissue fragments or cell suspension in domestic cats as a model. A pair of testes from each cat (n = 9) were cut into eight equal pieces. Four randomly selected pieces were cryopreserved as: (1) tissue pieces using two-step freezing; (2) tissue pieces using a slow passive cooling device (CoolCell); (3) sperm suspension after single-layer centrifugation (SLC) through colloids; and (4) sperm suspension without being processed through SLC. A testicular piece from each cat served as fresh control. Testicular sperm membrane and DNA integrity were evaluated before, and after, the cryopreservation process. In addition, spermatogenic cell types (testicular sperm, spermatogonia, spermatocyte, and spermatid) present in the suspension samples were counted before and after SLC. The results found that testicular sperm membrane integrity in the suspension after SLC process was higher than that in the fragment form neither using the two-step nor CoolCell freezing, both before and after freezing (before freezing: 92.3 ± 3.4 vs. 81 ± 4.5 and 80.0 ± 7.0; after freezing: 84.5 ± 4.6 vs. 71.2 ± 12 and 76.2 ± 4.6; P ≤ 0.05). Testicular sperm DNA integrity was, however, not different among groups. Furthermore, the samples processed through the SLC had higher ration of sperm cells: other spermatogenic cells than those were not processed through the SLC (88.9 ± 3.8 vs. 30 ± 7.9; P ≤ 0.05). In summary, testicular sperm cryopreserved as a minced suspension is considered suitable in terms of preventing sperm membrane integrity, and SLC is considered a selection tool for enriching haploid sperm cells from castrated or postmortem cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.09.030DOI Listing
January 2016

Effect of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate on cryopreserved epididymal cat sperm intracellular ATP concentration, sperm quality, and in vitro fertilizing ability.

Theriogenology 2015 Sep 8;84(5):702-9. Epub 2015 May 8.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Electronic address:

Intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is essential for supporting sperm function in the fertilization process. During cryopreservation, damage of sperm mitochondrial membrane usually leads to compromised production of intracellular ATP. Recently, extracellular ATP (ATPe) was introduced as a potent activator of sperm motility and fertilizing ability. This study aimed to evaluate (1) levels of intracellular ATP in frozen-thawed epididymal cat sperm after incubation with ATPe and (2) effects of ATPe on epididymal cat sperm parameters after freezing and thawing. Eighteen male cats were included. For each replicate, epididymal sperm from two cats were pooled to one sample (N = 9). Each pooled sample was cryopreserved with the Tris-egg yolk extender into three straws. After thawing, the first and second straws were incubated with 0-, 1.0-, or 2.5-mM ATPe for 10 minutes and evaluated for sperm quality at 10 minutes, 1, 3, and 6 hours after thawing and fertilizing ability. The third straw was evaluated for intracellular ATP concentration in control and with 2.5-mM ATPe treatment. Higher concentration of intracellular sperm ATP was observed in the samples treated with 2.5-mM ATPe compared to the controls (0.339 ± 0.06 μg/2 × 10(6) sperm vs. 0.002 ± 0.003 μg/2 × 10(6) sperm, P ≤ 0.05). In addition, incubation with 2.5-mM ATPe for 10 minutes promoted sperm motility (56.7 ± 5.0 vs. 53.3 ± 4.4%, P ≤ 0.05) and progressive motility (3.1 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.4, P ≤ 0.05), mitochondrial membrane potential (36.4 ± 5.5 vs. 28.7 ± 4.8%, P ≤ 0.05), and blastocyst rate (36.1 ± 7.0 and 28.8 ± 7.4%, P ≤ 0.05) compared with the controls. In contrast, ATPe remarkably interfered acrosome integrity after 6 hours of postthawed incubation. In sum, the present finding that optimal incubation time of postthaw epididymal cat sperm under proper ATPe condition might constitute a rationale for the studies on other endangered wild felids regarding sperm quality and embryo development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.05.003DOI Listing
September 2015

Sperm quality and the morphology of cryopreserved testicular tissues recovered post-mortem from diverse wild species.

Cryobiology 2013 Oct 18;67(2):244-7. Epub 2013 Jul 18.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

This study compared the effects of slow and fast freezing of testicular tissue of wild animals collected at post-mortem on testicular structure and testicular sperm. The testes of seven animals that had died in captivity; three felids (jungle cat, lion and leopard), two cervids (rusa deer and fea's muntjac) and two bovids (Sumatran serows) were cryopreserved using slow- and fast-freezing protocols. There were greater reductions in the integrity of the sperm membrane and DNA in tissues cryopreserved using slow freezing compared to fast freezing (membrane integrity reduced by 21.5 ± 12.4% vs. 13.0 ± 6.9%, P = 0.11 and DNA integrity reduced by 22.7 ± 16.3% vs. 6.6 ± 6.3%, P = 0.13). Histologically, there were similar degrees of detachment and shrinkage of the seminiferous tubules whereas, TUNEL assay revealed a tendency towards more apoptotic changes in the intra-tubular cells of tissues frozen using fast freezing compared to slow freezing (P = 0.09). In conclusion, fast freezing tended to cause less damage to testicular sperm but its protective effect on intra-tubular cells was likely compromised. This is the first report of gamete recovery in the wild and of the comparison in various wildlife species, between testicular tissues cryopreserved using different protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2013.07.002DOI Listing
October 2013

A case report concerning male gametes rescued from a Siamese Eld's deer (Rucervus eldii siamensis): post-thawed testicular and epididymal sperm quality and heterologous zona pellucida binding ability.

J Vet Med Sci 2013 Jan 11;75(1):123-5. Epub 2012 Oct 11.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

In the present study, the quality of frozen-thawed epididymal and testicular sperm recovered from a Siamese Eld's deer was examined. The epididymal sperm quality was assessed in fresh, cold-stored at 4°C and frozen-thawed samples. Zona binding ability of the frozen-thawed epididymal samples with Burmese Eld's deer oocytes was also evaluated. Testicular sperm extracted from tissues frozen at -80 or -196°C for one month were examined for membrane and DNA integrity. Epididymal sperm retained their quality for up to 24 hr of cold storage at 4°C. The percentages of sperm motility, intact membrane, intact acrosome and intact DNA were 30, 46.5, 27 and 89.5% in the frozen and thawed epididymal sperm, and the average ability to bind with oocytes was 92.5 ± 64 sperm/oocytes. Around 70% of the sperm extracted from testicular tissues cryopreserved at -196 and -80°C for one month showed an intact membrane. In conclusion, epididymal and testicular sperm survived for more than 13 hr post-mortem. Furthermore, cold storage at 4°C and cryopreservation at -196 and -80°C maintain the quality of epididymal and testicular sperm. This study represents a model for male gamete rescue in endangered Eld's deer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.11-0491DOI Listing
January 2013