Publications by authors named "Paweł Nadrowski"

17 Publications

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Ten-year changes in adherence to a healthy lifestyle: the results of the WOBASZ surveys.

Pol Arch Intern Med 2021 02 25;131(2):136-144. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland

Introduction: The evidence on the beneficial role of low‑risk characteristics is well established. However, data on trends in lifestyle patterns in Central Europe are limited.

Objectives: The aim of this report was to determine changes in lifestyle patterns among adults in Poland between 2003 and 2014.

Patients And Methods: The study sample comprised 12 857 adults aged 20 to 74 years (5986 men and 6871 women) participating in 2 nationwide representative surveys, the WOBASZ (2003-2005) and WOBASZ II (2013-2014). Low‑risk characteristics included: nonsmoking, nonobese waist circumference, satisfactory physical activity, good-quality diet, and low saturated fat intake. The 5 characteristics cre‑ ated a lifestyle index ranging from 0 to 5. A poor lifestyle was defined as the lifestyle index from 0 to 1.

Results: About 2% of the participants followed a healthy lifestyle, and 25%, a poor lifestyle in both surveys. The proportion of nonsmokers significantly increased (from 57.8% to 66.9% for men and from 72.6% to 77.1% for women). There was a significant decrease in the prevalence of nonobese waist circumference (from 75.4% to 71.3% among men and from 61.2% to 57.9% among women), adequate physical activity (from 37.5% to 27.5% among men and from 31.5% to 29% among women), and low saturated fat consumption (from 23.4% to 20.2% among men and from 26.1% to 23.7% among women). Lower educational attainment was the strongest sociodemographic factor contributing to a poor lifestyle (P <0.001).

Conclusions: The ultimate goal for the healthcare system should be to implement more effective interventions focused on promoting healthy lifestyle as a whole.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20452/pamw.15778DOI Listing
February 2021

Vitamin D - dietary intake, supplementation and metabolic status of Polish adults

Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2020 01 3;33(1):107-118. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland (Department of Preventive Medicine).

Objectives: Contrary to popular opinion on the preventive properties of vitamin D, results of previous studies have been inconclusive. The aim of this research was to evaluate the associations between the intake of vitamin D and metabolic abnormalities in a representative sample of Polish adults.

Material And Methods: Within the framework of the Multi-Center National Population Health Examination Survey (referred to as WOBASZ), a random sample of 2381 adult residents of Poland (53.8% of whom were women) was examined. All the study subjects were extensively reviewed, including 24-h dietary recall. The intake of vitamin D was assessed on the basis of dietary and supplements reviews. Metabolic abnormalities were evaluated using measurements of waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), serum triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and fasting glycemia. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation.

Results: Of all the study participants, about 4.4 % of women and 2.6% of men declared a regular supplementation of vitamin D. Among women, a significant inverse correlation between vitamin D supplementation and the mean systolic BP was found (p < 0.01). A more substantial relationship was noted after dividing the study subjects according to their body mass. Among obese men, there was a significant inverse relationship between vitamin D intake and the mean systolic BP (p < 0.01) and diastolic BP (p < 0.05), as well as a positive correlation with HDL-C (p < 0.05). Among obese women, a negative correlation was found between vitamin D supplementation and the mean systolic BP (p < 0.01) and diastolic BP (p < 0.05), and a positive correlation with TG (p < 0.05). Among non-obese male subjects, a negative correlation between vitamin D intake and WC was observed.

Conclusions: The obtained findings suggest that the correlation between vitamin D intake and metabolic abnormalities may depend on the obesity status. A higher vitamin D intake may reduce BP and increase HDL-C in obese subjects. The positive relationship between vitamin D intake and TG concentration in women needs further investigation. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2020;33(1):107-18.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13075/ijomeh.1896.01400DOI Listing
January 2020

Cardiovascular diseases prevention in Poland: results of WOBASZ and WOBASZ II studies.

Kardiol Pol 2018;76(11):1534-1541. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Department of Epidemiology, Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, and Health Promotion, The Cardinal Stafan Wyszynski Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw, POland, Alpejska 42, 04-628 Warssw, Poland.

Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of morbidity and an important cause of disability and premature death in European countries. Current guidelines recommend prevention delivery by physicians during medical consultations.

Aim: We sought to evaluate the prevention support offered by Polish physicians in 2013-2014 compared to 2003-2005, and its determinants.

Methods: The data from two population surveys were analysed: WOBASZ (6392 men and 7153 women, aged 20-74 years, screened in 2003-2005) and WOBASZ II (2751 men and 3418 women, aged ≥ 20 years, screened in 2013-2014). For comparison analysis, the population of WOBASZ II was restricted to persons aged 20-74 years. Prevention delivery was assessed using a questionnaire.

Results: Overall, 64% of men and 75% of women screened in 2003-2005 consulted their physicians at least once in the preceding year; 10 years later these rates were 70% and 82%, respectively. In both studies, 70% of respondents recalled having received one piece of prevention advice during a medical consultation. One-third of participants neither received any prevention advice nor had their blood pressure or cholesterol level measured. In WOBASZ II we observed a significant increase in the frequency of counselling regarding smoking cessation, nutrition, and increased physical activity, as well as in the frequency of cholesterol measurements, compared to WOBASZ. The prevention support was related to the health status.

Conclusions: The prevention support in the years 2013-2014 was better than in 2003-2005, but was still insufficient. About one-third of participants did not receive any preventive advice. The prevention support was offered more often to patients with worse health status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/KP.a2018.0154DOI Listing
March 2019

Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in the adult Polish population - Multi-center National Population Health Examination Surveys - WOBASZ studies.

Arch Med Sci 2018 Aug 10;14(5):951-961. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Department of Hypertension, Angiology and Internal Disease, Poznan University of Medical Science, Poznan, Poland.

Introduction: Hypertension is one of the main risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. The first aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension as well as treatment effectiveness (blood pressure < 140/90 mm Hg) in a representative sample of the Polish population over the age of 19, examined in the WOBASZ II program. The second aim was to assess the changes in these parameters between 2003-2005 (WOBASZ study) and 2013-2014 in adults aged 20-74.

Material And Methods: Sampling was performed in three stages, stratified according to voivodeship (province), type of commune, and gender. Finally, the study included 6163 persons (3406 women and 2757 men) examined in the years 2013-2014 (aged ≥ 19 years). For comparison the data from 14 755 persons (7783 women and 6452 men aged 20-74 years) examined in the years 2003-2005 were used.

Results: In the years 2013-2014, the age-standardized prevalence of hypertension, awareness, treatment and control was 42.7%, 59.3%, 46.1%, and 23% respectively. In the last decade an increase in the prevalence of hypertension (relative ratio (RR) 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.18), treatment (RR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.17-1.36) and control (RR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.9-12.45) was found. In contrast, the awareness decreased nonsignificantly (RR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.92-1.05).

Conclusions: The prevalence of hypertension in Poland is high, and increased by about 12% in 10 years. Although the number of treated patients and blood pressure control improved nearly twofold over the last decade, this is still below expectations. Efforts to improve the diagnosis and effective treatment of hypertension in Poland should still be intensified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2017.72423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6111367PMC
August 2018

Trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control among Polish adults 75 years and older during 2007-2014.

Cardiol J 2018 19;25(3):333-344. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Department of Hypertension, Angiology and Internal Disease, Poznan University of Medical Science, ul.Dluga 1/2, 61-848 Poznan, Poland.

Background: The aim of this study was to assess changes in the prevalence, awareness, and treatment of hypertension and its effectiveness between 2007 (WOBASZ Senior study) and 2013-2014 (WOBASZ II) in a sample of the Polish population over the age of 75 years.

Methods: Sampling had three stages, stratified according to voivodeships, type of community, and gen-der. Finally, the WOBASZ II study included 467 persons (290 women and 177 men). For a comparison of the data, 1096 persons (538 women and 554 men) examined in the WOBASZ Senior study were used.

Results: Systolic and diastolic blood pressures significantly decreased from 153.0 ± 23.9 mmHg to 142.9 ± 22.3 mmHg and from 85.2 ± 11.9 mmHg to 78.4 ± 11.3 mmHg, respectively, from 2007 to 2014 (p < 0.0001). Prevalence of hypertension among people included in WOBASZ studies slightly decreased from 83.8% to 77.9% (rate ratio [RR]: 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78-1.16) in men, and from 75.4% to 71.8% (RR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.8-1.09) in women. Hypertension awareness was improved from 59.2% to 72.9% (RR: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.97-1.56) in men, and from 74,8% to 93% (RR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.01-1.58) in women. The proportion of men and women, with implemented hypertension treatment, increased from 48.4% to 61.1% (RR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.01-1.58), and from 63.2% to 82.0% (RR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.53), respectively. The effectiveness of the treatment was improved over two-fold, there was an increase from 10.3% to 26.8% (RR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.81-3.89) in men, and from 13.8% to 33.5% in women (RR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.81-3.3).

Conclusions: The prevalence of hypertension in Polish seniors remains high, but has decreased slightly in the perspective of the last 7 years. Although treatment and control has improved over the last decade, it remains below expectations. Efforts to improve the diagnosis and effective treatment of hypertension in Polish seniors should be intensified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2018.0043DOI Listing
December 2018

How does the risk of cardiovascular death and cardiovascular risk factor profiles differ between socioeconomic classes in Poland: A country in transition.

Cardiol J 2019 23;26(5):493-502. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Division of Cardiology and Structural Heart Diseases, Medical Univer sity of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) development. A decline in death rate from CVD among subjects with high SES is observed in developed countries. The aim of this study was to assess differences in cardiovascular risk (CV) between socioeconomic classes in Poland, a country currently in transition.

Methods: A sample of 15,200 people was drawn. A three stage selection was performed. Eventually, 6170 patients were examined (2013/2014). Data was collected using a questionnaire in face-to-face interviews, anthropometric data and blood tests were also obtained. Education was categorized as incomplete secondary, secondary and higher than secondary school. Monthly income per person was categorized as low (≤ 1000 PLN), medium (1001-2000 PLN) and high (≥ 2001 PLN). Education and income groups were analyzed by prevalence of CVD risk factors and high CVD risk (SCORE ≥ 5%).

Results: Higher education was associated with lower prevalence of all analyzed CVD risk factors (p < 0.001), having the highest income with lower prevalence of hypertension, currently smoking, obesity and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Multivariable analysis showed that frequency of high CVD risk decreased with increasing education level (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.49-0.76; p < 0.01), a similar favorable impact of higher income on high CVD risk was demonstrated in the whole group (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.67-0.99; p = 0.04).

Conclusions: Socioeconomic status is an independent predictor of high CV risk of death. A favorable impact on the prevalence of high CV risk was demonstrated for education and partly for income in the whole group. It may reflect a transition being undergone in Poland, moreover, it predicts how socioeconomic factors may generate health inequalities in other transitioning countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2018.0003DOI Listing
July 2020

Socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk SCORE.

Kardiol Pol 2018 3;76(3):560-565. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

3rd Department of Cardiology, Upper Silesian Centre of Cardiology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and death both in men and women. The influence of the following factors on the occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis is well known: hyperten-sion, hypercholesterolaemia, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, age, and sex. As well as the typical risk factors of CVD, there is also a significant association between the incidence of those diseases and socioeconomic status (SES).

Aim: The aim of this study was to establish the correlation between SES status and CVD risk assessed according to the SCORE algorithm.

Methods: The study encompassed 516 participants (207 men and 309 women) aged 40-74 years, who had never been diagnosed with any CVD. The SES was calculated by multiplying the patient's education and net monthly income. The cor-relation between the SES and SCORE was established using linear and logistic regression analysis.

Results: After considering the influence of age, an inverse correlation between the SCORE risk value and the SES index was established, both in the entire group (p = 0.006) and in the men's group (p = 0.007). In the analysis of individual age subgroups, this correlation was demonstrated in the following groups: 55-59-year-olds (p = 0.011), 60-64-year-olds (p = 0.014), and 65-69-year olds (p = 0.034). A similar relationship was established in men aged 65-69 years (p = 0.038) and women aged 40-44 years (p = 0.003). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated that, after considering the influence of age, the odds of the SCORE risk value being ≥ 10% were becoming smaller along with the increase in the SES index value in the entire group (p = 0.048) and in the men's group (p = 0.011). The odds ratio (OR) for the SCORE risk value being ≥ 10% depending on the SES index value was OR = 0.978 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.956-0.999) in the entire group and OR = 0.964 (95% CI 0.938-0.992) in men. Furthermore, we also established that the risk of SCORE ≥ 5% decreased with the increase in the SES index value in the women's group (OR = 0.970; 95% CI 0.941-0.999; p = 0.042).

Conclusions: 1. We demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between the SES and the CVD risk assessed according to the SCORE algorithm. 2. The value of the CVD risk according to SCORE was inversely correlated with SES status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/KP.a2017.0253DOI Listing
November 2018

Metabolic syndrome and its components in Polish women of childbearing age: a nationwide study.

BMC Public Health 2017 07 13;18(1):15. Epub 2017 Jul 13.

Department of Epidemiology, Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Abnormal body mass and related metabolic disorders may affect female reproductive health. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity, lipid and glucose metabolism disorders, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, among Polish women of childbearing age.

Methods: One thousand five hundred eighty-eight non-pregnant Polish women of childbearing age (20-49 years) who participated in the Multi-Centre National Population Health Examination Survey (WOBASZ II study) in 2013-2014, were assigned to 3 age groups: 20-29 years (n = 403), 30-39 years (n = 600) and 40-49 years (n = 585). Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose were taken. For statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, and Cohran-Armitage tests were used.

Results: Of the participants, 4.3% were determined to be underweight, 25.2% were overweight, 15% were obese, and 53.1% had abdominal obesity. With age, the prevalence of both excessive body mass and abdominal obesity tended to increase, and that of underweight to decrease. Frequency of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia found in the whole group were 50% and 12.6% respectively, and also tended to rise with age. Low serum HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein cholesterol) levels were found in 15.1% of the participants. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in the whole group was 8.2% and tended to increase with age. Diabetes was found in 1.2% of the participants and its prevalence also tended to rise with age, at the borderline of significance. Frequency of arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrome in the whole group was 15.7% and 14.1% respectively and both tended to increase with age.

Conclusions: Overweight and obesity, especially of abdominal type, and the related metabolic abnormalities are common in Polish women of childbearing age. Their prevalence tends to increase with age. Underweight is relatively common in the youngest age group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4564-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5508652PMC
July 2017

Cardiovascular health knowledge of the Polish population. Comparison of two national multi-centre health surveys: WOBASZ and WOBASZ II.

Kardiol Pol 2017 10;75(7):711-719. Epub 2017 Apr 10.

Department of Epidemiology, Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, and Health Promotion, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw, Poland, Poland.

Background And Aim: To compare the cardiovascular health knowledge (CHK) of the adult Polish population in the years 2003-2005 and 2013-2014, and to evaluate the CHK determinants in the Polish adult population.

Methods: Data came from the two random samples of the Polish population, screened in 2003-2005 in the WOBASZ health survey (6392 men and 7153 women, aged 20-74 years) and in 2013-2014 in the WOBASZ II health survey (2751 men and 3418 women, aged 20+ years). For the present analysis, the population of WOBASZ II was limited to persons aged 20-74 years. A CHK score (CHKs) was constructed based on questionnaire answers of responders, and the results of physical examination and ranged from -1 (lowest knowledge) to +6 (highest knowledge).

Results: Women had greater CHK than men. In both studies, about 30% of women and 40% of men did not know their blood pressure (BP). About 20% of men and women that declared their BP awareness was not able to classify it correctly to the normal or high category. Most persons that declared body weight awareness could give their body weight to within 2 kg and could correctly classify it as normal or overweight/obesity. The mean CHKs raised in men from 1.74 in WOBASZ to 1.93 in WOBASZ II (in women, respectively, from 2.10 to 2.23). The chance of having CHK greater than mean value of CHKs increased in men by 31% and in women by 27% in WOBASZ II compared to WOBASZ (ORCHK = 1.31, p < 0.0001 in men; ORCHK = 1.27, p < 0.0001 in women). Younger, better educated persons and men with coronary artery disease history and persons with familial history of death from myocardial infarction or stroke had greater health knowledge.

Conclusions: Since 2003 Polish adults significantly advanced their knowledge and awareness of cardiovascular risk factors. Gender, age, education level, coronary artery disease history, and family history of cardiovascular disease death are significant determinants of CHK. From 20% to 30% of studied persons who declared their awareness, were shown to be unaware of their own cardiovascular disease risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/KP.a2017.0070DOI Listing
July 2017

Associations between cardiovascular disease risk factors and IL-6 and hsCRP levels in the elderly.

Exp Gerontol 2016 12 8;85:112-117. Epub 2016 Oct 8.

Third Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Silesia, Ziolowa 47, 40-635 Katowice, Poland.

Background: Age-related diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD) may be stimulated by microinflammation, marked by increased level of IL-6 and high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP). We aimed to investigate whether aging "per se" independently contributes to the microinflammation, in addition to traditional and novel CVD risk factors.

Methods/results: The research sample included 4979 participants from PolSenior Study, aged over 65years. The study consisted of three visits and included questionnaire survey, geriatric assessment and blood/urine sampling in 4101 participants (83.2% of the sample). Serum hsCRP and plasma IL-6 were measured in 4093 (99.8%) and 3895 (95.0%) subjects. Multiple logistic regression showed that advanced age (over 80years), obesity, actual/former smoking, decreased HDL-cholesterol, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and depression were associated with occurrence of increased level of IL-6 (>2.4pg/ml). For hsCRP we found that advanced age, overweight/obesity, decreased HDL-cholesterol, actual/former smoking and CKD were associated with increased level of hsCRP (>3mg/l), while high income and statins treatment were related to lower level of hsCRP.

Conclusions: Microinflammation in the elderly is not fully explained by traditional and novel CVD risk factors. Active smoking, obesity and low HDL-cholesterol among traditional risk factors, along with CKD, depression and low income among novel risk factors, are the strongest determinants of microinflammation. Also we found that statin therapy decreases hsCRP levels, which indicates a potential role of inflammation in CVD as a target for intervention in the elderly (e.g. statin use).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2016.10.001DOI Listing
December 2016

Differences of psychological features in patients with heart failure with regard to gender and aetiology - Results of a CAPS-LOCK-HF (Complex Assessment of Psychological Status Located in Heart Failure) study.

Int J Cardiol 2016 Sep 15;219:380-6. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

Laboratory for Applied Research on Cardiovascular System, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland; Department of Cardiology, Center for Heart Diseases, Military Hospital in Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland;

Objective: Objective of the study was to assess the psychological state of HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with regard to gender and aetiology.

Methods: 758 patients with HFrEF (mean age - 64±11years, men - 79%, NYHA class III-IV - 40%, ischemic aetiology - 61%) in a prospective Polish multicenter Caps-Lock-HF study. Scores on five different self-report inventories: CISS, MHLC, GSES, BDI and modified Mini-MAC were compared between the sexes taking into account the aetiology of HFrEF.

Results: There were differences in the CISS and BDI score between the genders - women had higher CISS (emotion- and avoidance-oriented) and BDI (general score - 14.2±8.7 vs 12.3±8.6, P<0.05; subscale - somatic score - 7.3±3.7 vs 6.1±3.7, P<0.05). In the ischemic subpopulation, women had higher BDI (general and subscales) than men. In the non-ischemic subpopulation the differences between genders were limited to CISS scale. In a multivariable analysis with demographic and clinical data female sex, NYHA class, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus determined BDI score. Similarly, in the ischemic subpopulation, the female sex, NYHA class and atrial fibrillation determined the BDI, while in the non-ischemic population NYHA class was the only factor that influenced the BDI score. Adding the psychological data made a significant additional contribution to the prediction of depression status.

Conclusions: There are distinct differences in psychological features with regard to gender in patients with HFrEF. Women demonstrate less favourable psychological characteristics. Gender-related differences in BDI score are especially explicit in patients with ischemic aetiology of HF. The BDI score is related to psychological predisposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.06.036DOI Listing
September 2016

Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein, successful aging, and mortality: the PolSenior study.

Immun Ageing 2016 3;13:21. Epub 2016 Jun 3.

PolSenior Project, International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 02-109 Warsaw, Poland.

Background: In the elderly, chronic low-grade inflammation (inflammaging) is a risk factor for the development of aging-related diseases and frailty. Using data from several thousand Eastern Europeans aged 65 years and older, we investigated whether the serum levels of two proinflammatory factors, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), were associated with physical and cognitive performance, and could predict mortality in successfully aging elderly.

Results: IL-6 and CRP levels systematically increased in an age-dependent manner in the entire study group (IL-6: n = 3496 individuals, p < 0.001 and CRP: n = 3632, p = 0.003), and in the subgroup of successfully aging individuals who had never been diagnosed with cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, type 2 diabetes, or cancer, and had a Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ≥24 and a Katz Activities of Daily Living (ADL) score ≥5 (IL-6: n = 1258, p < 0.001 and CRP: n = 1312, p < 0.001). In the subgroup of individuals suffering from aging-related diseases/disability, only IL-6 increased with age (IL-6: n = 2238, p < 0.001 and CRP: n = 2320, p = 0.249). IL-6 and CRP levels were lower in successfully aging individuals than in the remaining study participants (both p < 0.001). Higher IL-6 and CRP levels were associated with poorer physical performance (lower ADL score) and poorer cognitive performance (lower MMSE score) (both p < 0.001). This association remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, lipids, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and smoking status. Longer survival was associated with lower concentrations of IL-6 and CRP not only in individuals with aging-related diseases/disability (HR = 1.063 per each pg/mL, 95 % CI: 1.052-1.074, p < 0.001 and HR = 1.020 per each mg/L, 95 % CI: 1.015-1.025, p < 0.001, respectively) but also in the successfully aging subgroup (HR = 1.163 per each pg/mL, 95 % CI: 1.128-1.199, p < 0.001 and HR = 1.074 per each mg/L, 95 % CI: 1.047-1.100, p < 0.001, respectively). These associations remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, lipids and smoking status. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed similar results (all p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Both IL-6 and CRP levels were good predictors of physical and cognitive performance and the risk of mortality in both the entire elderly population and in successfully aging individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12979-016-0076-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4891873PMC
June 2016

A single-centre, randomised study on platelet reactivity after abrupt or gradual discontinuation of long-term clopidogrel therapy in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention.

Kardiol Pol 2016;74(7):634-43. Epub 2016 Jan 18.

Third Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice.

Background: Clinical studies have suggested increased risk of thrombotic events after planned cessation of clopidogrel therapy, due to increased platelet reactivity (platelet rebound); however, in many studies platelet function was not assessed before introducing clopidogrel. Patients who are scheduled to stop clopidogrel therapy, do it abruptly, so a gradual drug cessation might provide a beneficial treatment strategy.

Aim: To determine whether a clopidogrel discontinuation results in platelet rebound hyperaggregability with increased activity compared to pre-treatment values and to assess whether abrupt or tapering clopidogrel cessation may affect platelet reactivity.

Methods: Patients with stable coronary artery disease (n = 49), on chronic acetylsalicylic acid treatment, who underwent coronary angiography, and were scheduled for elective percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation were en-rolled. Patients were randomised to either a tapering clopidogrel discontinuation during a two-week period (tapering group, n = 25) or abrupt drug cessation (abrupt group, n = 24). After 12 months of dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid, we performed three follow-up visits with blood sampling. Platelet aggregation was assessed using a mul-tiple electrode aggregometer at inclusion, at cessation day, and seven and 14 days after complete clopidogrel discontinuation. The primary endpoint was the level of adenosine-diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation. We also analysed platelet function in the ASPI test and platelet count as secondary endpoints.

Results: In 36 patients included in the main analysis, we found significant differences between the two study groups in the levels of ADP-induced platelet aggregation at days seven and 14 after cessation of clopidogrel (p = 0.004 and p = 0.04, respectively). In the abrupt group, platelet aggregation returned to the values similar to baseline at day seven. There were no significant differences between baseline, seven, and 14 days after drug cessation (p = 0.92 and p = 0.37, respectively). However, in the tapering group, ADP values at seven and 14 days after drug cessation were significantly decreased, comparing to baseline (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.009, respectively). For the ASPI test and platelet count we did not find significant differ-ences between the groups. All values returned to levels similar to the baseline. During the follow-up there were no serious cardiovascular events or bleedings.

Conclusions: Tapering vs. abrupt discontinuation of clopidogrel treatment results in significantly lower platelet aggregation values after 14 days from complete drug cessation. We found no evidence of a platelet rebound effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/KP.a2016.0006DOI Listing
June 2017

Multi-centre National Population Health Examination Survey (WOBASZ II study): assumptions, methods, and implementation.

Kardiol Pol 2016;74(7):681-90. Epub 2015 Dec 1.

Department of Hypertension, Angiology and Internal Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland.

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Despite the progress in diagnostics and treatment, it is expected that CVD will still be the main cause of death worldwide until at least 2030. From 1991 CVD mortality in Poland systematically decreased, but it is still higher than the average in Western Europe. In 2013 CVDs were the cause of 46% of all deaths in Poland (40.9% in men and 51.1% in women) and 26.9% of deaths among persons under 65 years of age. The epidemiologic assessment of prevalence, control and treatment of CVD risk factors, and monitoring of healthy behaviour and morbidity due to diseases like coronary artery disease, hypertension and diabetes is very important for health policy planning. The WOBASZ II is the newest Polish population based survey, performed in 2013-2014 to evaluate prevalence, control, treatment, and morbidity. The study was the continuation of WOBASZ (2003-2005).

Aim: To describe the goals and methods of the WOBASZ II study and to present the results of the recruitment.

Methods: The WOBASZ II study was planned as a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of Polish residents aged over 20 years. The selection, using the National Identity Card Registry of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, was made as a three-stage sampling, stratified according to administrative units (voivodeships), type of urbanisation (commune), and gender. The study protocol consisted of a questionnaire used in face-to-face interviews, physical examination, and blood samples. WOBASZ II was coordinated by the Department of Epidemiology, Cardiovascular Diseases Prevention and Health Promotion of the Institute of Cardiology in Warsaw in cooperation with medical universities in Gdansk, Katowice, Krakow, Lodz, and Poznan.

Results: Out of 15,120 persons, 1557 persons were not eligible. Out of eligible persons, 6170 (2760 men and 3410 women) were examined (the response rate 45.5%). The highest response rates were observed in Warminsko-Mazurskie (64.2%), Zachodniopomorskie (58.1%), and Kujawsko-Pomorskie (53.1%).

Conclusions: The importance of the WOBASZ study for the monitoring of the health state of Polish society, and for the as-sessment of prophylaxis efficiency and treatment of CVD and metabolic diseases, as well as for the evaluation of the actions in the field of health promotion, is difficult to overstate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/KP.a2015.0235DOI Listing
June 2017

Perception of health control and self-efficacy in heart failure.

Kardiol Pol 2016 ;74(2):168-178

Department of Heart Diseases, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Department of Physiology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Department of Cardiology, Centre for Heart Disease, Military Hospital, Wroclaw, Poland.

Background: The issue of self-perceived health control and related sense of self-efficacy has not received any attention in patients with heart failure (HF), although these psychological features have been established to determine the patients' approach towards healthcare professionals and their recommendations, which strongly affects compliance.

Methods: A total of 758 patients with systolic HF (age: 64 ± 11 years, men: 79%, NYHA class III–IV: 40%, ischaemic aetiology: 61%) were included in a prospective Polish multicentre Caps-Lock-HF study. A Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scale was used to assess subjective perception of health control in three dimensions (internal control, external control by the others, and by chance); the Generalised Self Efficacy scale (GSES) was used to estimate subjective sense of self-efficacy; and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to determine depressive symptoms.

Results: The majority of patients perceived the external control (by the others) and internal control of their health as high (77% and 63%, respectively) or moderate (22% and 36%, respectively), whereas self-efficacy was perceived as high or moderate (63% and 27%), which was homogenous across the whole spectrum of the HF cohort, being unrelated to HF severity, HF duration, the presence of co-morbidities, and the applied treatment. The stronger the perception of internal health control, the higher the self-efficacy (p < 0.05); both features were related to less pronounced depressive symptoms (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The established pattern of self-perceived control of own health and self-efficacy indicates that patients with HF acknowledge the role of others (i.e. healthcare providers) and themselves in the process of the management of HF, and are convinced about the high efficacy of their undertaken efforts. Such evidence supports implementation of a partnership model of specialists’ care of patients with HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/KP.a2015.0137DOI Listing
February 2017

Coronary artery calcium in type 2 diabetes: a nested case‑control study.

Pol Arch Med Wewn 2013 20;123(1-2):38-44. Epub 2012 Nov 20.

3rd Division of Cardiology, 3rd Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Introduction: The use of classic risk scores in patients with type 2 diabetes have numerous limitations. Relationships between coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and traditional risk factors are derived from statistical analyses. At present, there are no data on the evaluation of the CACS on 64‑slice multi-detector computed tomography in patients with type 2 diabetes and ischemic symptoms based on a head‑to‑head comparison with matched nondiabetics.

Objectives: We aimed to examine the associations between traditional risk factors and the CACS in a nested case‑control study.

Patients And Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 2482 consecutive symptomatic subjects with known CACS. We identified 325 patients with type 2 diabetes. From the remaining subjects, 325 controls matched for age, sex, and risk factors were selected.

Results:  Higher CACS values were observed in patients with diabetes (median, 50 Agatston units [AU]; range, 0-4330) compared with nondiabetic controls (9 AU, 0-3036, P <0.001). Positive CACS values were more common in diabetic patients (73.5%) compared with nondiabetic controls (60.9%, P <0.001). The highest CACS value was observed in men (95.5 AU, 0-3755). The median CACS value in nondiabetic men was comparable to those in diabetic women (24.5 AU, 0-3036 vs. 24.5 AU, 0-3755). The lowest CACS values were observed in control women (3 AU, 0-2144). Coronary artery calcium was more diffused in diabetic patients compared with controls (P <0.01). A multivariate analysis showed that older age and male sex were independent predictors of the CACS. Traditional risk factors accounted only for 10% of interindividual variance in the presence of calcified atherosclerotic plaques.

Conclusions: Coronary calcified lesions are more frequent in symptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes compared with matched nondiabetic subjects. Our results seem to provide evidence that traditional risk factors do not explain more common, diffuse, and extensive calcified lesions in diabetic subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20452/pamw.1589DOI Listing
January 2014