Publications by authors named "Pavel Moudry"

11 Publications

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RNA-interference screen for p53 regulators unveils a role of WDR75 in ribosome biogenesis.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Ribosome biogenesis is an essential, energy demanding process whose deregulation has been implicated in cancer, aging, and neurodegeneration. Ribosome biogenesis is therefore under surveillance of pathways including the p53 tumor suppressor. Here, we first performed a high-content siRNA-based screen of 175 human ribosome biogenesis factors, searching for impact on p53. Knock-down of 4 and 35 of these proteins in U2OS cells reduced and increased p53 abundance, respectively, including p53 accumulation after depletion of BYSL, DDX56, and WDR75, the effects of which were validated in several models. Using complementary approaches including subcellular fractionation, we demonstrate that endogenous human WDR75 is a nucleolar protein and immunofluorescence analysis of ectopic GFP-tagged WDR75 shows relocation to nucleolar caps under chemically induced nucleolar stress, along with several canonical nucleolar proteins. Mechanistically, we show that WDR75 is required for pre-rRNA transcription, through supporting the maintenance of physiological levels of RPA194, a key subunit of the RNA polymerase I. Furthermore, WDR75 depletion activated the RPL5/RPL11-dependent p53 stabilization checkpoint, ultimately leading to impaired proliferation and cellular senescence. These findings reveal a crucial positive role of WDR75 in ribosome biogenesis and provide a resource of human ribosomal factors the malfunction of which affects p53.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-021-00882-0DOI Listing
October 2021

Impaired ribosome biogenesis: mechanisms and relevance to cancer and aging.

Aging (Albany NY) 2019 04;11(8):2512-2540

Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, 779 00 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

The biosynthesis of ribosomes is a complex process that requires the coordinated action of many factors and a huge energy investment from the cell. Ribosomes are essential for protein production, and thus for cellular survival, growth and proliferation. Ribosome biogenesis is initiated in the nucleolus and includes: the synthesis and processing of ribosomal RNAs, assembly of ribosomal proteins, transport to the cytoplasm and association of ribosomal subunits. The disruption of ribosome biogenesis at various steps, with either increased or decreased expression of different ribosomal components, can promote cell cycle arrest, senescence or apoptosis. Additionally, interference with ribosomal biogenesis is often associated with cancer, aging and age-related degenerative diseases. Here, we review current knowledge on impaired ribosome biogenesis, discuss the main factors involved in stress responses under such circumstances and focus on examples with clinical relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.101922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520011PMC
April 2019

High speed of fork progression induces DNA replication stress and genomic instability.

Nature 2018 07 27;559(7713):279-284. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Genome Integrity Unit, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Accurate replication of DNA requires stringent regulation to ensure genome integrity. In human cells, thousands of origins of replication are coordinately activated during S phase, and the velocity of replication forks is adjusted to fully replicate DNA in pace with the cell cycle. Replication stress induces fork stalling and fuels genome instability. The mechanistic basis of replication stress remains poorly understood despite its emerging role in promoting cancer. Here we show that inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) increases the speed of fork elongation and does not cause fork stalling, which is in contrast to the accepted model in which inhibitors of PARP induce fork stalling and collapse. Aberrant acceleration of fork progression by 40% above the normal velocity leads to DNA damage. Depletion of the treslin or MTBP proteins, which are involved in origin firing, also increases fork speed above the tolerated threshold, and induces the DNA damage response pathway. Mechanistically, we show that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and the PCNA interactor p21 (p21) are crucial modulators of fork progression. PARylation and p21 act as suppressors of fork speed in a coordinated regulatory network that is orchestrated by the PARP1 and p53 proteins. Moreover, at the fork level, PARylation acts as a sensor of replication stress. During PARP inhibition, DNA lesions that induce fork arrest and are normally resolved or repaired remain unrecognized by the replication machinery. Conceptually, our results show that accelerated replication fork progression represents a general mechanism that triggers replication stress and the DNA damage response. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of fork speed control, with implications for genomic (in)stability and rational cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0261-5DOI Listing
July 2018

Alcohol-abuse drug disulfiram targets cancer via p97 segregase adaptor NPL4.

Nature 2017 12 6;552(7684):194-199. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Danish Cancer Society Research Center, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Cancer incidence is rising and this global challenge is further exacerbated by tumour resistance to available medicines. A promising approach to meet the need for improved cancer treatment is drug repurposing. Here we highlight the potential for repurposing disulfiram (also known by the trade name Antabuse), an old alcohol-aversion drug that has been shown to be effective against diverse cancer types in preclinical studies. Our nationwide epidemiological study reveals that patients who continuously used disulfiram have a lower risk of death from cancer compared to those who stopped using the drug at their diagnosis. Moreover, we identify the ditiocarb-copper complex as the metabolite of disulfiram that is responsible for its anti-cancer effects, and provide methods to detect preferential accumulation of the complex in tumours and candidate biomarkers to analyse its effect on cells and tissues. Finally, our functional and biophysical analyses reveal the molecular target of disulfiram's tumour-suppressing effects as NPL4, an adaptor of p97 (also known as VCP) segregase, which is essential for the turnover of proteins involved in multiple regulatory and stress-response pathways in cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature25016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5730499PMC
December 2017

Perturbation of RNA Polymerase I transcription machinery by ablation of HEATR1 triggers the RPL5/RPL11-MDM2-p53 ribosome biogenesis stress checkpoint pathway in human cells.

Cell Cycle 2018 10;17(1):92-101. Epub 2017 Dec 10.

a Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine , Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry , Palacky University , 779 00 Olomouc , Czech Republic.

Ribosome biogenesis is an energy consuming process which takes place mainly in the nucleolus. By producing ribosomes to fuel protein synthesis, it is tightly connected with cell growth and cell cycle control. Perturbation of ribosome biogenesis leads to the activation of p53 tumor suppressor protein promoting processes like cell cycle arrest, apoptosis or senescence. This ribosome biogenesis stress pathway activates p53 through sequestration of MDM2 by a subset of ribosomal proteins (RPs), thereby stabilizing p53. Here, we identify human HEATR1, as a nucleolar protein which positively regulates ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis. Downregulation of HEATR1 resulted in cell cycle arrest in a manner dependent on p53. Moreover, depletion of HEATR1 also caused disruption of nucleolar structure and activated the ribosomal biogenesis stress pathway - RPL5 / RPL11 dependent stabilization and activation of p53. These findings reveal an important role for HEATR1 in ribosome biogenesis and further support the concept that perturbation of ribosome biosynthesis results in p53-dependent cell cycle checkpoint activation, with implications for human pathologies including cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15384101.2017.1403685DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5815431PMC
September 2019

Proteomic profiling reveals DNA damage, nucleolar and ribosomal stress are the main responses to oxaliplatin treatment in cancer cells.

J Proteomics 2017 06 3;162:73-85. Epub 2017 May 3.

Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University and University Hospital in Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Oxaliplatin is widely used to treat colorectal cancer in both palliative and adjuvant settings. It is also being tested for use in treating hematological, esophageal, biliary tract, pancreatic, gastric, and hepatocellular cancers. Despite its routine clinical use, little is known about the responses it induces in cancer cells. Therefore the whole-cell proteomics study was conducted to characterize the cellular response induced by oxaliplatin. Chemosensitive CCRF-CEM cells were treated with oxaliplatin at 29.3μM (5×IC) for 240min (half-time to caspase activation). The proteomes of un-/treated cells were then compared by high-resolution mass spectrometry, revealing 4049 proteins expressed over 3 biological replicates. Among these proteins, 76 were significantly downregulated and 31 significantly upregulated in at least two replicates. In agreement with the DNA-damaging effects of platinum drugs, proteins involved in DNA damage responses were present in both the upregulated and downregulated groups. The downregulated proteins were divided into three subgroups; i) centrosomal proteins, ii) RNA processing and iii) ribosomal proteins, which indicates nucleolar and ribosomal stress. In conclusion, our data supported by further validation experiments indicate the initial cellular response to oxaliplatin is the activation of DNA damage response, which in turn or in parallel triggers nucleolar and ribosomal stress.

Biological Significance: We have performed a whole-cell proteomic study of cellular response to oxaliplatin treatment, which is the drug predominantly used in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Compared to its predecessors, cisplatin and carboplatin, there is only a small fraction of studies dedicated to oxaliplatin. From those studies, most of them are focused on modification of treatment regimens or study of oxaliplatin in new cancer diagnoses. Cellular response hasn't been studied deeply and to our best knowledge, this is the first whole-cell proteomics study focused exclusively to this important topic, which can help to understand molecular mechanisms of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2017.05.005DOI Listing
June 2017

TOPBP1 regulates RAD51 phosphorylation and chromatin loading and determines PARP inhibitor sensitivity.

J Cell Biol 2016 Feb 25;212(3):281-8. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Danish Cancer Society Research Center, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, 779 00 Olomouc, Czech Republic Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Science For Life Laboratory, Division of Translational Medicine and Chemical Biology, Karolinska Institute, 17121 Solna, Sweden

Topoisomerase IIβ-binding protein 1 (TOPBP1) participates in DNA replication and DNA damage response; however, its role in DNA repair and relevance for human cancer remain unclear. Here, through an unbiased small interfering RNA screen, we identified and validated TOPBP1 as a novel determinant whose loss sensitized human cells to olaparib, an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. We show that TOPBP1 acts in homologous recombination (HR) repair, impacts olaparib response, and exhibits aberrant patterns in subsets of human ovarian carcinomas. TOPBP1 depletion abrogated RAD51 loading to chromatin and formation of RAD51 foci, but without affecting the upstream HR steps of DNA end resection and RPA loading. Furthermore, TOPBP1 BRCT domains 7/8 are essential for RAD51 foci formation. Mechanistically, TOPBP1 physically binds PLK1 and promotes PLK1 kinase-mediated phosphorylation of RAD51 at serine 14, a modification required for RAD51 recruitment to chromatin. Overall, our results provide mechanistic insights into TOPBP1's role in HR, with potential clinical implications for cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201507042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4748576PMC
February 2016

Complementary genetic screens identify the E3 ubiquitin ligase CBLC, as a modifier of PARP inhibitor sensitivity.

Oncotarget 2015 May;6(13):10746-58

The CRUK Gene Function Laboratory and Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Centre, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK.

Based on a series of basic, preclinical and clinical studies, the Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor, olaparib, has recently been approved for use in ovarian cancer patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. By identifying novel predictive biomarkers of tumour cell sensitivity to olaparib, it is possible that the utility of PARP inhibitors could be extended beyond this patient subgroup. Many of the known genetic determinants of PARP inhibitor response have key roles in DNA damage response (DDR) pathways. Although protein ubiquitylation is known to play an important role in regulating the DDR, the exact mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully understood. Using two parallel RNA interference-based screening approaches, we identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase, CBLC, as a candidate biomarker of response to olaparib. We validated this observation by demonstrating that silencing of CBLC causes increased sensitivity to olaparib in breast cancer cell line models and that defective homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair is the likely cause. This data provides an example of how defects in the ubiquitin machinery have the potential to influence the response of tumour cells to PARP inhibitors.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4484416PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.3628DOI Listing
May 2015

Ubiquitin-activating enzyme UBA1 is required for cellular response to DNA damage.

Cell Cycle 2012 Apr 15;11(8):1573-82. Epub 2012 Apr 15.

Department of Genome Integrity, Institute of Molecular Genetics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Prague, Czech Republic.

The cellular DNA damage response (DDR) machinery that maintains genomic integrity and prevents severe pathologies, including cancer, is orchestrated by signaling through protein modifications. Protein ubiquitylation regulates repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), toxic lesions caused by various metabolic as well as environmental insults such as ionizing radiation (IR). Whereas several components of the DSB-evoked ubiquitylation cascade have been identified, including RNF168 and BRCA1 ubiquitin ligases, whose genetic defects predispose to a syndrome mimicking ataxia-telangiectasia and cancer, respectively, the identity of the apical E1 enzyme involved in DDR has not been established. Here, we identify ubiquitin-activating enzyme UBA1 as the E1 enzyme required for responses to IR and replication stress in human cells. We show that siRNA-mediated knockdown of UBA1, but not of another UBA family member UBA6, impaired formation of both ubiquitin conjugates at the sites of DNA damage and IR-induced foci (IRIF) by the downstream components of the DSB response pathway, 53BP1 and BRCA1. Furthermore, chemical inhibition of UBA1 prevented IRIF formation and severely impaired DSB repair and formation of 53BP1 bodies in G 1, a marker of response to replication stress. In contrast, the upstream steps of DSB response, such as phosphorylation of histone H2AX and recruitment of MDC1, remained unaffected by UBA1 depletion. Overall, our data establish UBA1 as the apical enzyme critical for ubiquitylation-dependent signaling of both DSBs and replication stress in human cells, with implications for maintenance of genomic integrity, disease pathogenesis and cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cc.19978DOI Listing
April 2012

Autocrine VEGF-VEGFR2-Neuropilin-1 signaling promotes glioma stem-like cell viability and tumor growth.

J Exp Med 2012 Mar 5;209(3):507-20. Epub 2012 Mar 5.

Danish Cancer Society Research Center and Centre for Genotoxic Stress Research, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is traditionally regarded as an endothelial cell protein, evidence suggests that VEGFRs may be expressed by cancer cells. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal cancer characterized by florid vascularization and aberrantly elevated VEGF. Antiangiogenic therapy with the humanized VEGF antibody bevacizumab reduces GBM tumor growth; however, the clinical benefits are transient and invariably followed by tumor recurrence. In this study, we show that VEGFR2 is preferentially expressed on the cell surface of the CD133(+) human glioma stem-like cells (GSCs), whose viability, self-renewal, and tumorigenicity rely, at least in part, on signaling through the VEGF-VEGFR2-Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) axis. We find that the limited impact of bevacizumab-mediated VEGF blockage may reflect ongoing autocrine signaling through VEGF-VEGFR2-NRP1, which is associated with VEGFR2-NRP1 recycling and a pool of active VEGFR2 within a cytosolic compartment of a subset of human GBM cells. Whereas bevacizumab failed to inhibit prosurvival effects of VEGFR2-mediated signaling, GSC viability under unperturbed or radiation-evoked stress conditions was attenuated by direct inhibition of VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase activity and/or shRNA-mediated knockdown of VEGFR2 or NRP1. We propose that direct inhibition of VEGFR2 kinase may block the highly dynamic VEGF-VEGFR2-NRP1 pathway and inspire a GBM treatment strategy to complement the currently prevalent ligand neutralization approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20111424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3302235PMC
March 2012

Bacterial intoxication evokes cellular senescence with persistent DNA damage and cytokine signalling.

J Cell Mol Med 2010 Jan 24;14(1-2):357-67. Epub 2009 Jul 24.

Department of Genome Integrity, Institute of Molecular Genetics, v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic.

Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) are proteins produced and secreted by facultative pathogenic strains of Gram-negative bacteria with potentially genotoxic effects. Mammalian cells exposed to CDTs undergo cell type-dependent cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis; however, the cell fate responses to such intoxication are mechanistically incompletely understood. Here we show that both normal and cancer cells (BJ, IMR-90 and WI-38 fibroblasts, HeLa and U2-OS cell lines) that survive the acute phase of intoxication by Haemophilus ducreyi CDT possess the hallmarks of cellular senescence. This characteristic phenotype included persistently activated DNA damage signalling (detected as 53BP1/gammaH2AX(+) foci), enhanced senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, expansion of promyelocytic leukaemia nuclear compartments and induced expression of several cytokines (especially interleukins IL-6, IL-8 and IL-24), overall features shared by cells undergoing replicative or premature cellular senescence. We conclude that analogous to oncogenic, oxidative and replicative stresses, bacterial intoxication represents another pathophysiological stimulus that induces premature senescence, an intrinsic cellular response that may mechanistically underlie the 'distended' morphology evoked by CDTs. Finally, the activation of the two anticancer barriers, apoptosis and cellular senescence, together with evidence of chromosomal aberrations (micronucleation) reported here, support the emerging genotoxic and potentially oncogenic effects of this group of bacterial toxins, and warrant further investigation of their role(s) in human disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1582-4934.2009.00862.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3837606PMC
January 2010
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