Publications by authors named "Paulina Pawlicka"

8 Publications

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Attachment goes to court: child protection and custody issues.

Attach Hum Dev 2021 Jan 11:1-52. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge , Cambridge, UK.

Attachment theory and research are drawn upon in many applied settings, including family courts, but misunderstandings are widespread and sometimes result in misapplications. The aim of this consensus statement is, therefore, to enhance understanding, counter misinformation, and steer family-court utilisation of attachment theory in a supportive, evidence-based direction, especially with regard to child protection and child custody decision-making. The article is divided into two parts. In the first, we address problems related to the use of attachment theory and research in family courts, and discuss reasons for these problems. To this end, we examine family court applications of attachment theory in the current context of the best-interest-of-the-child standard, discuss misunderstandings regarding attachment theory, and identify factors that have hindered accurate implementation. In the second part, we provide recommendations for the application of attachment theory and research. To this end, we set out three attachment principles: the child's need for familiar, non-abusive caregivers; the value of continuity of good-enough care; and the benefits of networks of attachment relationships. We also discuss the suitability of assessments of attachment quality and caregiving behaviour to inform family court decision-making. We conclude that assessments of caregiver behaviour should take center stage. Although there is dissensus among us regarding the use of assessments of attachment quality to inform child custody and child-protection decisions, such assessments are currently most suitable for targeting and directing supportive interventions. Finally, we provide directions to guide future interdisciplinary research collaboration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2020.1840762DOI Listing
January 2021

What are the Critical Elements of Satisfaction and Experience in Labor and Childbirth-A Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 12;17(24). Epub 2020 Dec 12.

Educational Research Institute (IBE), 01-180 Warsaw, Poland.

The labor experience and satisfaction with childbirth are affected by the care provided (external factors) and individual variables (internal factors). In this paper, we present a descriptive analysis that aims to indicate the strongest correlates of birth experience among a wide range of indicators. The study is a prospective, cross-sectional, self-report survey. It includes the experiences of women giving birth in public and private hospitals in Poland. The two main variables were birth experience and satisfaction with care. The analysis consists of three parts: data pre-processing and initial analysis, explorative investigation, and regression analysis. Among the 15 variables with the highest predictive value regarding birth experience were being informed by the medical personnel, communication, and birth environment. The most significant variables among 15 variables, with the highest predictive value regarding care, were those concerning support, information, and respectful care. The strongest predictor for both, birth experience and satisfaction with care, is the sense of information, with logit coefficients of 0.745 and 1.143, respectively, for birth experience and satisfaction (0.367 and 0.346 for standardized OLS coefficient). The findings demonstrate that by using explanatory variables, one can predict a woman's description of her satisfaction with perinatal care received in the hospital. On the other hand, they do not have such a significant and robust influence on the birth experience examined by the variables. For both the birth experience and satisfaction with care, the sense of being informed is the highest predictor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764244PMC
December 2020

How Well Do Couples Care When They Are Expecting Their First Child? Family and Dyadic Predictors of Parental Sensitivity in Expectant Couples.

Front Psychiatry 2020 12;11:562707. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Clinical Child and Family Studies, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Belsky's points to family-of-origin (especially experiences of mistreatment in childhood) as well as personality and marital relations as determinants of parenting quality, including parental sensitive responsiveness. Parental sensitivity might be intuitively developed during pregnancy and affects perinatal mental health. However, there is a lack of studies investigating effects of family-of-origin and relationship perceptions on expectant couples' parental sensitive responsiveness. The aim of the presented study was to test mediation and moderation effects of perceived partner's empathic concern and retrospectively assessed abuse experienced in childhood on sensitive parental responsiveness operationalized as caretaking behaviors and emotional reactions to a crying life-like doll. One hundred eleven expectant couples ( = 222; age: = 28.4 years, = 3.03; age: = 29.2 years, = 3.31; relationship duration: = 6.8, = 3.43; gestational week: = 31.3, = 4.58) assessed the extent to which they experienced physical and emotional abuse from their parents in childhood and rated their current partner's empathic concern. In the experimental procedure, couples reacted to a crying life-like doll and were assessed by trained psychologists using the modified Ainsworth Sensitivity Scale to measure couples' sensitive responsiveness. The results confirmed a significant mediational effect of perceived women's (and not men's) empathic concern for the relationship between the reported experience of abuse in family-of-origin by expectant fathers (and not mothers) and couples' sensitivity. Support and interventions regarding couples' empathy and parenting competence can be offered to both mothers and fathers to identify those who are at risk of low parental sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.562707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688909PMC
November 2020

Do Physical Activity and Personality Matter for Hair Cortisol Concentration and Self-Reported Stress in Pregnancy? A Pilot Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 1;17(21). Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Family Studies and Quality of Life, Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Gdańsk, 80-309 Gdańsk, Poland.

Background: Physical activity reduces psychosocial stress in pregnant women. Stress levels might be self-reported (psychosocial) or measured with biomarkers, one of which is hair cortisol concentration (HCC). Additionally, personality has been associated with stress and physical activity.

Methods: The first aim of our study was to explore the differences in self-reported stress assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and in HCC with regard to physical activity level in pregnant (N 29) and non-pregnant (N = 21) women. The second aim was to analyze the correlations among perceived stress, HCC, frequency of exercise and personality in the two groups separately.

Results: There was a significant difference in frequency of exercise and self-reported stress between the two groups, with a lower level in pregnant women, but no differences in HCC and in personality were found. In the group of pregnant women, there was a significant negative correlation between HCC and frequency of exercise sessions, with the latter correlating positively with openness to experience. In the group of non-pregnant women, perceived stress negatively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness and emotional stability. HCC correlated negatively with conscientiousness.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate the importance of physical activity programs dedicated to pregnant women for their life quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7663188PMC
November 2020

Risk factors for anxiety and depression among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic: A web-based cross-sectional survey.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jul;99(30):e21279

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR.

Introduction: The article presents a protocol of a cross-sectional study of mental health of pregnant women in relation to the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. The primary aim is to compare differences in anxiety and depression scores of pregnant women between countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The secondary aim is to assess demographic, economic, and social aspects affecting maternal anxiety and depression scores among pregnant women worldwide in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, we will be able to compare differences in perception of the different aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic (social distancing, restrictions related to delivery) between countries and according to the epidemic status (number of infected patients, number of reported deaths). The comparisons will also be done according to the COVID-19 status of the participants.

Methods And Analysis: It is a web-based anonymous survey of pregnant women living in countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey is comprised of 3 sections:Web-based recruitment for health research has proven to be cost-effective and efficient. At current times with the COVID-19 pandemic, limited resources and social distancing restrictions, performing a mental health study involving pregnant women on a large international scale cannot be safely conducted without involving social-media.The fears of pregnant women fall into 3 categories: the medical condition, the economic status and the organization of daily activity.The study has received approval of the medical ethics committee and has been registered on Clinicaltrials.gov. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and made public through all available media.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000021279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7387043PMC
July 2020

Is it too much for me? General self-efficacy and emotional reactions to infant's cry.

J Reprod Infant Psychol 2019 Nov 8:1-14. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Gdansk, Gdańsk, Poland.

: In the three experimental conditions we examined the role of the exposure to recorded infant's cry (at high and at lower frequency) or laughter and the level of participants' general self-efficacy on emotional reactions to the infant's cry.: Infant's cry can trigger empathic, sensitive responses or elicit frustration and anxiety of the caregiver. General caregiver's self-efficacy serves as a predictor of more sensitive reactions to distress cues of a child.: An experimental study with three conditions - exposure to infant cry at high frequency, infant cry at lower frequency or infant laughter, was conducted on the sample of 192 childless undergraduates. Exposure to the selected stimulus was preceded by the General Self-Efficacy Scale and followed by the My Emotions Scale for the assessment of participants' emotional reactions to the presented infant crying or laughter.: Participants with high self-efficacy exposed to the child's cry at high frequency presented the highest level of child-oriented emotional reactions and lower level of self-oriented reactions as compared to participants with low self-efficacy.: Results suggest that general self-efficacy can serve as a supportive factor in sensitive responding to the high-frequency cry. Improving caregivers' self-efficacy can reduce the risk of insensitive, disturbed parenthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2019.1687858DOI Listing
November 2019

Empathy and social closeness toward refugees from Syria: The mediating role of cultural intelligence.

J Community Psychol 2019 06 19;47(5):1014-1031. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

University of Gdansk.

The predictors of social closeness toward refugees are rarely examined. In this study (N = 337), higher cultural intelligence (CQ) and higher empathy were defined as predictors of higher social closeness (lower social distance [the Social Distance Scale] and warmer feelings [the Feeling Thermometer]) toward refugees from Syria. This is the target group of prejudice and intensive coverage in the European mass media. The obtained results indicated that other-oriented empathy (empathic concern and perspective taking) and the motivational CQ predicted higher social closeness and warmer feelings toward refugees from Syria. Empathic personal distress predicted lower social closeness and colder feelings toward this group. Motivational CQ consistently served as the mediator of the relationship between empathy dimensions and social closeness toward Syrian refugees. Our findings reveal the previously unexplored correlations between empathy dimensions and cultural intelligence factors, including the mediational effects in predicting social closeness toward Syrian refugees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcop.22169DOI Listing
June 2019

Gender and Body-Fat Status as Predictors of Parental Feeding Styles and Children's Nutritional Knowledge, Eating Habits and Behaviours.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 04 25;15(5). Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk, Bażyńskiego 4, 80-309 Gdansk, Poland.

The home food environment is critically important for the development of children’s health-related practices. By managing dietary restrictions, providing nutritional knowledge and demonstrating eating behaviours, parents contribute to children’s food preferences and eating patterns. The present study examined nutritional knowledge, eating habits and appetite traits among 387 Polish five-year-old healthy and overfat boys and girls in the context of parental feeding styles and body-fat status. We observed that girls presented healthier eating habits than boys; however, overfat boys had better nutritional knowledge. Children’s body-fat percentage (%BF) was found to be linked with eating behaviours such as low satiety responsiveness and increased food responsiveness in girls as well as low emotional undereating and increased emotional overeating in boys. Our results revealed that overfat mothers, who were more prone to use the encouragement feeding style, rarely had daughters with increased %BF. Parents of overfat girls, however, were less likely to apply encouragement and instrumental feeding styles. Contrary to popular belief and previous studies, overfat women do not necessarily transmit unhealthy eating patterns to their children. Parents’ greater emphasis on managing the weight and eating habits of daughters (rather than sons) probably results from their awareness of standards of female physical attractiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5981891PMC
April 2018