Publications by authors named "Paulina Nowicka"

96 Publications

Structural Adaptive, Self-Separating Material for Removing Ibuprofen from Waters and Sewage.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Dec 13;14(24). Epub 2021 Dec 13.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biochemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland.

β-Cyclodextrin nanosponge (β-CD-M) was used for the adsorption of ibuprofen (IBU) from water and sewage. The obtained material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH), Harkins and Jura t-Plot, zeta potential, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and elementary analysis (EA). Batch adsorption experiments were employed to investigate the effects of the adsorbent dose, initial IBU concentration, contact time, electrolyte ions and humic acids, and sewage over adsorption efficiency. The experimental isotherms were show off using Langmuir, Freundlich, Hill, Halsey and Sips isotherm models and thermodynamic analysis. The fits of the results were estimated according to the Sips isotherm, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 86.21 mg g. The experimental kinetics were studied by pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, modified Freundlich, Weber Morris, Bangham's pore diffusion, and liquid film diffusion models. The performed experiments revealed that the adsorption process fits perfectly to the pseudo-second-order model. The Elovich and Freundlich models indicate chemisorption, and the kinetic adsorption model itself is complex. The data obtained throughout the study prove that this nanosponge (NS) is extremely stable, self-separating, and adjusting to the guest structure. It also represents a potential biodegradable adsorbent for the removal IBU from wastewaters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14247697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8709425PMC
December 2021

Microalgae as a Potential Functional Ingredient: Evaluation of the Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant Activity and In-Vitro Enzymatic Inhibitory Effect of Different Species.

Molecules 2021 Dec 15;26(24). Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Nutraceutical Plant Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 37 Chełmonskiego Street, 51-630 Wrocław, Poland.

The functional food market has been in a state of constant expansion due to the increasing awareness of the impact of the diet on human health. In the search for new natural resources that could act as a functional ingredient for the food industry, microalgae represent a promising alternative, considering their high nutritional value and biosynthesis of numerous bioactive compounds with reported biological properties. In the present work, the phytochemical profile, antioxidant activity, and enzymatic inhibitory effect aiming at different metabolic disorders (Alzheimer's disease, Type 2 diabetes, and obesity) were evaluated for the species , , , and . All the species presented bioactive diversity and important antioxidant activity, demonstrating the potential to be used as functional ingredients. Particularly, and exhibited higher carotenoid and polyphenol content, which was reflected in their superior biological effects. Moreover, the species exhibited remarkable enzymatic inhibition for all the analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26247593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8707863PMC
December 2021

Profile of Phenolic Compounds of L. Leaf Extract Determined by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and Their Antioxidant, Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Cholinesterase, and Anti-Inflammatory Potency.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Nov 24;10(12). Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Nutraceutical Plant Technology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 37 Chełmońskiego Street, 51-630 Wrocław, Poland.

In view of the limited information available in the literature concerning leaves as by-products of cultivation, the aim of this work was to identify and characterize their principal polyphenolic constituents by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and screening in vitro biological potency as antioxidant capacity (ABTS, online ABTS, FRAP, ORAC), antidiabetic (α-amylase, α-glucosidase), anti-obesity (pancreatic lipase), anti-cholinesterase (AChE and BChE), and anti-inflammatory (COX-1 and COX-2) inhibitory activity. Comparison of different polyphenolic extracts of cultivar leaves according to their quantitative composition revealed them to be exceptional sources of hydroxycinnamic acids, and to a lesser extent as sources of flavonols. Polyphenol-rich apricot leaf extract (PrALe) showed the most effective anti-obesity action through inhibition of pancreatic lipase, COX-1 and antioxidant capacity, especially the oxygen radical absorbance capacity, which was particularly correlated with polyphenolic compounds. Online ABTS radical UPLC-PDA-PDA analysis clearly demonstrated that the three predominant compounds of PrALe are quercetin-3--rutinoside > 5-- and 3--caffeoylquinic acid, which basically contribute to antioxidant potential. These results assist in the evaluation of plant sources of potential new raw materials for application in different commercial sectors, especially for food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10121869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8698879PMC
November 2021

How active can preschoolers be at home? Parents' and grandparents' perceptions of children's day-to-day activity, with implications for physical activity policy.

Soc Sci Med 2022 Jan 6;292:114557. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

Unit for Biocultural Variation and Obesity, School of Anthropology and Museum Ethnography, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Background: The importance of physical activity in early childhood for establishing long-term health is well understood, yet with the exception of recent WHO guidelines, public health initiatives rarely focus on children below school age. Moreover, little is known about how domestic spaces and day-to-day caring activities influence preschool-age children's physical activity. To examine this, we explore caregivers' perceptions of young children's activities within and outside the home, and we consider how lived experiences of caregiving align (or not) with current physical activity policy.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 49 parents and grandparents from 16 families were conducted in Oregon, USA; each family had a child aged 3-5 years. Questions focused on caregivers' perceptions of and involvement with children's body weights, activities, and food practices. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Our analysis drew on a materialities framework, attending to relationships between children, caregivers, spaces in and around the home, and everyday activities.

Results: Four themes were developed: appropriateness of outside versus inside spaces for physical activity; making accommodations for physical activity in the home; active spaces of care, referring to relationships among space, activity type, and caregiver attention; and mundane movement, or the low-intensity movement of everyday life. Together, the results highlight that children's day-to-day activities cut across a spectrum of movement, mediated by available spaces and caregiving affordances.

Conclusions: Attending to the full spectrum of children's movements highlights how children's activities interlink with family routines, available indoor and outdoor spaces, and the intended uses of these spaces. These interplays between space, care, and physical activity enacted at the household level should inform an integrated, systems-level public health approach to increasing health and well-being for preschool-age children. Suggestions for improvement include coordinating policy development across multiple fields (e.g., housing design, urban planning) that structure the activities of children and their caregivers across 'home' and 'outside' spaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.114557DOI Listing
January 2022

Changing the Home Food Environment: Parents' Perspectives Four Years after Starting Obesity Treatment for Their Preschool Aged Child.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 10 27;18(21). Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Department of Food Studies Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, 752 37 Uppsala, Sweden.

Changing the home food environment is key to childhood obesity treatment. However, new challenges arise as the child grows older. This study investigates parents' views on the longer-term management of the home food environment, 4 years after starting obesity treatment for their preschool-aged child. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 parents (85% mothers, 48% with a university degree) of 33 children (mean age 9.3 (SD 0.7), 46% girls) from Sweden. The interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Two main themes were developed. illustrates the types of changes families make over time in relation to child development. It consists of three subthemes: covert changes, overt changes and child-directed changes. The second theme, , captures parents' experiences of managing the home food environment as a continuous process of balancing and recalibrating in relation to present challenges and concerns about the future. It includes three subthemes: concern and care, two steps forward one back and maintaining everyday balance. Managing the home food environment is a constant process affected by everyday life, parents' strategies and the child's development. Our findings can strengthen childhood obesity treatment and help prepare parents for challenges that lie ahead.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8583698PMC
October 2021

How Do Interpersonal Relationships Affect Children's Weight Management? A Qualitative Analysis of Parents' Long-Term Perceptions after Obesity Treatment.

Child Obes 2021 Nov 12. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Food Studies, Nutrition, and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Childhood obesity interventions are particularly effective during the preschool age, but little is known about parents' long-term perceptions of weight management. This study explores how parents perceive the influence of interpersonal relationships on their children's eating and physical activity 4 years after participating in a randomized controlled trial. Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory frames this study, with the child's environment conceptualized as interlocking microsystems that affect weight management. Interviews were conducted with 33 parents (85% mothers, 48% with university degree) of 33 children [mean age 9.3 (standard deviation 0.7), 46% girls] from Stockholm, Sweden. Interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis, focusing on parents' perceptions of interpersonal relationships: family, relatives, other children, preschool/school staff, and health care practitioners. Two main themes were developed: (1) , with the subthemes and , and (2) , with the subthemes and . Parents perceived children's weight management as a continuous orchestration of different influences across social spheres. Years after obesity treatment, parents struggled to maintain the child's healthy routines outside the home. However, when siblings, grandparents, teachers, and friends' parents acted supportively, routines were easier to maintain. The findings suggest that each microsystem in a child's environment has important influence on weight management, such that, as children grow older, children's lifestyles cannot be managed by parents alone. To facilitate weight management, more people in the child's environment should be involved early in the treatment process, and continued professional support should be offered to parents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/chi.2021.0156DOI Listing
November 2021

Comparison of bioactive compounds and health promoting properties of fruits and leaves of apple, pear and quince.

Sci Rep 2021 10 12;11(1):20253. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Plant Science and Microbiology, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Carretera de Beniel, km 3.2, Orihuela, 03312, Alicante, Spain.

This paper presents characterization of healthy potential new sources of functional constituents with reference to basic plant sources. In this study, the phenolics, triterpene, isoprenoids (chlorophylls and carotenoids), amino acids, minerals, sugars and organic acids of different cultivars of pome species-apple, pear, quince-leaves vs. fruits and their enzymatic in vitro enzyme inhibition of hyperglycemic (α-glucosidase, α-amylase), obesity (pancreatic lipase), cholinesterase (acetylcholinesterase, butylcholinesterase), inflammatory (15-LOX, COX-1 and -2) and antioxidant capacity (ORAC, FRAP, ABTS) were evaluated. Leaves of pome species as a new plant sources were characterized by higher content of bioactive and nutritional compounds than basic fruits. The dominant fraction for quince, pear, and apple fruits was polymeric procyanidins. In quince and pear leaves flavan-3-ols, and in apple dihydrochalcones dominated. Triterpene was present in equal content in leaves and fruits. Leaves are excellent sources of amino acids and minerals (especially Ca, Mg, Fe, and K), with high content of organic acids and low content of sugars compared to fruits of pome species. Leaves of apples and pears most effectively inhibited COX-1, COX-2, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase enzyme but quince leaves showed the most effective inhibition of pancreatic lipase, AChE and BuChE, 15-LOX, and antioxidant capacity, which particularly correlated with bioactive compounds. Present study shows that leaves are promising sources of valuable compounds and may be used to produce functional foods as well as for medical purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99293-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8511160PMC
October 2021

Associations of preschoolers' dietary patterns with eating behaviors and parental feeding practices at a 12-month follow-up of obesity treatment.

Appetite 2022 01 2;168:105724. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Department of Food Studies, Nutrition, and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Division of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Although dietary patterns are key to the management of childhood obesity, they are rarely assessed and thus poorly understood. This study examines preschoolers' dietary patterns and correlates 12 months after the start of obesity treatment (n = 99, mean age 5.2 years, 52% girls). A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ), Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) and Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC) were answered by parents to assess children's food intake, eating behaviors, parental feeding practices, and obesity-related behaviors, respectively. Principal component analysis identified dietary patterns based on FFQ data. Through multiple linear regressions we examined correlations between a healthy (HD) and a less healthy (LHD) dietary pattern and mean scores of the CEBQ, CFQ, LBC scales as well as BMI z-scores. The reported intake of items in the LHD decreased after treatment while no differences were found for the HD. Children's eating behaviors, in particular food fussiness, showed consistent associations with diet (b = -0.39, 95% CI -0.63, -0.14 for HD and b = 0.41, 95% CI 0.15, 0.66 for LHD). Feeding practices and obesity-related behaviours were weakly associated with the dietary patterns (HD and Monitoring: b = 0.36, 95% CI 0.09, 0.62; LHD and Screen time b = 0.08, 95% CI 0.01, 0.15). Among the measured variables, eating behaviors had the largest impact on children's dietary patterns. The LHD was associated with a higher BMI z-score but no associations were found between changes in LHD intake and changes in BMI z-scores. Our findings suggest that decreasing food fussiness in children with obesity is key to positive dietary changes. Assessment of children's eating behaviors can help tailor dietary advice and provide support for families of children with obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2021.105724DOI Listing
January 2022

The Types of Polysaccharide Coatings and Their Mixtures as a Factor Affecting the Stability of Bioactive Compounds and Health-Promoting Properties Expressed as the Ability to Inhibitthe α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase of Chokeberry Extracts in the Microencapsulation Process.

Foods 2021 Aug 25;10(9). Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Nutraceutical Plant Technology, The Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 37 Chełmońskiego Street, 51-630 Wrocław, Poland.

This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of microencapsulating chokeberry extract by extrusion, and assess the effects of the selected carrier substance on the contents of polyphenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, color of microspheres, and ability of microspheres to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, after 14 and 28 days of storage. The results showed that appropriate selection of the polysaccharide coating is of great importance for the proper course of the microencapsulation process, the polyphenolic content of chokeberry capsules, and their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. The addition of guar gum to a sodium alginate solution significantly increased the stability of polyphenolic compounds in microspheres during storage, whereas the addition of chitosan had a significantly negative effect on the stability of polyphenols. The coating variant composed of sodium alginate and guar gum was also found to be the most favorable for the preservation of the antioxidant activity of the capsules. On the other hand, capsules composed of sodium alginate, guar gum, and chitosan showed the best antidiabetic properties, which is related to these tricomponent microspheres having the best α-glucosidase inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10091994DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8468943PMC
August 2021

Parenting and childhood obesity: Validation of a new questionnaire and evaluation of treatment effects during the preschool years.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(9):e0257187. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Food Studies, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Objectives: Parenting is an integral component of obesity treatment in early childhood. However, the link between specific parenting practices and treatment effectiveness remains unclear. This paper introduces and validates a new parenting questionnaire and evaluates mothers' and fathers' parenting practices in relation to child weight status during a 12-month childhood obesity treatment trial.

Methods: First, a merged school/clinical sample (n = 558, 82% mothers) was used for the factorial and construct validation of the new parenting questionnaire. Second, changes in parenting were evaluated using clinical data from the More and Less Study, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 174 children (mean age = 5 years, mean Body Mass Index Standard Deviation Score (BMI SDS) = 3.0) comparing a parent support program (with and without booster sessions) and standard treatment. Data were collected at four time points over 12 months. We used linear mixed models and mediation models to investigate associations between changes in parenting practices and treatment effects.

Findings: The validation of the questionnaire (9 items; responses on a 5-point Likert scale) revealed two dimensions of parenting (Cronbach's alpha ≥0.7): setting limits to the child and regulating one's own emotions when interacting with the child, both of which correlated with feeding practices and parental self-efficacy. We administered the questionnaire to the RCT participants. Fathers in standard treatment increased their emotional regulation compared to fathers in the parenting program (p = 0.03). Mothers increased their limit-setting regardless of treatment allocation (p = 0.01). No treatment effect was found on child weight status through changes in parenting practices.

Conclusion: Taken together, the findings demonstrate that the new questionnaire assessing parenting practices proved valid in a 12-month childhood obesity trial. During treatment, paternal and maternal parenting practices followed different trajectories, though they did not mediate treatment effects on child weight status. Future research should address the pathways whereby maternal and paternal parenting practices affect treatment outcomes, such as child eating behaviors and weight status.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0257187PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8459975PMC
November 2021

"Writing nutritionistically": A critical discourse analysis of lay people's digital correspondence with the Swedish Food Agency.

Health (London) 2021 Sep 20:13634593211038533. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Uppsala University, Sweden.

This article analyzes lay people's use of nutritionistic discourse in written correspondence with the Swedish Food Agency, an authority responsible for dietary advice. Examining 60 food related written digital messages, we apply a critical discourse analysis to parse the lexical items and grammar people use when constructing "food" in scientific terms. The findings show how message writers place nutrients at the discursive center. Message writers' grammatical constructions instrumentalize food and eating. This is reinforced by the message writers' frequent use of terms that indicate preciseness, such as numbers and amounts. Messages therefore emphasize the what, but not the how, of eating, implying a focus on food as subject to regulation and control. As such, eating is discursively reduced to an act of ingesting nutrients that can be decontextualized and managed in isolation-as entities to increase or avoid separately. These discursive features preclude the conceptualization of food choice and eating as subjective experiences of feelings, taste, and tradition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13634593211038533DOI Listing
September 2021

Making Childhood Obesity a Priority: A Qualitative Study of Healthcare Professionals' Perspectives on Facilitating Communication and Improving Treatment.

Front Public Health 2021 15;9:652491. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Microscopic Morphology Genetics Discipline, Center of Genomic Medicine, Regional Center of Medical Genetics Timis, "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania.

In Romania, one in four children has excess weight. Because childhood obesity is a sensitive topic, many healthcare professionals find it difficult to discuss children's excess weight with parents. This study aims to identify barriers and facilitators in childhood obesity-related communication, as perceived by healthcare professionals in Romania. As part of the STOP project, healthcare professionals (family physicians, pediatricians, and dieticians) who treat children with excess weight were invited to a telephone interview. The semi-structured questions were translated from a questionnaire previously used at the Swedish study site of the STOP project. Interviews were transcribed and then used for thematic analysis. Fifteen doctors and three dieticians (16 females and 2 males), with average 18.2 ± 10.1 years of experience, were interviewed. Four main themes were identified. Professionals reported that when children began experiencing obesity-related stigma or comorbidities, this became the tipping point of weight excess, where parents felt motivated to begin treatment. Barriers in communication were part of several layers of distrust, recognized as tension between professionals and caregivers due to conflicting beliefs about excess weight, as well as lack of trust in medical studies. Most respondents felt confident using models of good practice, consisting of a gentle approach and patient-centered care. Nonetheless, professionals noted systemic barriers due to a referral system and allocation of clinical time that hinder obesity treatment. They suggested that lack of specialized centers and inadequate education of healthcare professional conveys the system does not prioritize obesity treatment and prevention. The interviewed Romanian doctors and dieticians identified patient-centered care as key to treating children with obesity and building trust with their caregivers. However their efforts are hindered by healthcare system barriers, including the lack of specialized centers, training, and a referral system. The findings therefore suggest that, to improve childhood obesity prevention and treatment, systemic barriers should be addressed. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03800823; 11 Jan 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.652491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8321411PMC
August 2021

Effect of Inoculated Lactic Acid Fermentation on the Fermentable Saccharides and Polyols, Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity Changes in Wheat Sourdough.

Molecules 2021 Jul 10;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Fermentation and Cereals Technology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 51-630 Wrocław, Poland.

Inoculation of sourdough allows the fermentation medium to be dominated by desired microorganisms, which enables determining the kinetics of the conversion of chemical compounds by individual microorganisms. This knowledge may allow the design of functional food products with health features dedicated to consumers with special needs. The aim of the study was to assess the dynamics of transformations of fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP) compounds from wheat flour as well as their antioxidant activity during inoculated and spontaneous sourdough fermentation. The FODMAP content in grain products was determined by the fructan content with negligible amounts of sugars and polyols. To produce a low-FODMAP cereal product, the fermentation time is essential. The 72 h fermentation time of -inoculated sourdough reduced the FODMAP content by 91%. The sourdough fermentation time of at least 72 h also positively influenced the content of polyphenols and antioxidant activity, regardless of the type of fermentation. The inoculation of both and contributed to a similar degree to the reduction in FODMAP in sourdough compared to spontaneous fermentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306408PMC
July 2021

Phytoprostanes, phytofurans, tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids and free amino acids and biological potential of sea buckthorn juices.

J Sci Food Agric 2022 Jan 21;102(1):185-197. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Plant Nutraceutical Technology, The Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, Poland.

Background: Juices are currently a fast-growing segment in the fruit and vegetable industry sector. However, there are still no reports on the diversity of the phytochemical profile and health-promoting properties of commercial sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) juices. This study aimed to identify and quantify phytoprostanes, phytofurans by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS), tocopherols, tocotrienols by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescence detector (UPLC-FL), carotenoids, and free amino acids by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode detector-quadrupole and tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS), and assess their anti-cholinergic, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant potential by in vitro assays of commercial sea buckthorn juices.

Results: Phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) and phytofurans (PhytoFs) in sea buckthorn juices were identified for the first time. Juices contained eight F -, D -, B - and L -phytoprostanes and one phytofuran (32.31-1523.51 ng and up to 101.47 μg/100 g dry weight (DW)), four tocopherol congeners (22.23-94.08 mg 100 g DW) and three tocotrienols (5.93-25.34 mg 100 g DW). Eighteen carotenoids were identified, including ten xanthophylls, seven carotenes and phytofluene, at a concentration of 133.65 to 839.89 mg 100 g DW. Among the 20 amino acids (175.92-1822.60 mg 100 g DW), asparagine was dominant, and essential and conditionally essential amino acids constituted 11 to 41% of the total. The anti-enzyme and antioxidant potential of juices correlated selectively with the composition.

Conclusion: Sea buckthorn juice can be a valuable dietary source of vitamins E and A, oxylipins and amino acids, used in the prevention of metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and neurodegenerative processes. The differentiation of the composition and the bioactive potential of commercial juices indicate that, for the consumer, it should be important to choose juices from the declared berry cultivars and crops. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11345DOI Listing
January 2022

Evaluation of Innovative Dried Purée from Jerusalem Artichoke-In Vitro Studies of Its Physicochemical and Health-Promoting Properties.

Molecules 2021 Apr 30;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Food Technology and Human Nutrition, University of Rzeszow, Zelwerowicza 4, 35-601 Rzeszów, Poland.

The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Jerusalem artichoke processing methods and drying methods (freeze drying, sublimation drying, vacuum drying) on the basic physicochemical parameters, profiles and contents of sugars and polyphenolic compounds, and health-promoting properties (antioxidant activity, inhibition of the activities of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and pancreatic lipase) of the produced purée. A total of 25 polyphenolic compounds belonging to hydroxycinnamic phenolic acids (LC-PDA-MS-QTof) were detected in Jerusalem artichoke purée. Their average content in the raw material was at 820 mg/100 g dm (UPLC-PDA-FL) and was 2.7 times higher than in the cooked material. The chemical composition and the health-promoting value of the purées were affected by the drying method, with the most beneficial values of the evaluated parameters obtained upon freeze drying. Vacuum drying could offer an alternative to freeze drying, as both methods ensured relatively comparable values of the assessed parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125012PMC
April 2021

Nutritional, Phytochemical Characteristics and In Vitro Effect on α-Amylase, α-Glucosidase, Lipase, and Cholinesterase Activities of 12 Coloured Carrot Varieties.

Foods 2021 Apr 9;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Nutraceutical Plant Technology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 37 Chełmońkiego Street, 51-630 Wrocław, Poland.

Twelve carrot varieties with different colours (purple, orange, yellow, and white) and sizes (normal, mini, and micro) were analysed for prospective health benefits (activities against diabetes-, obesity-, and aging- related enzymes-α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase, acetylocholinesterase, and butyrylocholinesterase, respectively) and nutritional contents (polyphenols, carotenoids, and chlorophylls). The conducted studies showed that the highest content of total polyphenols was observed in different sizes of purple carrots. The normal yellow and mini orange carrots demonstrated the highest content of carotenoids. According to the study results, the mini purple carrot showed the highest activities against diabetes-related enzyme (α-glucosidase); furthermore, the highest activities of cholinesterase inhibitors were observed for micro purple carrot. Nevertheless, normal orange carrot exhibited the highest activity against lipase. The results of the present study showed that purple-coloured carrot samples of different sizes (normal, mini, and micro) exhibited attractive nutritional contents. However, their pro-health effects (anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-aging) should not be seen in the inhibition of amylase, glucosidase, lipase, and cholinesterase. Probably the mechanisms of their action are more complex, and the possible health-promoting effect results from the synergy of many compounds, including fibre, phytochemicals, vitamins, and minerals. Therefore, it would be worth continuing research on different varieties of carrots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10040808DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070462PMC
April 2021

Childhood memories of food and eating in lower-income families in the United States: a qualitative study.

BMC Public Health 2021 03 24;21(1):586. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Food Studies, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, SE-751 22, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Childhood obesity prevention initiatives emphasize healthy eating within the family. However, family-focused initiatives may not benefit children whose families lack economic and/or social resources for home cooking and shared meals. The aim of this paper is to examine how adults talk about and make sense of childhood memories of food and eating, with particular attention to understandings of family life and socioeconomic conditions.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 49 adults in 16 families (22 parents and 27 grandparents of young children) were conducted in Oregon, United States. Most participants had experienced socioeconomically disadvantaged childhoods. The interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis, with a focus on the participants' memories of food provision, preparation, and consumption in their childhood homes.

Results: Two main themes were developed: (1) "Food and cohesion", with the subthemes "Care and nurturance" and "Virtue transmission through shared meals", and (2) "Food and adversity", with the subthemes "Lack and neglect" and "Restriction and dominance". The first theme captures idealized notions of food in the family, with participants recounting memories of care, nurturance, and culinary pleasure. The second theme captures how participants' recollections of neglectful or rigidly restrictive feeding, as well as food discipline tipping over into dominance, upend such idealized images. Notably, the participants alternately identified poverty as a source of lack and as an instigator of creative and caring, if not always nutritionally-ideal, feeding. Thus, they remembered food they deemed unhealthy as a symbol of both neglect and care, depending on the context in which it was provided.

Conclusions: Childhood memories of food and eating may express both family cohesion and family adversity, and are deeply affected by experiences of socioeconomic disadvantage. The connection between memories of food the participants deemed unhealthy and memories of care suggests that, in the context of socioeconomic disadvantage, unhealthy feeding and eating may become a form of caregiving, with nutrition considered only one aspect of well-being. This has implications for public health initiatives directed at lower-income families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10533-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7992930PMC
March 2021

Fruit tree leaves as unconventional and valuable source of chlorophyll and carotenoid compounds determined by liquid chromatography-photodiode-quadrupole/time of flight-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-qTof-ESI-MS).

Food Chem 2021 Jul 29;349:129156. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Plant Nutraceutical Technology, 37 Chełmońskiego Street, 51-630 Wrocław, Poland.

This study focused on the identification (by LC-PDA-qTof-ESI-MS) and quantification (by UPLC-PDA) of isoprenoids of the fruit tree leaves (FTL) of commonly consumed fruits: apple, pears, quince, apricot, peach, plums, sweet and sour cherry. The FTL were collected at 2 time points: after tree blooming and after fruit collection. In FTL 7 carotenoids and 16 chlorophylls were identified, but the number of labeled chlorophyll compounds depended on the species. FTL of apple, sour cherry and apricot were identified as the best sources of chlorophylls (mean 404.8, 388.7 and 364.5 mg/100 g dw, respectively) and sweet and sour cherry leaves as the best sources of carotenoids (831.4 and 1162.0 mg/100 g dw, respectively). A lower content of chlorophylls and carotenoids, but not significantly, was detected in leaves after autumn collection of fruits compared to leaves collected after blooming. Fruit tree leaves are good material for isolation of chlorophylls and carotenoids for application in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals or in the food industry, e.g. production of beverages or puree.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129156DOI Listing
July 2021

Social disparities in obesity treatment for children age 3-10 years: A systematic review.

Obes Rev 2021 02;22(2):e13153

Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Socio-economic status and ethnic background are recognized as predictors of risk for the development of obesity in childhood. The present review assesses the effectiveness of treatment for children according to their socio-economic and ethnic background. Sixty-four systematic reviews were included, from which there was difficulty reaching general conclusions on the approaches to treatment suitable for different social subgroups. Eighty-one primary studies cited in the systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria, of which five directly addressed differential effectiveness of treatment in relation to social disparities, with inconsistent conclusions. From a weak evidence base, it appears that treatment effectiveness may be affected by family-level factors including attitudes to overweight, understanding of the causes of weight gain and motivation to make and maintain family-level changes in health behaviours. Interventions should be culturally and socially sensitive, avoid stigma, encourage motivation, recognize barriers and reinforce opportunities and be achievable within the family's time and financial resources. However, the evidence base is remarkably limited, given the significance of social and economic disparities as risk factors. Research funding agencies need to ensure that a focus on social disparities in paediatric obesity treatment is a high priority for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13153DOI Listing
February 2021

The role of parental depression during early childhood obesity treatment-Secondary findings from a randomized controlled trial.

Pediatr Obes 2021 06 8;16(6):e12754. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Division of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Parental depression is a risk factor for childhood obesity.

Objectives: To examine the influence of parental depression on child weight status, eating behaviours, and parental feeding practices during childhood obesity treatment.

Methods: Hundred and twenty eight children with obesity aged 4 to 6 years and their parents were randomized to a parent support program or to standard treatment. At baseline and after 12 months, children's heights and weights were measured. Parents reported levels of depression (Beck's Depression Inventory-II), feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), and children's eating behaviors (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire). Independent and dependent paired sample t-tests and linear regressions were used to analyze data.

Results: After obesity treatment, mothers reported lower levels of depression, whereas fathers did not. No associations were found between parental level of depression and child weight status, or between baseline level of parental depression and feeding practices. Associations were found between baseline parental depression and children's food responsiveness (β = .03; P = .01; 95% CI [0.01, 0.05]), emotional overeating (β = .02; P = .02; 95% CI [0.004, 0.04]), and desire to drink (β = .02; P = .03; 95% CI [0.002, 0.04]) (adjusted for background variables).

Conclusions: Parental depression did not influence child weight status or parental feeding practices but was associated with obesity-related child eating behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.12754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243967PMC
June 2021

Effects of Different Drying Methods on the Retention of Bioactive Compounds, On-Line Antioxidant Capacity and Color of the Novel Snack from Red-Fleshed Apples.

Molecules 2020 Nov 25;25(23). Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Plant Nutraceutical Technology, 37 Chełmońskiego Street, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 51-630 Wrocław, Poland.

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different drying methods: convective (at 50, 60, 70 °C), vacuum-microwave (at 120, 240, 360, 480 W and 360 W with reduction to 120 W) and hybrid (convective pre-drying at 50, 60, 70 °C followed by vacuum-microwave drying at 120 W) on the quality parameters of novel red-fleshed apple fruit snacks (RFAs), such as phenolics, on-line antioxidant capacity, water activity and color. Drying kinetics, including a temperature profile of dried material, and modified Page model were determined. Freeze-drying was used as a control method. The highest content of bioactive compounds in the samples was retained following freeze-drying, then hybrid, vacuum-microwave and finally convection drying. The antioxidant capacity measured by on-line 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), identified anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and phenolic acid as the main compounds responsible for this activity. Unfavorable changes in color, formation of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and degradation of polyphenolics were noted along with increasing drying temperature and magnetron power. The red-fleshed apple snacks are a promising high-quality dehydrated food product belonging to functional foods category.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7728151PMC
November 2020

The Effect of Filtration on Physical and Chemical Properties of Osmo-Dehydrated Material.

Molecules 2020 Nov 19;25(22). Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chełmońskiego 37/41, 51-630 Wroclaw, Poland.

Osmotic dehydration (OD) performed in concentrated fruit juices used as osmotic solution (OS) comes with some limitations resulting from the material cell structure and is not entirely recognized at the moment. Filtration of the juice could provide some insight into the phenomena occurring throughout the OD. Therefore, the main aim of the study was to recognize the mechanism of selective penetration during OD and evaluate the effect of filtration on physical and chemical properties of osmo-dehydrated material. For this purpose, OD of pumpkin in non-filtrated and filtrated (filters 0.2, 0.45, 0.8, 1.2, 3, 5 and 8 μm) concentrated chokeberry juice was carried out in the study. Moreover, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were provided. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity measured by Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP) and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC ABTS) of OS and the material were determined. It was found that even though filtration of osmotic solution had a moderate influence on the mass transfer, it greatly affected the chemical composition of dehydrated material. The best option, considering both chemical and physical properties of the dehydrated material, is the use of non-filtrated solution. However, when shorter time of OD is considered, much better results are obtained for filtrated solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699403PMC
November 2020

Body mass index and gestational weight gain in migrant women by birth regions compared with Swedish-born women: A registry linkage study of 0.5 million pregnancies.

PLoS One 2020 29;15(10):e0241319. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Introduction: Women migrating to high-income countries may have increased risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes as compared with native-born women. However, little is known whether migrant women are more likely to have unhealthy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight gain (GWG), which is of importance considering the well-established links between unhealthy BMI and GWG with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hence, the aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and estimate odds ratios (ORs) of underweight and obesity in the first trimester as well as inadequate and excessive GWG across birth regions in migrant (first-generation) and Swedish-born women in a population-based sample of pregnant women in Sweden.

Methods: This population-based study included 535 609 pregnancies from the Swedish Pregnancy Register between the years 2010-2018. This register has a coverage of approximately 90% and includes data on body weight, height, birth country and educational attainment. BMI in the first trimester of pregnancy was classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity whereas GWG was classified as inadequate, adequate and excessive according to the recommendations from the National Academy of Medicine, USA. BMI and GWG were examined according to 7 birth regions and the 100 individual birth countries. Adjusted ORs of underweight, obesity as well as inadequate or excessive GWG by birth regions were estimated using multinomial logistic regression.

Results: There were large disparities in unhealthy BMI and GWG across birth regions. For instance, women born in North Africa and Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa had 1.40 (95% CI 1.35-1.44) and 2.13 (95% CI 2.03-2.23) higher odds of obesity compared with women born in Sweden. However, women born in Sub-Saharan Africa had also considerably higher odds of underweight (OR, 2.93 [95% CI 2.70-3.18]) and inadequate GWG (OR, 1.97 [95% CI 1.87-2.07]). The limitations of the study include the lack of a validated measure of acculturation and that the study only had data on first-generation migration.

Conclusions: The large differences across the 7 regions and 100 countries highlights the importance of considering birth region and country-specific risks of unhealthy BMI and GWG in first-generation migrant women. Furthermore, inadequate GWG was common among pregnant first-generation migrant women, especially in women born in Sub-Saharan Africa, which demonstrates the need to promote adequate GWG, not only the avoidance of excessive GWG. Thus, our findings also indicate that additional support and interventions may be needed for first-generation migrant women from certain birth regions and countries in order to tackle the observed disparities in unhealthy BMI and GWG. Although further studies are needed, our results are useful for identifying groups of women at increased risk of unhealthy BMI and weight gain during pregnancy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241319PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7595374PMC
December 2020

Anti-diabetic, anti-cholinesterase, and antioxidant potential, chemical composition and sensory evaluation of novel sea buckthorn-based smoothies.

Food Chem 2021 Feb 17;338:128105. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, The Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Plant Nutraceutical Technology, 37 Chełmońskiego Street, 51-630 Wrocław, Poland. Electronic address:

Sea buckthorn berries fit into the strategy of seeking natural factors in the non-communicable diseases prevention, but their sensory qualities are a challenge for consumers and food industry. The study aimed to evaluate anti-cholinesterase (anti-acetylcholinesterase and -butylcholinesterase), anti-diabetic (anti-α-amylase, -α-glucosidase, -pancreatic lipase) and antioxidant potential (FRAP, ORAC), phenolic compounds (UPLC-PDA-FL), basic chemical composition, and sensory quality of sea buckthorn-based smoothies. Eighteen novel products containing sea buckthorn (25-50%) with other fruits and vegetables were analyzed. Sea buckthorn enriched the smoothies in flavonols (25.46-95.13 mg/100 g), and fruits and vegetables provided phenolic acids and procyanidins. The anti-BuChE effect was higher than anti-AChE, while products with apricot, orange, grape and parsley root were strong inhibitors of carbohydrates digesting enzymes. Lipase inhibition by all smoothies was over 50%. Products with 75% fruits or 50% vegetables were the most sensory attractive. The results will be valuable in designing innovative food with rarely used berries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128105DOI Listing
February 2021

Sprouts vs. Microgreens as Novel Functional Foods: Variation of Nutritional and Phytochemical Profiles and Their In Vitro Bioactive Properties.

Molecules 2020 Oct 12;25(20). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Nutraceutical Plant Technology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 37 Chełmońskiego Street, 51-630 Wrocław, Poland.

The aim of the study was to analyze potential health-promoting and nutritional components (polyphenols, L-ascorbic acid, carotenoids, chlorophylls, amino acids, organic acid, sugars, ash and pectins) of selected sprouts (radish, lentil, black medick, broccoli, sunflower, leek, beetroot, mung beans) and microgreens (kale, radish, beetroot, green peas, amaranth). Moreover, antioxidant capacity (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)), in vitro anti-diabetic potential (inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase), and anti-obesity (pancreatic lipase) and anti-cholinergic (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) activity were evaluated. The results of this study show that sprouts are effective in antioxidant capacity as a result of a high content of polyphenols and L-ascorbic acid. Additionally, sprouts are better sources of amino acids, pectins and sugars than microgreens. Microgreens were characterized by high content of carotenoids and chlorophylls, and organic acid, without any sugars, exhibiting higher anti-diabetic and anti-cholinergic activity than sprouts. Some selected sprouts (broccoli, radish, lentil) and microgreens (radish, amaranths, kale) should be used daily as superfoods or functional food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7587365PMC
October 2020

Inhibition of enzymes associated with metabolic and neurological disorder by dried pomegranate sheets as a function of pomegranate cultivar and fruit puree.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Apr 22;101(6):2294-2303. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Plant Nutraceutical Technology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences (UPWr), Wrocław, Poland.

Background: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are the most extended current chronic diseases and also Alzheimer pathology which is a progressive degenerative neurological disorder. Therefore, finding effective enzyme inhibitors responsible for the development of these diseases are essential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fruit purée (Cydonia oblonga, Ziziphus jujube and Malus domestica) and pomegranate juice cultivar ('Mollar de Elche' and 'Wonderful') of dried pomegranate sheets (DS) on the inhibition of enzymes associated with metabolic (α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and pancreatic lipase activity), and neurological disorder (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity). Quality properties (colour coordinates, texture properties and sensory characteristics) of DS were also studied. In addition, it was researched the effect of storage conditions (4 months at 4 and 20 °C) on phenolic content.

Results: DS from jujube had the highest antioxidant capacity and were characterized by the highest storage stability with respect to phenolic compounds. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC , in mg mL ) inhibition of DS ranged from 107 to 216 and from 55.2 to values indicating no effect, respectively. The inhibition toward pancreatic lipase (IC  < 5 mg mL ), acetylcholinesterase (ranged 9.15-22.2%) and butyrylcholinesterase (ranged 20.6-48.6%) was increased with the presence of total flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids content (identifying mainly in DS from quinces). It is noteworthy that none of the samples presented off-flavour notes, supporting the high quality of the products.

Conclusion: DS can be an innovative supplement to a diet as a snack used in the prevention of neurological changes and disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10850DOI Listing
April 2021

'A holistic approach': incorporating sustainability into biopedagogies of healthy eating in Sweden's dietary guidelines.

Sociol Health Illn 2020 11 10;42(8):1785-1800. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Warwick, UK.

Dietary guidelines can be considered a pedagogical tool, designed to promote healthy eating at the population level. In this study, we critically examine the biopedagogies implicated in Sweden's official dietary guidelines. Published in 2015, these guidelines take a potentially innovative 'holistic approach' to food and eating, addressing the challenge of formulating dietary advice that considers both human health and environmental concerns. Applying Bacchi´s 'What's the problem represented to be?' approach, we interrogate how the guidelines frame the interplay of public health concerns and environmental concerns in making food choices. We find that the biopedagogies of sustainable eating, as presented in these guidelines, implicate the subject position of the ideal eater. The ideal eater values sustainability, has high cultural capital, and draws on both taste and nutritional knowledge to make good food choices. However, while the ideal eater is expected to be aware of environmental issues, these are incorporated into the ideal eater's choices only in addition to the primary concern of health. Thus, although the guidelines frame a 'holistic approach' as the solution to both health and environmental concerns, in cases where health and environmental priorities conflict, the guidelines' biopedagogies of sustainable eating align with earlier biopedagogies of healthy eating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.13172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7756811PMC
November 2020

Influence Carrier Agents, Drying Methods, Storage Time on Physico-Chemical Properties and Bioactive Potential of Encapsulated Sea Buckthorn Juice Powders.

Molecules 2020 Aug 21;25(17). Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Plant Nutraceutical Technology, The Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 37 Chełmońskiego Street, 51-630 Wrocław, Poland.

Sea buckthorn ( L.) juice with inulin, maltodextrin, and inulin:maltodextrin (1:2 and 2:1) were spray-, freeze- and vacuum-dried at 50, 70 and 90 °C. The study aimed to assess the impact of drying methods and carrier agents on physical properties (moisture content, water activity, true and bulk density, porosity, color parameters, browning index), chemical components (hydroxymethylfurfural and phenolic compounds) and antioxidant capacity of sea buckthorn juice powders. Storage of powders was carried out for six months. Inulin caused stronger water retention in powders than maltodextrin. Vacuum drying provided powders with the highest bulk density. Maltodextrin did not promote browning and HMF formation as strongly as inulin. More phenolic compounds were found in powders with maltodextrin. Storage increased the antioxidant capacity of powders. The results obtained will be useful in optimizing the powders production on an industrial scale, designing attractive food ingredients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173801DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7503870PMC
August 2020

Dynamics of changes in organic acids, sugars and phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of sea buckthorn and sea buckthorn-apple juices during malolactic fermentation.

Food Chem 2020 Dec 23;332:127382. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, The Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Plant Nutraceutical Technology, 37 Chełmońskiego Street, 51-630 Wrocław, Poland. Electronic address:

Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) berries have high biological value as a rich source of phenolic compounds, fatty acids and vitamins A, C, E. Due to the high organic acid content and sour taste, the fruits are rarely used in juice production. Therefore, the study aimed to determine the metabolic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis and Oenococcus oeni strains along with the dynamics of changes in organic acids, sugars, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity during 72-h fermentation of 100% sea buckthorn and mixed with apple (1:1) juices. The strongest malolactic conversion was in mixed juices (to 75.0%). The most efficient strains were L. plantarum DSM 10492, 20174 and 6872. L. plantarum strains caused an increase in flavonols and antioxidant activity of sea buckthorn-apple juices. The results can be used to select conditions and strains in industrial-scale fermentation, to produce novel sea buckthorn products and increase their consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127382DOI Listing
December 2020

Self-Rated Health in Migrant and Non-Migrant Women before, during and after Pregnancy: A Population-Based Study of 0.5 Million Pregnancies from the Swedish Pregnancy Register.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 6;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping, Sweden.

Self-rated health is a strong health marker. Migrants have been suggested to have poorer self-rated health than non-migrants (i.e., native-born). However, little is known about whether there are disparities in self-reported health in relation to pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine the odds of poor self-rated health before, during and after pregnancy in migrant women as compared to women born in Sweden. We utilized population-based data from the Swedish Pregnancy Register containing 0.5 million women born in Sweden (i.e., non-migrant women) and migrant women between 2010 and 2018. Self-rated health was reported on a 5-point scale (from very poor to very good). Very poor and poor health were categorized as poor self-rated health. Logistic regression was utilized to calculate odds ratios (ORs) that were unadjusted and adjusted for covariates (age, parity, educational attainment and body mass index). The results demonstrate disparities in self-rated health across birth regions. In comparison to women born in Sweden, women born in Latin America and the Caribbean, South Asia as well as North Africa and the Middle East had consistently higher odds of poor self-rated health before, during and after pregnancy (ORs ranging from 1.14 to 1.96 in both unadjusted and adjusted models). Although women born in Sub-Saharan Africa did have comparable self-rated health as to women born in Sweden before pregnancy, after accounting for covariates, they had lower odds of poor self-rated health during and after pregnancy (ORs: 0.71 and 0.80 respectively). Therefore, additional measures and support may be needed to tackle disparities in health between migrant and non-migrant women before, during and after pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356601PMC
June 2020
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