Publications by authors named "Paulette I Abbas"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Physiologic Ovarian Cysts versus Other Ovarian and Adnexal Pathologic Changes in the Preadolescent and Adolescent Population: US and Surgical Follow-up.

Radiology 2019 07 21;292(1):172-178. Epub 2019 May 21.

From the Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, 6701 Fannin St, Suite 470, Houston, TX 77030 (E.K.S., A.R.M.R., R.C.O.); Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, Mich (P.I.A.); Department of Radiology, Geisinger Wyoming Valley Medical Center, Wilkes Barre, Pa (M.C.P.); and Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Tex (J.E.D.).

Background Ovarian and adnexal cysts are frequently encountered at US examinations performed in preadolescent and adolescent patients, yet there are few published studies regarding the outcomes of cysts in this population. Purpose To identify characteristics at US that help to distinguish physiologic ovarian cysts from nonphysiologic entities. Materials and Methods Female patients who underwent pelvic US with or without Doppler from January 2009 through December 2013 were identified by using a centralized imaging database. Patients older than 7 years and younger than 18 years with ovarian or adnexal cysts at least 2.5 cm were included. Demographic characteristics, date of surgery, surgical notes, and pathologic reports were extracted from the electronic medical record. Initial and follow-up dates of US, cyst size and complexity, imaging diagnosis, and change on subsequent US images were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed with the Wilcoxon rank sum and Kruskal-Wallis tests for continuous variables and the Fisher exact test for categorical variables. Results Of 754 patients who met inclusion criteria (age, 8-18 years; mean age, 14.6 years ± 1.9 [standard deviation]; mean cyst size, 5 cm ± 3.3), 409 patients underwent complete follow-up that included resolution at imaging ( = 250) or surgery ( = 159). In the patients with complete imaging follow-up, mean time to US documentation of resolution was 194 days ± 321; 59.6% (149 of 250) patients had nonsimple cyst characteristics. One-hundred fifty-nine patients underwent surgical intervention (mean cyst size, 8.5 cm ± 5.3), and 69.8% (111 of 159) of the cysts had simple characteristics. Of the 159 cysts, 100 (62.8%) were defined in the pathologic report as paratubal cysts. Of 409 patients, no malignancies were encountered in this study population with surgical or imaging resolution. Conclusion No malignancies were encountered in the study population and the majority of cysts resolved at follow-up imaging. Large size, persistence, and separability from the ovary were most helpful for identification of nonphysiologic paratubal cysts. © RSNA, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2019182563DOI Listing
July 2019

How Long Does it Take to Diagnose Appendicitis? Time Point Process Mapping in the Emergency Department.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2018 Jun;34(6):381-384

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

Objectives: Appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency encountered in the pediatric emergency department (ED). We analyzed the time course of children evaluated for suspected appendicitis in relation to implementation of a risk-stratified ultrasound scoring system and structured reporting template (Appy-Score).

Methods: In July 2013, a 6-level ultrasound (US)-based appendicitis scoring system was developed and implemented. The records of children (age ≤18 years) who underwent limited abdominal US exams for suspected appendicitis at a large academic pediatric ED were reviewed retrospectively. Time periods evaluated were from January 1 to April 1, 2013 (before implementation of the US scoring system, "PRE") and July 1 to October 1, 2013 (after implementation of the US scoring system, "POST"). Times are presented as medians with interquartile range.

Results: A total of 926 children were included (median age, 9.5 years [range, 0.1-18 years]; 49% female). Four hundred eighty-one patients were evaluated PRE and 445 POST. When comparing the 2 groups, there were no differences in the PRE and POST periods with regard to time from US ordered to first read (102 vs 112 minutes, P = 0.30), US ordered to disposition (215 vs 208 minutes, P = 0.40) and operating room posting (121 vs 122 minutes, P = 0.59), and overall ED stay (329 vs 333 minutes, P = 0.39).

Conclusions: The development of a radiographic appendicitis score, although allowing for a standardized reporting method, did not significantly alter the ED process flow for evaluation of appendicitis. This reflects the complexities in ED throughput and reveals the need for additional factors to change to improve patient flow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000000720DOI Listing
June 2018

Time-driven activity-based costing: A dynamic value assessment model in pediatric appendicitis.

J Pediatr Surg 2017 Jun 18;52(6):1045-1049. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Texas Children's Hospital and Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, 6701 Fannin Dr. Suite 1210, Houston, TX 77030. Electronic address:

Objectives: Healthcare reform policies are emphasizing value-based healthcare delivery. We hypothesize that time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) can be used to appraise healthcare interventions in pediatric appendicitis.

Methods: Triage-based standing delegation orders, surgical advanced practice providers, and a same-day discharge protocol were implemented to target deficiencies identified in our initial TDABC model. Post-intervention process maps for a hospital episode were created using electronic time stamp data for simple appendicitis cases during February to March 2016. Total personnel and consumable costs were determined using TDABC methodology.

Results: The post-intervention TDABC model featured 6 phases of care, 33 processes, and 19 personnel types. Our interventions reduced duration and costs in the emergency department (-41min, -$23) and pre-operative floor (-57min, -$18). While post-anesthesia care unit duration and costs increased (+224min, +$41), the same-day discharge protocol eliminated post-operative floor costs (-$306). Our model incorporating all three interventions reduced total direct costs by 11% ($2753.39 to $2447.68) and duration of hospitalization by 51% (1984min to 966min).

Conclusion: Time-driven activity-based costing can dynamically model changes in our healthcare delivery as a result of process improvement interventions. It is an effective tool to continuously assess the impact of these interventions on the value of appendicitis care.

Level Of Evidence: II, Type of study: Economic Analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2017.03.032DOI Listing
June 2017

Time-driven activity-based costing to identify opportunities for cost reduction in pediatric appendectomy.

J Pediatr Surg 2016 Dec 15;51(12):1962-1966. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Texas Children's Hospital, and Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, 6701 Fannin Dr. Suite 1210, Houston, TX 77030. Electronic address:

Purpose: As reimbursement programs shift to value-based payment models emphasizing quality and efficient healthcare delivery, there exists a need to better understand process management to unearth true costs of patient care. We sought to identify cost-reduction opportunities in simple appendicitis management by applying a time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) methodology to this high-volume surgical condition.

Methods: Process maps were created using medical record time stamps. Labor capacity cost rates were calculated using national median physician salaries, weighted nurse-patient ratios, and hospital cost data. Consumable costs for supplies, pharmacy, laboratory, and food were derived from the hospital general ledger.

Results: Time-driven activity-based costing resulted in precise per-minute calculation of personnel costs. Highest costs were in the operating room ($747.07), hospital floor ($388.20), and emergency department ($296.21). Major contributors to length of stay were emergency department evaluation (270min), operating room availability (395min), and post-operative monitoring (1128min). The TDABC model led to $1712.16 in personnel costs and $1041.23 in consumable costs for a total appendicitis cost of $2753.39.

Conclusion: Inefficiencies in healthcare delivery can be identified through TDABC. Triage-based standing delegation orders, advanced practice providers, and same day discharge protocols are proposed cost-reducing interventions to optimize value-based care for simple appendicitis.

Level Of Evidence: II.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2016.09.019DOI Listing
December 2016

Ovarian-Sparing Surgery in Pediatric Benign Ovarian Tumors.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2016 Oct 11;29(5):506-510. Epub 2016 Apr 11.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:

Study Objective: To evaluate outcomes of children after ovarian-sparing surgery (OSS) for non-neoplastic and benign neoplastic ovarian lesions.

Design: Retrospective cohort study from January 2003 to January 2012.

Setting: Single, high-volume, tertiary care hospital.

Participants: Children 18 years of age and younger.

Interventions: None.

Main Outcome Measures: Postoperative complications and tumor recurrence after OSS.

Results: One hundred nine patients underwent OSS with a median age of 13.3 years (interquartile range [IQR], 11.4-15.1 years). Eighty-two patients were treated laparoscopically with 4 conversions to an open procedure. Postoperative complications included surgical site infections in 7 patients (6%). Pathology most commonly revealed functional ovarian cysts (n = 57) and mature teratomas (n = 37). Ninety-four patients (86%) were followed for a median of 10.4 months (IQR, 0.72-30.8 months). Fifty-five patients (60%) had subsequent imaging surveillance a median of 7.6 months postoperatively (IQR, 3.9-13 months). Ten patients (10%) developed a second ipsilateral lesion within a median time of 11 months (IQR, 7.7-24 months), of whom 5 girls had repeated surgery for mass enlargement or persistent abdominal pain at a median time of 10.5 months (IQR, 8.0-12.65 months). Fifty-eight patients (63%) began or resumed menses at their most recent follow-up. Three girls became pregnant after OSS at a median follow-up of 5 years (range, 2.4-6.7 years).

Conclusion: Benign ovarian lesions in children can be treated successfully with OSS with low recurrence and repeat surgery rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2016.03.009DOI Listing
October 2016

Evaluating the effect of time process measures on appendectomy clinical outcomes.

J Pediatr Surg 2016 May 12;51(5):810-4. Epub 2016 Feb 12.

Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; The Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. Electronic address:

Background: With varied reports on the impact of time to appendectomy on clinical outcomes, we examined the effects of pre-operative delays in pediatric acute appendicitis.

Methods: Children with acute appendicitis (January 2013-June 2014) were identified from a prospective database. Univariate analyses compared time metrics, patient characteristics, and disease severity with postoperative complications (POC) and organ space surgical site infection (OSSI), and multivariate logistic regression determined predictors of POC and OSSI.

Results: 1211 patients underwent appendectomy. Median age was 10.4years (IQR 7.8-13years). 537 patients (45%) had complex appendicitis. Overall, POC was 11% (n=133), and OSSI was 9% (n=105). Neither time from presentation to appendectomy nor diagnosis to appendectomy increased POCs. On univariate analyses, operative time (OT) was longer in patients with POC (57min (IQR 49-75) vs. 46min (IQR 36-57), p<0.001 and OSSI (60min (IQR 51-80) vs. 46min (IQR 37-57), p<0.001. However, after adjusting for confounding factors, disease severity remained the most significant predictor of POC (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.79-15.23) and OSSI (OR 76.6, 95% CI 7.87-745.65).

Conclusion: Pre-operative delays were not associated with increased POC or OSSI. The strongest predictor of POC or OSSI was disease severity, for which operative time may represent a surrogate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2016.02.027DOI Listing
May 2016

Evaluating a management strategy for malrotation in heterotaxy patients.

J Pediatr Surg 2016 May 13;51(5):859-62. Epub 2016 Feb 13.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Houston, TX, United States; Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States. Electronic address:

Background: There is disagreement over the management of malrotation in children with heterotaxy and congenital heart disease (CHD). We sought to evaluate the outcomes of management with a Ladd procedure compared to observation in this cohort of patients.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of CHD children with heterotaxy and malrotation identified on radiographs treated from 8/2002 until 4/2014. Primary outcomes evaluated were readmission for small bowel obstruction (SBO) or volvulus.

Results: We identified 88 patients with cardiac heterotaxy and malrotation. Sixty-eight (77%) had a Ladd procedure. Eighteen (26%) of the 68 had abdominal symptoms, but only one had an underlying volvulus without ischemia. Twenty (23%) patients died of cardiopulmonary complications, 8 before and 12 after the Ladd procedure. Sixty-eight patients survived to the review date (median: 5years): 56 in the Ladd cohort and 12 observed. Six of the 56 (11%) surviving Ladd patients were readmitted to hospital with an SBO, and 2 required surgical intervention. None of the 12 surviving nonoperative patients developed a volvulus.

Conclusion: Eleven percent of patients developed SBO after their Ladd procedure. Conversely, no observed patients developed a volvulus. This suggests that complications from a Ladd procedure occur with higher frequency than complications from observing heterotaxy patients with malrotation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2016.02.037DOI Listing
May 2016

Evaluating the impact of infliximab use on surgical outcomes in pediatric Crohn's disease.

J Pediatr Surg 2016 May 14;51(5):786-9. Epub 2016 Feb 14.

Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; The Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:

Background: The impact of infliximab (IFX) on surgical outcomes is poorly defined in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). We evaluated our institution's experience with IFX on postoperative complications and surgical recurrence.

Methods: A retrospective review of children who underwent intestinal resection with primary anastomosis for CD from 1/2002 to 10/2014 was performed. Data collected included IFX use and surgical outcomes. Preoperative IFX use was within 3months of surgery.

Results: Seventy-three patients were included with median age 15years (range: 9-18). The most frequent indications for operation were obstruction (n=26) and fistulae (n=19). Nine patients (13%) had a surgical recurrence at a median of 2.3years (IQR 0.7-3.5). Twenty-two patients received preoperative IFX at median of 26days (IQR 14-46). There were 7 postoperative complications: 2 bowel obstructions, and 5 superficial wound infections. Outcomes of patients stratified by IFX were not different. When stratified by indication, refractory disease was associated with higher preoperative IFX use (IFX use 55% vs. no IFX use 28%, p=0.027). No specific indication was associated with increased reoperation rates.

Conclusion: Pediatric CD patients treated with preoperative IFX undergo intestinal resection with primary anastomosis with acceptable morbidity. The heterogeneous approach to medical management underscores the need for guidelines to direct treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2016.02.023DOI Listing
May 2016

Successful endoscopic ablation of a pyriform sinus fistula in a child: case report and literature review.

Pediatr Surg Int 2016 Jun 28;32(6):623-7. Epub 2016 Jan 28.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 6701 Fannin Street, Suite 1210, Houston, Texas, 77030, USA.

Recurrent thyroid infections are rare in children. When present, patients should be evaluated for anatomic anomalies such as pyriform sinus fistulae. We describe a 12-year-old girl with history of recurrent thyroid abscesses secondary to a pyriform sinus fistula and managed with concurrent endoscopic ablation and incision and drainage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00383-016-3868-3DOI Listing
June 2016

A multicenter, pediatric quality improvement initiative improves surgical wound class assignment, but is it enough?

J Pediatr Surg 2016 Apr 20;51(4):639-44. Epub 2015 Oct 20.

Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Background/purpose: Surgical wound classification (SWC) is widely utilized for surgical site infection (SSI) risk stratification and hospital comparisons. We previously demonstrated that nearly half of common pediatric operations are incorrectly classified in eleven hospitals. We aimed to improve multicenter, intraoperative SWC assignment through targeted quality improvement (QI) interventions.

Methods: A before-and-after study from 2011-2014 at eleven children's hospitals was conducted. The SWC recorded in the hospital's intraoperative record (hospital-based SWC) was compared to the SWC assigned by a surgeon reviewer utilizing a standardized algorithm. Study centers independently performed QI interventions. Agreement between the hospital-based and surgeon SWC was analyzed with Cohen's weighted kappa and chi square.

Results: Surgeons reviewed 2034 cases from 2011 (Period 1) and 1998 cases from 2013 (Period 2). Overall SWC agreement improved from 56% to 76% (p<0.01) and weighted kappa from 0.45 (95% CI 0.42-0.48) to 0.73 (95% CI 0.70-0.75). Median (range) improvement per institution was 23% (7-35%). A dose-response-like pattern was found between the number of interventions implemented and the amount of improvement in SWC agreement at each institution.

Conclusions: Intraoperative SWC assignment significantly improved after resource-intensive, multifaceted interventions. However, inaccurate wound classification still commonly occurred. SWC used in SSI risk-stratification models for hospital comparisons should be carefully evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2015.10.046DOI Listing
April 2016

Impact of the surgeon of the week system in an academic pediatric surgery practice.

J Pediatr Surg 2016 Apr 19;51(4):634-8. Epub 2015 Oct 19.

Texas Children's Hospital and Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Background: A pilot rounding surgeon of the week (SOW) program was implemented in our institution on July 2013 to improve patient care through focused attending rounds. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the SOW.

Methods: We performed a descriptive retrospective study from a single, large-volume academic center. Data were collected from July to December 2013 (post-SOW) and compared to July to December 2012 (pre-SOW). Outcomes included patient safety (safety reports) and team productivity (billing data). We also evaluated nursing satisfaction through a 10-point Likert scale survey.

Results: The total number of patient safety complaints decreased after the SOW (37 pre-SOW versus 27 post-SOW). Work relative value units (wRVUs) increased by 8% while nonoperative billing increased by 15%. Twenty of the daytime nursing staff completed the survey and overall satisfaction with the SOW was 8.3. Twelve were employed prior to the SOW and, when analyzed independently, the proportion of employees satisfied with nursing to physician communication was higher after the SOW (55% pre-SOW vs. 83% post-SOW, p=0.13) as was perception of parental satisfaction (33% vs. 75%, p=0.04).

Conclusions: The SOW program appears to improve patient safety as evidenced by a decrease in patient safety events. Additionally, the SOW program led to higher ancillary staffing satisfaction and perceived parental satisfaction without decreasing revenue. This study suggests that the SOW may be a beneficial program that could be considered at other large-volume institutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2015.10.044DOI Listing
April 2016

Risk-stratification of severity for infants with CDH: Prenatal versus postnatal predictors of outcome.

J Pediatr Surg 2016 Jan 22;51(1):44-8. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

Texas Children's Fetal Center, Houston, TX; Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. Electronic address:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the predication accuracy of a newly described postnatally-based clinical prediction model to fetal imaging-based predictors of mortality for infants with CDH.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all CDH patients treated at a comprehensive fetal care center from January 2004 to January 2014. Prenatal data reviewed included lung-to-head ratio (LHR), observed/expected-total fetal lung volume (O/E-TFLV), and percent liver herniation (%LH). Based on the postnatal prediction model, neonates were categorized as low, intermediate, and high risk of death. The primary outcome was 6-month mortality.

Results: Of 176 CDH patients, 58 had a major cardiac anomaly, and 28 had a genetic anomaly. Patients with O/E-TFLV <35% and %LH >20% were at increased risk for mortality (44% and 36%, respectively). There was a significant difference in mortality between low, intermediate, and high-risk groups (4% vs. 22% vs. 51%; p<0.001). On multivariate regression, the O/E-TFLV and postnatal-based mortality risk score were the two independent predictors of 6-month mortality.

Conclusion: The CDH Study Group postnatal predictive model provides good discrimination among three risk groups in our patient cohort. The prenatal MRI-based O/E-TFLV is the strongest prenatal predictor of 6-month mortality in infants with CDH and will help guide prenatal counseling and discussions regarding fetal intervention and perinatal management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2015.10.009DOI Listing
January 2016

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in the pediatric patient.

Am J Surg 2015 Dec 14;210(6):1031-5; discussion 1035-6. Epub 2015 Sep 14.

The Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Division of Pediatric Surgery, Texas Children's Hospital, 6701 Fannin Street, Suite 1210, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) data in children are limited. We investigated the management of SPM at our institution.

Methods: We reviewed children with pneumomediastinum treated from January 2011 to October 2014. Primary (no precipitating factors) and secondary (underlying respiratory disease) SPM patients were included. Admission data and clinical outcomes were recorded.

Results: A total of 129 patients were included. Average age was 11.6 ± 4.6 years; 90 males (70%). Frequent presenting symptoms were chest pain (n = 76) and dyspnea (n = 51). Of the total, 89 patients (69%) were admitted. No patient required additional interventions. Of those, 85 patients (65.9%) had follow-up. Patients with secondary SPM (n = 58) were more likely than primary (n = 71) to be admitted (84% vs 56%, P = .001), receive oxygen (69% vs 35%, P = .04), and have longer stays (2 days [interquartile range, 1 to 3] vs 1 day [interquartile range, 0 to 1], P < .001). Readmission rates were equivalent.

Conclusions: Differentiating types of SPM is important as clinical course differs. Secondary SPM patients are more frequently admitted than primary SPM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2015.08.002DOI Listing
December 2015

Ovarian lesion volumes as a screening tool for malignancy in adolescent ovarian tumors.

J Pediatr Surg 2015 Nov 10;50(11):1933-6. Epub 2015 Jul 10.

Division of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Preoperative evaluation of ovarian tumors for malignancy is essential to determine appropriate treatment. Our study assessed the utility of ovarian lesion volumes to screen for malignancy in adolescent ovarian lesions.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of adolescent patients (8-18years) who underwent an ovarian operation from January 2008 to December 2012. Data included demographics, ultrasonographic volume measurements, and tumor markers. Volumes were calculated using the prolate ellipsoid formula. Data are presented as medians.

Results: One hundred twenty-three females were included at a median age of 13.7years (IQR 12.5-16). Eight patients had malignancies. The median benign lesion volume was significantly smaller than malignant [152cm3 (IQR 57-592)vs. 1548cm(3) (IQR 627-2105), p=0.001]. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (AUC 0.84, p=0.001) revealed a threshold ovarian lesion volume of <184cm(3) (100% sensitivity, 54% specificity, NPV 100%, PPV 13%) to accurately screen for malignancy. This held true when applied to our dataset as none of the 62 girls with volumes <184cm(3) had malignant pathology.

Conclusions: This is the first documented use of ovarian lesion volumes as a screening tool in adolescent ovarian lesions. This should be used in conjunction with tumor markers and other imaging features to better screen for malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2015.06.020DOI Listing
November 2015

Management of traumatic duodenal hematomas in children.

J Surg Res 2015 Nov 7;199(1):126-9. Epub 2015 Apr 7.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:

Background: Duodenal hematomas from blunt abdominal trauma are uncommon in children and treatment strategies vary. We reviewed our experience with this injury at a large-volume children's hospital.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective case series was assembled from January 2003-July 2014. Data collected included demographics, clinical and radiographic characteristics, and hospital course. Patients with grade I injuries based on the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Duodenum Injury Scale were compared with those with grade II injuries.

Results: Nineteen patients met inclusion criteria at a median age of 8.91 y (range, 1.7-17.2 y). Mechanisms of injury included direct abdominal blow or handle bar injury (n = 9), nonaccidental trauma (n = 5), falls (n = 3), and motor vehicle accident (n = 2). Ten patients had grade I hematomas and nine had grade II. Hematomas were most frequently seen in the second portion of the duodenum (n = 9). Five patients underwent a laparotomy for concerns for hollow viscus injury. No patients required operative drainage of the hematoma; however, one patient underwent percutaneous drainage. Twelve patients received parenteral nutrition (PN) for a median duration of 9 d (range, 5-14 d). Median duration of PN for grade I was 6.5 d (range, 5-8 d) versus 12 d for grade II (range, 9-14 d; P = 0.016). Complications included one readmission for concern of bowel obstruction requiring bowel rest.

Conclusions: This study suggests that duodenal hematomas can be successfully managed nonoperatively. Grade II hematomas are associated with longer duration of PN therapy and consequently longer hospital stays. These data can assist in care management planning and parental counseling for patients with traumatic duodenal hematomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2015.04.015DOI Listing
November 2015

Analysis of submitted abstracts for the American Academy of Pediatrics, Section on Surgery, National Conference (AAP SoSU).

J Pediatr Surg 2015 Jun 14;50(6):1058-61. Epub 2015 Mar 14.

Pediatric Surgery Division, Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, MS 100, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: In this study, we characterized the topics and type of research performed for abstracts submitted to the AAP SoSU national conferences from 2010-2013.

Methods: All abstracts submitted to the AAP SoSU Program Committee from 2010-2013 were analyzed. Abstracts were classified as basic science, clinical, domestic, international, as well as by disease processes, single, multicenter, retrospective, prospective, registry data, or other.

Results: From 2010-2013, 709 abstracts were submitted (2010 - 163, 2011 - 166, 2012 - 208, 2013 - 172), of which 349 were accepted (49% total acceptance rate (AR)). 17% represented basic science studies (74% AR), while 592 (84%) were clinical studies (44% AR). By disease state, CDH (57 abstracts, 70.2% AR), appendicitis (53 abstracts, 43% AR), and NEC (39 abstracts, 56% AR) were the most common. Most clinical abstracts (63%) were single-center retrospective reviews, 13% were large data registries, <5% were prospective studies, and only 5 abstracts were randomized controlled trials.

Conclusions: The AAP SoSU abstract submission data demonstrate a wide variety of research studies spanning the entirety of our field. Basic science studies have a higher AR than clinical studies, and the topics of CDH, appendicitis, and NEC continue to be the most popular areas of study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2015.03.039DOI Listing
June 2015

Routine gastrostomy tube placement in children: Does preoperative screening upper gastrointestinal contrast study alter the operative plan?

J Pediatr Surg 2015 May 19;50(5):715-7. Epub 2015 Feb 19.

Texas Children's Hospital and the Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, 6701 Fannin Street, Suite 1210, Houston, Texas, 77030. Electronic address:

Background: Upper GI (UGI) studies are routinely ordered to screen for malrotation before routine placement of gastrostomy (G) tubes. However, the usefulness of this study is unknown.

Methods: A retrospective review of children with surgically placed G-tubes over a 2 year period (2011-2013) was performed. Patients with concomitant fundoplications were excluded.

Results: Three hundred ninety-three patients underwent G-tube placement. Of these, 299 patients (76%) had preoperative UGI, and 11 patients (3.7%) were identified with malrotation on UGI. Five (1.7%) patients underwent a Ladd's procedure. The remaining 6 either had malrotation associated with gastroschisis (n=5) or were lost to follow-up (n=1). Children <1 year did not have different rates of malrotation compared to older children (4.3% vs. 3.2%, p=0.617). Likewise, children with neurologic impairment (NI) had similar rates of malrotation compared to neurologically normal (NN) children (2.6% vs. 3.8%, p=0.692). The only significant difference in malrotation rate was between those with congenital gastrointestinal anomalies (24%) and those without (1.5%) (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Preoperative screening UGI before routine G-tube placement led to an unexpected diagnosis of malrotation in only 1.7%. Given the added radiation risk associated with an UGI, our data suggest that an UGI is unnecessary prior to routine G-tube placement. A larger prospective study is warranted to validate these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2015.02.022DOI Listing
May 2015

Persistent hypercarbia after resuscitation is associated with increased mortality in congenital diaphragmatic hernia patients.

J Pediatr Surg 2015 May 20;50(5):739-43. Epub 2015 Feb 20.

Texas Children's Fetal Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Within congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) care, there have been attempts to identify clinical parameters associated with patient survival, including markers of postnatal pulmonary gas exchange. This study aimed to identify whether postnatal pulmonary gas exchange parameters correlated with CDH patient survival.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed of isolated CDH neonates treated at a single institution from 1/2007 to 12/2013. Patient demographics, prenatal imaging, and postnatal clinical parameters, including arterial blood gas values within the first 24hours of life, were collected.

Results: Seventy-four patients with isolated CDH were identified. Fifty-seven had fetal MRI. Overall, 30-day patient survival was 85%. Sixteen infants (22%) required ECMO within 24hours. Mean initial PaCO2 in nonsurvivors was higher, and infants who remained hypercarbic postresuscitation (72±19mmHg) had a worse prognosis than those who resuscitated to a normal PaCO2 (39±1.6mmHg) (p<0.001). Prenatal fetal lung volumes measured by MRI were not strongly correlated with PaCO2 levels.

Conclusion: CDH nonsurvivors are unable to maintain sufficient pulmonary gas exchange during the first 24hours of resuscitation. Furthermore, prenatal fetal lung volumes are weakly correlated with actual pulmonary gas exchange. These data may be useful for patient counseling during the resuscitative phase of CDH care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2015.02.028DOI Listing
May 2015