Publications by authors named "Paula Montesinos"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Intramuscular fatty infiltration and physical function in controlled acromegaly.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Jun 5;185(1):167-177. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

IIB-Sant Pau and Department of Endocrinology/Medicine, Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.

Introduction: Patients with acromegaly show musculoskeletal symptoms which may persist despite disease control. Increased i.m. fat fraction is a known cause of muscle dysfunction in several disorders.

Objective: To assess the degree of fat fraction in thigh muscles of controlled acromegaly patients and its relationship with muscle dysfunction.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we included 36 patients with controlled acromegaly and 36 matched controls. We assessed the percentage of fat fraction in each thigh muscle, using MRI 2-point Dixon sequence, and muscle performance and strength using the gait speed, timed up and go, 30-s chair stand, and hand grip strength tests. We evaluated joint symptoms using the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC).

Results: Intramuscular fat fraction was greater in patients than controls (P < 0.05 for muscle compartments, rectus femoris (RF), vastus intermedius (VI), adductor magnus (AM) and semimembranosus). Patients had slower gait speed and poorer performance on the 30-s chair stand and timed up and go tests than controls (P < 0.05). The greater fat fraction in the combined anterior-posterior compartment and in each muscle was associated with worse performance on timed up and go (P < 0.05). The fat fraction in the anterior-posterior compartment predicted performance on timed up and go after adjusting for muscle area, IGF-I and WOMAC functional and pain scores (β = 0.737 P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Patients with controlled acromegaly have greater thigh i.m. fatty infiltration, which is associated with muscle dysfunction. Futures studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-21-0209DOI Listing
June 2021

Magnetization Transfer Ratio in Lower Limbs of Late Onset Pompe Patients Correlates With Intramuscular Fat Fraction and Muscle Function Tests.

Front Neurol 2021 16;12:634766. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Neuromuscular Disorders Unit, Neurology Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.

Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging exploits the interaction between bulk water protons and protons contained in macromolecules to induce signal changes through a special radiofrequency pulse. MT detects muscle damage in patients with neuromuscular conditions, such as limb-girdle muscular dystrophies or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, which are characterized by progressive fiber loss and replacement by fatty tissue. In Pompe disease, in which there is, in addition, an accumulation of glycogen inside the muscle fibers, MT has not been tested yet. Our aim is to estimate MT ratio (MTR) in the skeletal muscle of these patients and correlate it with intramuscular fat fraction (FF) and results of muscle function tests. We obtained two-point axial Dixon and Dixon-MT sequences of the right thigh on a 1.5 Teslas MRI scanner in 60 individuals, including 29 late onset Pompe disease patients, 2 patients with McArdle disease, and 29 age and sex matched healthy controls. FF and MTR were estimated. Muscle function using several muscle function tests, including quantification of muscle strength, timed test quality of life scales, conventional spirometry obtaining forced vital capacity while sitting and in the supine position, were assessed in all patients. MTR was significantly lower in Pompe patients compared with controls (45.5 ± 8.5 vs. 51.7 ± 2.3, Student -test, < 0.05). There was a negative correlation between the MTR and FF muscles studied (correlation coefficient: -0.65, Spearman test: < 0.05). MTR correlated with most of the muscle function test results. We analyzed if there was any difference in MTR values between Pompe patients and healthy controls in those muscles that did not have an increase in fat, a measure that could be related to the presence of glycogen in skeletal muscles, but we did not identify significant differences except in the adductor magnus muscle (48.4 ± 3.6 in Pompe vs. 51 ± 1.3 in healthy controls, Student -test = 0.023). MTR is a sensitive tool to identify muscle loss in patients with Pompe disease and shows a good correlation with muscle function tests. Therefore, the MT technique can be useful in monitoring muscle degeneration in Pompe disease in clinical trials or natural history studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.634766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009135PMC
March 2021

Susceptibility Weighted Imaging for evaluation of musculoskeletal lesions.

Eur J Radiol 2021 May 28;138:109611. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

MRI Unit, Radiology Department, HT Medica, Carmelo Torres nº2, Jaén, 23007, Spain. Electronic address:

The presence of blood or calcium in the musculoskeletal (MSK) system may be linked to specific pathological conditions. The ability of MRI for calcium detection is usually limited compared with other techniques such as CT. In a similar manner, the accuracy of MRI for detection and evaluation of hemorrhage in soft tissues is closely linked to the degree of degradation of blood products. Blood and calcium are substances that cause local inhomogeneity of the magnetic field resulting in susceptibility artifacts. To try to evaluate these substances, specific MRI sequences which are highly sensitive to these local magnetic field inhomogeneities such as Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI) have been developed and successfully applied in the Central Nervous System, but scarcely used in MSK. SWI may increase the overall sensitivity of MRI to detect blood and calcium in several clinical scenarios such as degenerative joint disease or bone and soft tissue lesion assessment and discriminate between both compounds, something which is not always possible with conventional MRI approaches. In this paper, physical basis and technical adjustment for SWI acquisition at MSK are detailed reviewing the potential application of SWI in different MSK clinical scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2021.109611DOI Listing
May 2021

Update: Functional MR Neurography in Evaluation of Peripheral Nerve Trauma and Postsurgical Assessment.

Radiographics 2021 Mar-Apr;41(2):E40-E44

From the MRI Section, Department of Radiology, Clinica Las Nieves, HTmedica, Carmelo Torres 2, 23007 Jaén, Spain (T.M.N., A.L.); Philips Iberia, Madrid, Spain (P.M.); and Peripheral Nerve and Plexus Department, Centro Rossi, Buenos Aires, Argentina (R.B.).

Articles in the Update section provide current knowledge to supplement or update information found in full-length articles previously published in . Authors of the previously published article provide a brief synopsis that emphasizes important new information such as technological advances, revised imaging protocols, new clinical guidelines involving imaging, or updated classification schemes. Articles in this section are published solely online and are linked to the original article. RSNA, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.2021200190DOI Listing
March 2021

Single breath-hold saturation recovery 3D cardiac T1 mapping via compressed SENSE at 3T.

MAGMA 2020 Dec 14;33(6):865-876. Epub 2020 May 14.

Philips Healthcare Iberia, Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: To propose and validate a novel imaging sequence that uses a single breath-hold whole-heart 3D T1 saturation recovery compressed SENSE rapid acquisition (SACORA) at 3T.

Methods: The proposed sequence combines flexible saturation time sampling, compressed SENSE, and sharing of saturation pulses between two readouts acquired at different RR intervals. The sequence was compared with a 3D saturation recovery single-shot acquisition (SASHA) implementation with phantom and in vivo experiments (pre and post contrast; 7 pigs) and was validated against the reference inversion recovery spin echo (IR-SE) sequence in phantom experiments.

Results: Phantom experiments showed that the T1 maps acquired by 3D SACORA and 3D SASHA agree well with IR-SE. In vivo experiments showed that the pre-contrast and post-contrast T1 maps acquired by 3D SACORA are comparable to the corresponding 3D SASHA maps, despite the shorter acquisition time (15s vs. 188s, for a heart rate of 60 bpm). Mean septal pre-contrast T1 was 1453 ± 44 ms with 3D SACORA and 1460 ± 60 ms with 3D SASHA. Mean septal post-contrast T1 was 824 ± 66 ms and 824 ± 60 ms.

Conclusion: 3D SACORA acquires 3D T1 maps in 15 heart beats (heart rate, 60 bpm) at 3T. In addition to its short acquisition time, the sequence achieves good T1 estimation precision and accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10334-020-00848-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7669807PMC
December 2020

Follow-up of late-onset Pompe disease patients with muscle magnetic resonance imaging reveals increase in fat replacement in skeletal muscles.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2020 08 4;11(4):1032-1046. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Neuromuscular Disorders Unit, Neurology Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) is a genetic disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of the skeletal muscles produced by a deficiency of the enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase. Enzymatic replacement therapy with recombinant human alpha-glucosidase seems to reduce the progression of the disease; although at the moment, it is not completely clear to what extent. Quantitative muscle magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) is a good biomarker for the follow-up of fat replacement in neuromuscular disorders. The aim of this study was to describe the changes observed in fat replacement in skeletal muscles using qMRI in a cohort of LOPD patients followed prospectively.

Methods: A total of 36 LOPD patients were seen once every year for 4 years. qMRI, several muscle function tests, spirometry, activities of daily living scales, and quality-of-life scales were performed on each visit. Muscle MRI consisted of two-point Dixon studies of the trunk and thigh muscles. Computer analysis of the images provided the percentage of muscle degenerated and replaced by fat in every muscle (known as fat fraction). Longitudinal analysis of the measures was performed using linear mixed models applying the Greenhouse-Geisser test.

Results: We detected a statistically significant and continuous increase in mean thigh fat fraction both in treated (+5.8% in 3 years) and in pre-symptomatic patients (+2.6% in 3years) (Greenhouse-Geisser p < 0.05). As an average, fat fraction increased by 1.9% per year in treated patients, compared with 0.8% in pre-symptomatic patients. Fat fraction significantly increased in every muscle of the thighs. We observed a significant correlation between changes observed in fat fraction in qMRI and changes observed in the results of the muscle function tests performed. Moreover, we identified that muscle performance and mean thigh fat fraction at baseline visit were independent parameters influencing fat fraction progression over 4 years (analysis of covariance, p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Our study identifies that skeletal muscle fat fraction continues to increase in patients with LOPD despite the treatment with enzymatic replacement therapy. These results suggest that the process of muscle degeneration is not stopped by the treatment and could impact muscle function over the years. Hereby, we show that fat fraction along with muscle function tests can be considered a good outcome measures for clinical trials in LOPD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432562PMC
August 2020

Optimizing Diffusion-Tensor Imaging Acquisition for Spinal Cord Assessment: Physical Basis and Technical Adjustments.

Radiographics 2020 Mar-Apr;40(2):403-427

From the MRI Section, Department of Radiology, SERCOSA, Health Time, Carmelo Torres 2, 23007, Jaén, Spain (T.M.N., A.L.); Peripheral Nerve and Plexus Department, Centro Rossi, Buenos Aires, Argentina (R.B.); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, N.C. (T.J.A.); RESSALTA, Health Time, Córdoba, Spain (J.R.d.V.); and Philips Iberia, Madrid, Spain (P.M.).

Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) has been used in the assessment of the central nervous system for the past 3 decades and has demonstrated great utility for the functional assessment of normal and pathologic white matter. Recent technical advances have permitted the expansion of DTI applications to the spinal cord. MRI of the spinal cord has traditionally been limited to conventional sequences, which provide information regarding changes in the anatomic shape of a structure or its signal intensity, suggesting the presence of a pathologic entity. However, conventional MRI lacks the ability to provide pathophysiologic information. DTI of the spinal cord can deliver pathophysiologic information on a molecular basis and thereby has several adjunctive uses. These advantages have yet to be fully evaluated, and therefore spinal DTI lacks widespread adoption. The barriers to implementation include a lack of understanding of the underlying physics principles needed to make necessary technical adjustments to obtain diagnostic images, as well as the need for standardization of protocols and postprocessing methods. The authors provide a comprehensive review of the physics of spinal cord DTI and the technical adjustments required to obtain diagnostic images and describe tips and tricks for accurate postprocessing. The primary clinical applications for spinal cord DTI are reviewed. RSNA, 2020 See discussion on this article by Smith.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.2020190058DOI Listing
April 2021

Thigh Muscle Fat Infiltration Is Associated With Impaired Physical Performance Despite Remission in Cushing's Syndrome.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 05;105(5)

IIB-Sant Pau and Department of Endocrinology/Medicine, Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.

Context: Muscle weakness is common in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) and may persist after the resolution of hypercortisolism. Intramuscular fatty infiltration has been associated with the deterioration of muscle performance in several conditions.

Objectives: To quantify the degree of fatty infiltration in the thigh muscles of "cured" CS patients and evaluate the relationship between intramuscular fatty infiltration and physical performance.

Design: This was a cross-sectional study.

Setting: Tertiary referral center.

Patients: Thirty-six women with CS in remission, and 36 controls matched for age, BMI, menopausal status, and level of physical activity.

Main Outcome Measures: We analyzed the percentage fat fraction (FF) of the thigh muscles in the anterior, posterior, and combined anterior and posterior compartments using MRI and 2-point Dixon sequence. We assessed muscle function and strength using the following tests: gait speed (GS), timed up and go (TUG), 30-second chair stand, and hand grip strength.

Results: Fat fraction in all the compartments analyzed was increased in patients as compared with controls. The performance on TUG, 30-second chair stand, and GS was more impaired in CS patients versus controls. In patients, greater FF was negatively associated with performance on functional tests. Fat fraction in the combined anterior and posterior compartments predicted performance on TUG (ß 0.626, P < 0.000) and GS (ß -0.461, P = 0.007), after adjusting for age, BMI, menopausal status, and muscle mass.

Conclusions: Thigh muscle fatty infiltration is increased in "cured" CS patients and is associated with poorer muscle performance. Future studies are needed to establish therapeutic strategies to improve muscle weakness in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgz329DOI Listing
May 2020

Higher-order diffusion MRI characterization of mesorectal lymph nodes in rectal cancer.

Magn Reson Med 2020 07 18;84(1):348-364. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Champalimaud Research, Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, Lisbon, Portugal.

Purpose: Mesorectal lymph node staging plays an important role in treatment decision making. Here, we explore the benefit of higher-order diffusion MRI models accounting for non-Gaussian diffusion effects to classify mesorectal lymph nodes both 1) ex vivo at ultrahigh field correlated with histology and 2) in vivo in a clinical scanner upon patient staging.

Methods: The preclinical investigation included 54 mesorectal lymph nodes, which were scanned at 16.4 T with an extensive diffusion MRI acquisition. Eight diffusion models were compared in terms of goodness of fit, lymph node classification ability, and histology correlation. In the clinical part of this study, 10 rectal cancer patients were scanned with diffusion MRI at 1.5 T, and 72 lymph nodes were analyzed with Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC), Intravoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM), Kurtosis, and IVIM-Kurtosis.

Results: Compartment models including restricted and anisotropic diffusion improved the preclinical data fit, as well as the lymph node classification, compared to standard ADC. The comparison with histology revealed only moderate correlations, and the highest values were observed between diffusion anisotropy metrics and cell area fraction. In the clinical study, the diffusivity from IVIM-Kurtosis was the only metric showing significant differences between benign (0.80 ± 0.30 μm /ms) and malignant (1.02 ± 0.41 μm /ms, P = .03) nodes. IVIM-Kurtosis also yielded the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.73) and significantly improved the node differentiation when added to the standard visual analysis by experts based on T -weighted imaging.

Conclusion: Higher-order diffusion MRI models perform better than standard ADC and may be of added value for mesorectal lymph node classification in rectal cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.28102DOI Listing
July 2020

Quantitative muscle MRI to follow up late onset Pompe patients: a prospective study.

Sci Rep 2018 Jul 18;8(1):10898. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Neuromuscular Disorders Unit, Neurology Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Late onset Pompe disease (LOPD) is a slow, progressive disorder characterized by skeletal and respiratory muscle weakness. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) slows down the progression of muscle symptoms. Reliable biomarkers are needed to follow up ERT-treated and asymptomatic LOPD patients in clinical practice. In this study, 32 LOPD patients (22 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic) underwent muscle MRI using 3-point Dixon and were evaluated at the time of the MRI with several motor function tests and patient-reported outcome measures, and again after one year. Muscle MRI showed a significant increase of 1.7% in the fat content of the thigh muscles in symptomatic LOPD patients. In contrast, there were no noteworthy differences between muscle function tests in the same period of time. We did not observe any significant changes either in muscle MRI or in muscle function tests in asymptomatic patients over the year. We conclude that 3-point Dixon muscle MRI is a useful tool for detecting changes in muscle structure in symptomatic LOPD patients and could become part of the current follow-up protocol in daily clinics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29170-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6052002PMC
July 2018

fMRat: an extension of SPM for a fully automatic analysis of rodent brain functional magnetic resonance series.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2016 May 19;54(5):743-52. Epub 2015 Aug 19.

Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911, Leganés, Madrid, Spain.

The purpose of this study was to develop a multi-platform automatic software tool for full processing of fMRI rodent studies. Existing tools require the usage of several different plug-ins, a significant user interaction and/or programming skills. Based on a user-friendly interface, the tool provides statistical parametric brain maps (t and Z) and percentage of signal change for user-provided regions of interest. The tool is coded in MATLAB (MathWorks(®)) and implemented as a plug-in for SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping, the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging). The automatic pipeline loads default parameters that are appropriate for preclinical studies and processes multiple subjects in batch mode (from images in either Nifti or raw Bruker format). In advanced mode, all processing steps can be selected or deselected and executed independently. Processing parameters and workflow were optimized for rat studies and assessed using 460 male-rat fMRI series on which we tested five smoothing kernel sizes and three different hemodynamic models. A smoothing kernel of FWHM = 1.2 mm (four times the voxel size) yielded the highest t values at the somatosensorial primary cortex, and a boxcar response function provided the lowest residual variance after fitting. fMRat offers the features of a thorough SPM-based analysis combined with the functionality of several SPM extensions in a single automatic pipeline with a user-friendly interface. The code and sample images can be downloaded from https://github.com/HGGM-LIM/fmrat .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11517-015-1365-9DOI Listing
May 2016

Detection of mouse endogenous type B astrocytes migrating towards brain lesions.

Stem Cell Res 2015 Jan 3;14(1):114-29. Epub 2015 Jan 3.

Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB-CSIC), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Neuroblasts represent the predominant migrating cell type in the adult mouse brain. There are, however, increasing evidences of migration of other neural precursors. This work aims at identifying in vivo endogenous early neural precursors, different from neuroblasts, able to migrate in response to brain injuries. The monoclonal antibody Nilo1, which unequivocally identifies type B astrocytes and embryonic radial glia, was coupled to magnetic glyconanoparticles (mGNPs). Here we show that Nilo1-mGNPs in combination with magnetic resonance imaging in living mice allowed the in vivo identification of endogenous type B astrocytes at their niche, as well as their migration to the lesion site in response to glioblastoma, demyelination, cryolesion or mechanical injuries. In addition, Nilo1(+) adult radial glia-like structures were identified at the lesion site a few hours after damage. For all damage models used, type B astrocyte migration was fast and orderly. Identification of Nilo1(+) cells surrounding an induced glioblastoma was also possible after intraperitoneal injection of the antibody. This opens up the possibility of an early identification of the initial damage site(s) after brain insults, by the migration of type B astrocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2014.11.006DOI Listing
January 2015

Comparison of total variation with a motion estimation based compressed sensing approach for self-gated cardiac cine MRI in small animal studies.

PLoS One 2014 28;9(10):e110594. Epub 2014 Oct 28.

Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IiSGM), Madrid, Spain; Centro de Investigación en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: Compressed sensing (CS) has been widely applied to prospective cardiac cine MRI. The aim of this work is to study the benefits obtained by including motion estimation in the CS framework for small-animal retrospective cardiac cine.

Methods: We propose a novel B-spline-based compressed sensing method (SPLICS) that includes motion estimation and generalizes previous spatiotemporal total variation (ST-TV) methods by taking into account motion between frames. In addition, we assess the effect of an optimum weighting between spatial and temporal sparsity to further improve results. Both methods were implemented using the efficient Split Bregman methodology and were evaluated on rat data comparing animals with myocardial infarction with controls for several acceleration factors.

Results: ST-TV with optimum selection of the weighting sparsity parameter led to results similar to those of SPLICS; ST-TV with large relative temporal sparsity led to temporal blurring effects. However, SPLICS always properly corrected temporal blurring, independently of the weighting parameter. At acceleration factors of 15, SPLICS did not distort temporal intensity information but led to some artefacts and slight over-smoothing. At an acceleration factor of 7, images were reconstructed without significant loss of quality.

Conclusion: We have validated SPLICS for retrospective cardiac cine in small animal, achieving high acceleration factors. In addition, we have shown that motion modelling may not be essential for retrospective cine and that similar results can be obtained by using ST-TV provided that an optimum selection of the spatiotemporal sparsity weighting parameter is performed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0110594PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4211709PMC
June 2015

In-line high resolution PET and 3T MRI hybrid device for preclinical multimodal imaging.

EJNMMI Phys 2014 Jul;1(Suppl 1):A7

Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Kragujevac, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2197-7364-1-S1-A7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4545756PMC
July 2014

Application of the compressed sensing technique to self-gated cardiac cine sequences in small animals.

Magn Reson Med 2014 Aug 16;72(2):369-80. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IiSGM), Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: Self-gated cine sequences are a common choice for cardiac MRI in preclinical applications. The aims of our work were to apply the compressed sensing technique to IntraGateFLASH cardiac MRI studies on rats and to find the maximum acceleration factor achievable with this technique.

Theory And Methods: Our reconstruction method extended the Split Bregman formulation to minimize the total variation in both space and time. In addition, we analyzed the influence of the undersampling pattern on the acceleration factor achievable.

Results: Our results show that acceleration factors of up to 15 are achievable with our technique when appropriate undersampling patterns are used. The introduction of a time-varying random sampling clearly improved the efficiency of the undersampling schemes. In terms of computational efficiency, the proposed reconstruction method has been shown to be competitive as compared with the fastest methods found in the literature.

Conclusion: We successfully applied our compressed sensing technique to self-gated cardiac cine acquisition in small animals, obtaining an acceleration factor of up to 15 with almost unnoticeable image degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.24936DOI Listing
August 2014