Publications by authors named "Paula Gómez"

49 Publications

Genomic Analysis of of the Lineage CC130, Including -Carrying MRSA and MSSA Isolates Recovered of Animal, Human, and Environmental Origins.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:655994. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Area of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, OneHealth-UR Research Group, University of La Rioja, Logroño, Spain.

Most methicillin resistant (MRSA) isolates harboring gene belong to clonal complex CC130. This lineage has traditionally been regarded as animal-associated as it lacks the human specific immune evasion cluster (IEC), and has been recovered from a broad range of animal hosts. Nevertheless, sporadic -MRSA human infections have been reported, with evidence of zoonotic transmission in some cases. The objective of this study was to investigate the whole-genome sequences of 18 CC130 isolates [13 methicillin-resistant (-MRSA) and five methicillin-susceptible (MSSA)] from different sequences types, obtained from a variety of host species and origins (human, livestock, wild birds and mammals, and water), and from different geographic locations, in order to identify characteristic markers and genomic features. Antibiotic resistance genes found among MRSA-CC130 were those associated with the SSCXI element. Most MRSA-CC130 strains carried a similar virulence gene profile. Additionally, six MRSA-CC130 possessed and one MSSA-ST130 had . The MSSA-ST700 strains were most divergent in their resistance and virulence genes. The pan-genome analysis showed that 29 genes were present solely in MRSA-CC130 (associated with SCCXI) and 21 among MSSA-CC130 isolates (associated with phages). The SCCXI, PBP3, GdpP, and AcrB were identical at the amino acid level in all strains, but some differences were found in PBP1, PBP2, PBP4, and YjbH proteins. An examination of the host markers showed that the 3' region of the bacteriophage φ3 was nearly identical to the reference sequence. Truncated gene was also found in -negative strains (two of them carrying -type gene). The gene of wild rabbit isolates included novel mutations. The gene was found in the three MSSA-ST700 strains from small ruminants and in one MSSA-ST130 from a red deer; these strains also carried a -type gene, different from the human and equine variants. Finally, a phylogenetic analysis showed that the three MSSA-ST700 strains and the two MSSA-ST130 strains cluster separately from the remaining MRSA-CC130 strains with the gene as marker for the main lineage. The presence of the human IEC cluster in some -MRSA-CC130 strains suggests that these isolates may have had a human origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.655994DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027229PMC
March 2021

Improving the Robustness of Organic Semiconductors through Hydrogen Bonding.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 12;13(7):8620-8630. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Multifunctional Molecular Materials Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Murcia, Campus of Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain.

Molecular organization plays an essential role in organic semiconductors since it determines the extent of intermolecular interactions that govern the charge transport present in all electronic applications. The benefits of hydrogen bond-directed self-assembly on charge transport properties are demonstrated by comparing two analogous pyrrole-based, fused heptacyclic molecules. The rationally designed synthesis of these materials allows for inducing or preventing hydrogen bonding. Strategically located hydrogen bond donor and acceptor sites control the solid-state arrangement, favoring the supramolecular expansion of the π-conjugated surface and the subsequent π-stacking as proved by X-ray diffraction and computational calculations. The consistency observed for the performance of organic field-effect transistors and the morphology of the organic thin films corroborate that higher stability and thermal robustness are achieved in the hydrogen-bonded material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c18928DOI Listing
February 2021

Clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with Raoultella spp. isolation in Bogotá, Colombia.

Med Clin (Barc) 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Unidad de Microbiología, Fundación Cardioinfantil, Bogotá, Colombia.

Introduction: Raoultella spp. is a gram-negative bacillus with increasing clinical importance due to the development of multi-drug resistance and because it has been reported as a cause of invasive infection. The risk of infection increases if comorbidities present such as diabetes mellitus and malignancies.

Methods: Descriptive study of clinical and microbiological characteristics in adult patients with Raoultella spp. isolation, treated at a fourth-level hospital in Bogotá, Colombia, between 2015 and 2020.

Results: 61 patients with isolation of Raoultella spp., 51 were considered infection and 10, colonization. The associated comorbidities were hypertension (n=26, 42.6%), heart failure (n=19, 31.1%) and diabetes mellitus (n=18, 29.5%). AmpC resistance patterns were found in 10 samples (16.4%) and KPC in 3 (4.9%).

Conclusions: Raoultella spp. is of clinical importance due to its isolation in immunocompromised patients with multiple comorbidities and due to the increase in multi-resistant strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2020.10.024DOI Listing
February 2021

Brand website marketing strategies for foods and beverages consumed by children and adolescents in Argentina.

Arch Argent Pediatr 2021 02;119(1):51-55

Centro de Estudios sobre Nutrición Infantil, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires.

The Internet has allowed the expansion of food and beverage advertising in different media. The objective of this study was to identify the marketing strategies used in brand websites of foods and beverages consumed by children and adolescents, and classify them based on the Food Guidelines for the Argentinean Population. The foods and beverages most commonly consumed by the child and adolescent population as per the Survey on Nutritional Food Intake of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires were selected. Brand websites were identified; marketing strategies were analyzed and marketed foods and beverages were classified based on the Guidelines. A total of 80 websites were found; the most common strategies were brand identity, benefits and claims, and links to websites and/or social media. Also, 30 % of sites were aimed at children and adolescents, and 75 % of marketed foods and beverages corresponded to the group of sweets and fats, including those of low nutritional value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2021.eng.51DOI Listing
February 2021

Ozone washing decreases strawberry susceptibility to while maintaining antioxidant, optical and sensory quality.

Heliyon 2020 Nov 6;6(11):e05416. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

CONICET-Universidad de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Tecnología de Alimentos y Procesos Químicos (ITAPROQ). Ciudad Universitaria, C1428EGA Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

This work aimed to evaluate the effect of ozone washing (maximum concentration 3.5 mgL- 5 and 15 min) on decay, physicochemical parameters, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity, and sensory properties of strawberries cv. Albion throughout refrigerated storage at 5 ± 1 °C. A 5 min long ozonation delayed the onset of infection by 4 days, and significantly reduced its incidence as storage progressed (~17 % lesser than in control at day 8), without impairing physicochemical parameters or sensory quality. This treatment did not affect the antioxidant activity of strawberry extracts neither in (ORAC and ABTS assays) or assays using as a model organism. Higher ozone doses did not achieve greater reduction of decay throughout the storage period. This study demonstrated that exposing strawberries to a 5 min long aqueous ozone treatment could extend their storability at 5 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7658706PMC
November 2020

Synthesis and Two-Dimensional Chiral Surface Self-Assembly of a π-Conjugated System with Three-Fold Symmetry: Benzotri(7-Azaindole).

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jan 14;60(4):1782-1788. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Murcia, Campus of Espinardo, 30100-, Murcia, Spain.

The synthesis of a novel expanded π-conjugated system, namely benzotri(7-azaindole), BTAI, is reported. Its C symmetry along with the integration of six complementary donor and acceptor N-H⋅⋅⋅N hydrogen bonds in the conjugated structure promote the 2D self-assembly on Au(111) over extended areas. Besides, a perfect commensurability with the gold lattice endows the physisorbed molecular film with a remarkable stability. The structural features of BTAI result in two levels of surface chirality: Firstly, the molecules become chiral upon adsorption on the surface. Then, due to the favorable N-H⋅⋅⋅N hydrogen bond-directed self-assembly, along with the relative molecular rotation with respect to the substrate, supramolecular chirality manifests in two mirror enantiomorphous domains. Thus, the system undergoes spontaneous chiral resolution. LEED and STM assisted by theoretical simulations have been employed to characterize in detail these novel 2D conglomerates with relevant chiral properties for systems with C symmetry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202012100DOI Listing
January 2021

Human -Carrying MRSA: Clinical Implications and Risk Factors.

Microorganisms 2020 Oct 20;8(10). Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Area of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of La Rioja, 26006 Logroño, Spain.

A new methicillin resistance gene, named , was first described in 2011 in both humans and animals. Since then, this gene has been detected in different production and free-living animals and as an agent causing infections in some humans. The possible impact that these isolates can have in clinical settings remains unknown. The current available information about -carrying methicillin resistant (MRSA) isolates obtained from human samples was analyzed in order to establish its possible clinical implications as well as to determine the infection types associated with this resistance mechanism, the characteristics of these -carrying isolates, their possible relation with animals and the presence of other risk factors. Until now, most human -MRSA infections have been reported in Europe and -MRSA isolates have been identified belonging to a small number of clonal complexes. Although the prevalence of -MRSA human infections is very low and isolates usually contain few resistance (except for beta-lactams) and virulence genes, first isolates harboring important virulence genes or that are resistant to non-beta lactams have already been described. Moreover, severe and even fatal human infection cases have been detected. -carrying MRSA should be taken into consideration in hospital, veterinary and food safety laboratories and in prevention strategies in order to avoid possible emerging health problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7589452PMC
October 2020

Frequency and Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Genes of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci from Wild Birds in Spain. Detection of -Carrying Isolates.

Microorganisms 2020 Aug 29;8(9). Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Área de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Universidad de La Rioja, 26006 Logroño, Spain.

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) species from wild birds in Spain, as well as to analyze the antimicrobial resistance phenotype/genotype and the virulence gene content. During 2015-2016, tracheal samples of 242 wild birds were collected in different regions of Spain for staphylococci recovery. The species identification was performed using MALDI-TOF. The antimicrobial resistance phenotype and genotype was investigated by the disk diffusion method and by PCR, respectively. The presence of the virulence genes /-PV, , , , and was investigated by PCR. Moreover, CoNS carrying the gene were subjected to SCC typing. Of the tested animals, 60% were CoNS-carriers, and 173 CoNS isolates were recovered from the 146 positive animals, which belonged to 11 species, with predominance of ( = 118) and ( = 25). A total of 34% of CoNS isolates showed a multidrug resistance phenotype, and 42 -positive methicillin-resistant CoNS (MRCoNS) were detected. The isolates showed resistance to the following antimicrobials (percentage of resistant isolates/antimicrobial resistance genes detected): penicillin (49/ , ), cefoxitin (24/ ), erythromycin and/or clindamycin (92/ (B), (C), (43), (A), (C), (A), (B), (A) and (A)), gentamicin and/or tobramycin (5/ (6')-Ie-(2″)-Ia, (4')-Ia), streptomycin (12/), tetracycline (17/ (K), (L), (M)), ciprofloxacin (4), chloramphenicol (1/ ), fusidic acid (86/ , ) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1/ ). None of the isolates harbored the /-PV, , , and genes, but two isolates (1%) carried the gene. Wild birds are frequently colonized by CoNS species, especially . We identified scavenging on intensively produced livestock and feeding on landfills as risk factors for CoNS carriage. High proportions of MRCoNS and multidrug resistant CoNS were detected, which coupled with the presence of important virulence genes is of concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7564563PMC
August 2020

Naturally monozygotic quadruplets in a Braford cow confirmed by DNA analysis: A case report.

Reprod Domest Anim 2020 Sep 13;55(9):1267-1270. Epub 2020 Sep 13.

Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, IGEVET - Instituto de Genética Veterinaria (UNLP-CONICET), Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), La Plata, Argentina.

Cattle are a monotocous species, despite naturally conceived multiple births are sometimes observed. Although the number of twins has consistently increased, triplet and quadruplet pregnancies represent 0.015% and 0.004% of the total births, respectively. Multiple births are the result of multiple ovulation and/or the spontaneous cleavage of one fertilized oocyte, which is known as monozygotic (MZ) twinning. In cattle, approximately 5% to 14% of all twin births are MZ, and births with more than two MZ calves are extremely rare. Monozygotic animals are genetically identical, and those derived from two or more zygotes are genetically different. Furthermore, the presence of placental vascular anastomosis can result in foetal chimerism. Notwithstanding, animals born as single calves can be chimeras when one of the foetal twins dies undetected in utero. Here, we used DNA testing to study the zygotic condition of an unusual female quadruplet born from a Braford cow bred in a multi-sire natural mating system without hormone stimulation. Two tissues with different embryological origin were sampled to test zygosity and possible chimerism. The results showed an identical genotype, confirming they all originated in an MZ pregnancy and suggesting the lack of chimerism in all animals. The use of MZ twins in breeding and selection systems provides an alternative to the conventional progeny testing. Some works have suggested a genetic background of MZ twins in humans. This female and her daughters could be the founders of a lineage to study the possible inheritance of MZ multiple births in cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/rda.13778DOI Listing
September 2020

Simultaneous Nasal Carriage by Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible of Lineage ST398 in a Live Pig Transporter.

Pathogens 2020 May 21;9(5). Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK.

Methicillin-resistant (MRSA) sequence type (ST)398 is a livestock associated (LA) lineage with zoonotic potential, especially in humans with live pig contact. The objective of this study was to characterize two strains of lineage ST398 (one methicillin-resistant (MRSA), one methicillin-susceptible (MSSA)) isolated from the same nasal sample of a patient admitted in the Intensive-Care Unit of a Spanish Hospital, and with previous occupational exposure to live pigs, by whole-genome-sequencing (WGS). The sample was obtained during routine surveillance for MRSA colonization. Purified genomic DNA was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2000 and processed using conventional bioinformatics software. The two isolates recovered were both t011/ST398 and showed similar resistance-phenotypes, other than methicillin susceptibility. The possession of antibiotic resistance genes was the same, except for the A-gene located in SCCV in the MRSA isolate. The MSSA isolate harbored remnants of a SCC following the deletion of 17342bp from a recombination between two putative primases. Both isolates belonged to the livestock-associated clade as defined by three canonical single-nucleotide-polymorphisms, and neither possessed the human immune evasion cluster genes, , or The core genome alignment showed a similarity of 99.6%, and both isolates harbored the same mobile genetic elements. The two nasal ST398 isolates recovered from the patient with previous occupational exposure to pigs appeared to have a livestock origin and could represent different evolutionary steps of animal-human interface lineage. The MSSA strain was formed as a result of the loss of the A gene from the livestock-associated-MRSA lineage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281718PMC
May 2020

Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant (MRSA) in Purulent Subcutaneous Lesions of Farm Rabbits.

Foods 2020 Apr 6;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Microbiology and Antibiotic Resistance Team (MicroART), Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Trás-Os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal.

Methicillin-resistant (MRSA) are one of the main pathogens associated with purulent infections. MRSA clonal complex 97 (CC97) has been identified in a wide diversity of livestock animals. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance profiles of MRSA strains isolated from purulent lesions of food-producing rabbits. Samples from purulent lesions of 66 rabbits were collected in a slaughterhouse in Portugal. Samples were seeded onto ORSAB plates with 2 mg/L of oxacillin for MRSA isolation. Susceptibility to antibiotics was tested by the disk diffusion method against 14 antimicrobial agents. The presence of resistance genes, virulence factors and the immune evasion cluster (IEC) system was studied by polymerase chain reaction. All isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and typing. From the 66 samples analyzed, 16 (24.2%) MRSA were detected. All strains were classified as multidrug-resistant as they were resistant to at least three classes of antibiotics. All isolates showed resistance to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin. Seven isolates were resistant to gentamicin and harbored the (6')-Ie- (2'')-Ia gene. Resistance to tetracycline was detected in 10 isolates harboring the (K) gene. The IEC genes were detected in three isolates. MRSA strains belonged to CC97, CC1, CC5, CC15 or CC22. The isolates were assigned to six different types. In this study we found a moderate prevalence of multidrug-resistant MRSA strains in food-producing rabbits. This may represent concern for food safety and public health, since cross-contamination may occur, leading to the spread of MRSA and, eventually, the possibility of ingestion of contaminated meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9040439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231059PMC
April 2020

A Self-Assembled Small-Molecule-Based Hole-Transporting Material for Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells.

Chemistry 2020 Aug 1;26(45):10276-10282. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Molecular Materials and Nanosystems, Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells have recently emerged as one of the most promising low-cost photovoltaic technologies. The remarkable progress of perovskite photovoltaics is closely related to advances in interfacial engineering and development of charge selective interlayers. Herein, we present the synthesis and characterization of a fused azapolyheteroaromatic small molecule, namely anthradi-7-azaindole (ADAI), with outstanding performance as a hole-transporting layer in perovskite solar cells with inverted architecture. Its molecular arrangement, induced by hydrogen-bond-directed self-assembly, favors a suitable morphology of the perovskite layer, reducing the effects of recombination as revealed by light intensity dependence, photoluminescence, and electroluminescence studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202000005DOI Listing
August 2020

ALPPS for hepatocarcinoma under cirrhosis: a feasible alternative to portal vein embolization.

Ann Transl Med 2019 Nov;7(22):691

Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Clinic and University Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca, IMIB-ARRIXACA, Murcia, Spain.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and malignant tumors. Preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) is currently the most accepted treatment before major hepatic resection for HCC in patients with liver fibrosis or cirrhosis and associated insufficient future liver remnant (FLR). In the last decade, associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) technique has been described to obtain an increase of volume regarding PVE and a decrease of drop out. The initial excessive morbidity and mortality of this technique have decreased drastically due to a better selection of patients, the learning curve and the use of less aggressive variations of the original technique in the first stage. For both techniques a complete preoperative assessment of the FLR is the most important issue and only patients with and adequate FLR should be resected. ALPPS could be a feasible technique in very selected patients with HCC and cirrhosis. As long as it is performed in an experienced center could be used as a first choice technique versus PVE or could be used as a rescue technique in case of PVE failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2019.10.57DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6944538PMC
November 2019

Silver and copper as pollution tracers in Neogene to Holocene estuarine sediments from southwestern Spain.

Mar Pollut Bull 2020 Jan 16;150:110704. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva, Spain.

Estuaries are very sensitive ecosystems to human activities and the natural evolution of their drainage basins located upstream. Pollution derived from human activities, such as historical mining or recent industrial wastes, can significantly affect their environmental quality. This paper analyzes the silver and copper contents of four cores extracted in two estuaries of SW Spain. Its chronology and vertical evolution allow to differentiate the effects of several pollution episodes (natural, Roman, 19th-20th centuries) on its different sedimentary environments in the last 6 million years. Possible future applications are included in the fields of environmental management or even education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110704DOI Listing
January 2020

Antimicrobial Resistance, Virulence, and Genetic Lineages of Staphylococci from Horses Destined for Human Consumption: High Detection of Isolates of Lineage ST1640 and Those Carrying the Gene.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Nov 1;9(11). Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Departamento de Agricultura y Alimentación, Universidad de La Rioja, 26006 Logroño, Spain.

This work aimed to determine the frequency and diversity of species carriage in horses intended for human consumption, as well as their resistance and virulence determinants. Eighty samples (30 nasal; 50 faecal) were recovered from 73 healthy horses in a Spanish slaughterhouse. The samples were cultured for staphylococci and methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) recovery. The phenotype/genotype of antimicrobial resistance was analysed for all isolates. The -type and sequence-type (ST) were determined in strains; moreover, the presence of virulence and host-adaptation genes (, , , and ) was studied by PCR. species were detected in 27/30 (90%) and 33/50 (66%) of nasal and faecal samples, respectively. Ninety isolates belonging to eight species were recovered, with predominance of ( = 34), ( = 19), and ( = 19). strains were all methicillin-susceptible (MSSA), 28/34 were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested, and the remaining six showed resistance to (gene-detected) streptomycin ( (6)-), penicillin (), and trimetroprim/sulphametoxazole (SXT) (, ). The lineage ST1640/t2559 was predominant ( = 21). The genes and were present in all but the ST1640 isolates. Three isolates were multidrug-resistant. Healthy horses in Spain seem to be a reservoir for virulent MSSA and the lineage ST1640, although the presence of the latter in horses is described for the first time in this study. Moreover, the equine-adapted leukocidin gene is frequent among strains. A large variety of staphylococcal species with low antibiotic resistance rate were also observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9110900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6912640PMC
November 2019

Botrytis cinerea response to pulsed light: Cultivability, physiological state, ultrastructure and growth ability on strawberry fruit.

Int J Food Microbiol 2019 Nov 24;309:108311. Epub 2019 Aug 24.

Departamento de Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Luján, Avenida Constitución y Ruta 5, B6702 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Botrytis cinerea causes postharvest spoilage in important crops such as strawberry and other berries. Pulsed light (PL) treatment could be an environmentally friendly postharvest alternative to synthetic fungicides in berries. Cultivability, physiological state, ultrastructure of Botrytis cinerea suspended in peptone water and irradiated with PL (fluence = 1.2 to 47.8 J/cm) were investigated by using conventional plate count technique, flow cytometry analysis (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, PL effect on B. cinerea development in artificially contaminated strawberries throughout storage at (5 ± 1) °C was evaluated. PL reduced fungus' ability to form colonies on agarized culture media. Survival curve fitted with the Weibullian model evidenced a wide distribution of conidia sensitivity to PL. FCM showed that most of irradiated conidia entered in a viable non-culturable state, although a subpopulation without esterase activity and compromised membranes and a subpopulation with active esterase and intact membranes were also detected. PL attacked multiple targets in B. cinerea. Ultrastructural changes varied with the dose and within the conidia population, supporting FCM results. Damage included plasmalemma detachment from cell wall, cytoplasm collapse, and vacuolization of cytoplasm, disruption of cell wall and plasmalemma with massive loss of cytoplasm and/or disruption of organelles. In strawberries artificially contaminated with B. cinerea, a 2-day delay on the onset of the infection and a lower incidence in PL-treated strawberries (11.9 and 23.9 J/cm) compared to control (16-20%) up to 10 days of cold storage was observed. Results indicated that PL significantly reduces B. cinerea growth in peptone water and in inoculated strawberries. However, other preservation factor(s) in combination would be needed to increase PL action for a better control of this fungus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2019.108311DOI Listing
November 2019

Diversity of staphylococcal species in food producing animals in Spain, with detection of PVL-positive MRSA ST8 (USA300).

Vet Microbiol 2019 Jun 12;233:5-10. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Área de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño, Spain. Electronic address:

This work aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity, antibiotic-resistance phenotype/genotype and virulence factors in staphylococci of farm-animals. Nasal samples of 117 farm-animals (calve: 72; lamb: 37; goat: 8) were collected from one slaughterhouse in La Rioja/Spain and cultured for staphylococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) recovery. Identification was performed by MALDI-TOF. Antimicrobial resistance phenotype/genotype was determined by susceptibility testing and specific PCRs. Molecular typing (spa-typing, multilocus-sequence-typing, agr-typing, SCCmec), and detection of 12 virulence genes and human Immune-evasive-cluster (IEC) genes were performed by PCR/sequencing in S. aureus. Two marker genes of arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) were determined by PCR (USA300-MRSA detection). Staphylococci were identified in 50%, 54% and 21% of goat, lamb and calve samples, respectively. Among the 13 S. aureus isolates recovered, 11 were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, and two were multidrug-resistant-MRSA [beta-lactams (blaZ, mecA), macrolides [(msr(A)/msr(B)] and fluoroquinolones]. The MSSA harboured either tst or enterotoxin genes, while the MRSA harboured the lukF/lukS-PV genes. Five sequence-types were detected. The two MRSA strains (from lamb and goat) were typed as t5173/ST8/agr-I/SCCmec-IVa/ACME-positive, corresponding to USA300 clone, and were IEC-B-positive. Among the 47 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), six species were identified, predominating S. simulans (n = 25) and S. sciuri (n = 11). Fifty-three percent of CoNS showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent (six multidrug-resistant strains), and the following resistance phenotypes/genotypes were detected: streptomycin [27.6%; ant(6)-Ia, str], tetracycline [23.4%; tet(M), tet(L), tet(K)], clindamycin [19.1%; lnu(A), vgaA], erythromycin [10.6%; erm(C), msr(A)/msr(B)], chloramphenicol (8.5%; fexA), tobramycin (6.4%), penicillin-cefoxitin (4.3%; blaZ, mecA), and SXT (2.1%). The detection of the MRSA-USA300 lineage in food animals is worrisome and should be further monitored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.04.013DOI Listing
June 2019

Detection of MRSA of Lineages CC130-mecC and CC398-mecA and Staphylococcus delphini-lnu(A) in Magpies and Cinereous Vultures in Spain.

Microb Ecol 2019 Aug 29;78(2):409-415. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Área de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Universidad de La Rioja, Madre de Dios 51, 26006, Logroño, Spain.

The aim of this study was to determine the carriage rate of coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) in wild birds and to characterize recovered isolates. Tracheal samples from 324 wild birds, obtained in different Spanish regions during 2015-2016, were screened for CoPS carriage. The antimicrobial resistance profile and the virulence gene content were investigated. Molecular typing was performed by spa, agr, MLST, SCCmec, and S. delphini group classification. CoPS were recovered from 26 samples of wild birds (8.3%), and 27 isolates were further characterized. Two CoPS species were detected: S. aureus (n = 15; eight cinereous vultures and seven magpies) and S. delphini (n = 12; 11 cinereous vultures and one red kite). Thirteen S. aureus were methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and the remaining two strains were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA). Twelve MRSA were mecC-positive, typed as t843-ST1583/ST1945/ST1581/ST1571 (n = 11) and t1535-ST1945 (n = 1) (all of clonal-complex CC130); they were susceptible to the non-β-lactams tested. The remaining MRSA strain carried the mecA gene, was typed as t011-ST398-CC398-agrI-SCCmec-V, and showed a multiresistance phenotype. MSSA isolates were ascribed to lineages ST97-CC97 and ST425-CC425. All S. aureus lacked the studied virulence genes (lukS/F-PV, tst, eta, etb, and etd), and the IEC type E (with scn and sak genes) was detected in four mecC-positive and one MSSA isolates. S. delphini strains were methicillin-susceptible but showed resistance to at least one of the antimicrobials tested, with high penicillin (75%, with blaZ gene) and tetracycline [58%, with tet(K)± tet(L)] resistance rates. All S. delphini isolates presented the virulence genes lukS-I, siet, and se-int, and four carried the clindamycin-resistance lnu(A) gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-019-01328-4DOI Listing
August 2019

Identification of Enterococci, Staphylococci, and Enterobacteriaceae from Slurries and Air in and around Two Pork Farms.

J Food Prot 2018 11;81(11):1776-1782

2 Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Universidad de La Rioja, 26006 Logroño, Spain (ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6873-1940 [S.S.]).

In this study, we investigated the airborne dissemination of bacteria from the inside of two very different pork farms (an intensively confined farm and an open-range farm) to the immediate environment. Samples were taken from the slurry, from the air inside the farms (area 0), and from their immediate surroundings at a distance of 50, 100, and 150 m in four directions (north, south, east, and west). A control sample in the air of a zone far away from human or animal activity was also taken. Identification of isolates was made by means of the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight system. A total of 1,063 isolates were obtained, of which a mere 7 came from the air of the control area. Staphylococci, enterococci, and Enterobacteriaceae were selectively targeted for isolation and represented 48.6, 27.2, and 21.6% of the isolates, respectively. The species identified from the air of surrounding areas ( Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus hirae, and Staphylococcus arlettae, mainly) were also present inside the farms studied. The results suggest that air is involved in bacterial dissemination, and pork farms should be considered a potential source of foodborne bacteria that might contaminate surrounding areas, including vegetable orchards. Wind direction appears as a factor involved in bacterial dispersion through the air, but its effect may be conditioned by existing vegetation and orographic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-18-098DOI Listing
November 2018

Molecular Characterization and Clonal Diversity of Methicillin-Resistant and -Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Isolates of Milk of Cows with Clinical Mastitis in Tunisia.

Microb Drug Resist 2018 Oct 26;24(8):1210-1216. Epub 2018 Jan 26.

1 Laboratory of Epidemiology and Veterinary Microbiology, Group of Bacteriology and Biotechnology Developement, Pasteur Institute of Tunis , Univérsité de Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia .

The aim of this study was to determine the genetic lineages, and the frequency of antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates recovered from milk of cows with clinical mastitis. Three hundred milk samples from bovine with clinical mastitis were obtained from 30 dairy farms in different regions of Tunisia. Fifteen of the 300 tested samples contained S. aureus (5%), in three cases were MRSA. Isolates (one/sample) were typed (S. aureus protein A [spa], multilocus sequence typing and accessory gene regulator [agr]). The presence of resistance and virulence genes was analyzed by PCR. The three MRSA isolates contained mecA and blaZ genes (one of them also the msr(A) gene), and carried the enterotoxin gene sen; they were typed as t10381-ST4114 or t267-ST4120, and corresponded to agr type-I. Twelve MSSA isolates were recovered and harbored the blaZ (7 strains) or erm(C) genes (1 strain). The MSSA isolates presented seven different spa-types, associated to new sequence types (STs): t426-ST4118, t267-ST4120, t1773-ST4115, t509-ST4119, t529-ST4117, t2844-ST4113, and t2802-ST4112; most isolates (8/12) were typed as t267/ST4120. All S. aureus isolates were scn-negative, except one MSSA of lineage ST4119 that exhibited the immune evasion cluster type D, and harbored the seg, sei, sem, seo, and seu enterotoxin genes. Four MSSA isolates carried the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 gene (tst). S. aureus (including MRSA) is an important cause of bovine mastitis, showing isolates with high genetic diversity and high content in virulence genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2017.0278DOI Listing
October 2018

Community-acquired infection with hypervirulent isolates that carry different toxin and antibiotic resistance loci: a case report.

Gut Pathog 2017 9;9:63. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Universidad del Rosario, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas, Programa de Biología, Grupo de Investigaciones Microbiológicas-UR (GIMUR), Bogotá, Colombia.

Background: infection (CDI) leads to the onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and a wide range of gastrointestinal pathologies. Currently, CDI is one of the most important opportunistic infections at the intrahospital level and an exponential increase in community-acquired infections has been reported. Herein, we evaluated the relationships (at phylogenetic and genetic population structure levels), as well as the molecular toxigenic and antibiotic resistance profiles of a set of isolates established from a case of community acquired-CDI.

Case Presentation: A 30-year-old woman with no history of hospitalization who was exposed to antibiotics (ampicillin/sulbactam and metronidazole) after a cat-bite wound was presented. The patient had a continuous episode of diarrhea; a stool sample was then collected and community acquired-CDI was confirmed by molecular tests and in vitro culture. Seven isolates were established and subsequently subjected to: (i) Multilocus sequence typing, all isolates belonging to ST-1 (associated with hypervirulent strain (027/BI/NAP1); (ii) description of their toxigenic profile: two of the isolates (Gcol.49 and Gcol.91) were positive for the genes coding for the major toxins ( and ) and their negative regulator (). All isolates were positive for the gene encoding one of the binary toxin subunits, while only two (Gcol.51 and Gcol.52) were positive for ; and (iii) identification of antibiotic resistance molecular markers, where there was no difference in or gene polymorphisms (related to quinolone resistance), but rather at loci presence/absence, being just one isolate negative, whereas the others showed a differential presence of the , and Tn916 regions. The former was associated with resistance to tetracycline and the other two for erythromycin/clindamycin.

Conclusions: This case represents the first report of community acquired-CDI in Colombia associated with hypervirulent strains and shows that isolates obtained from a single patient can carry different toxin and antibiotic resistance loci.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13099-017-0212-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5680771PMC
November 2017

Interaction between Wolbachia and the fibrinolytic system as a possible pathological mechanism in cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis.

Vet Parasitol 2017 Nov 6;247:64-69. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

Laboratory of Parasitology, Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Salamanca (IRNASA-CSIC), C/Cordel de Merinas 40, 37008 Salamanca, Spain. Electronic address:

Dirofilaria immitis is a mosquito-borne parasite that produces an inflammatory process in the wall of the blood vessels of its definitive host during cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis, known as proliferative endarteritis. Parasite antigens participate in the appearance of this inflammatory event, among other mechanisms through the over-activation of the host fibrinolytic system. Since Wolbachia, endosymbiont bacteria of filarial nematodes, is released into the vertebrate host when worms die, the aim of this work was to analyse the interaction between this bacteria and the host fibrinolytic system to complete the study of this part of the host-parasite relationships. For that purpose, the recombinant form of the major Wolbachia surface protein (rWSP) was cloned, sequenced and expressed and then, its ability to bind plasminogen and enhance the generation of plasmin was assessed. We demonstrated that rWSP is a conserved antigen within the family Onchocercidae with ability to bind plasminogen and stimulate plasmin generation in a tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA) and lysine residues of the rWSP-dependent manner. These results indicate that the recruitment of plasminogen by Wolbachia and the possible excess of plasmin generated could contribute to exacerbate the pathological events occurred at the vascular level during cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis, as well as in other diseases caused by filarial nematodes that harbour Wolbachia, when the bacteria is released after the death of the worms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2017.10.001DOI Listing
November 2017

Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wastewater treatment plants in Tunisia: occurrence of human and animal associated lineages.

J Water Health 2017 Aug;15(4):638-643

Laboratoire de Traitement des Eaux Usées, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies des Eaux (CERTE), Technopoles Borj-Cédria, BP 273, 8020 Soliman, Tunisia.

The objective was to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolated from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in Tunis City (Tunisia), during the period 2014-2015. Genetic lineages, antibiotic resistance mechanisms and virulence factors were determined for the recovered isolates. S. aureus isolates were recovered from 12 of the 62 wastewater samples tested (19.35%), and one isolate/sample was characterized, all of them being methicillin-susceptible (MSSA). Six spa types (t587, t674, t224, t127, t701 and t1534) were found among the 12 isolates, and the spa-t587, associated with the new sequence type ST3245, was the most predominant one (7 isolates). The remaining isolates were assigned to five clonal complexes (CC5, CC97, CC1, CC6 and CC522) according to the sequence-type determined and/or the spa-type detected. S. aureus isolates were ascribed to agrI (n = 3), agrII (n = 7) and agrIII (n = 1); however, one isolate was non-typeable. S. aureus showed resistance to (number of isolates): penicillin (12), erythromycin (7), tetracycline (one) and clindamycin (one). Among the virulence factors investigated, only one isolate harboured the tst gene, encoding the TSST-1 (toxic shock syndrome toxin 1). Despite the low number of studied isolates, the present study reports the occurrence of both human- and animal-associated S. aureus clonal complexes in WWTPs in Tunisia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2017.258DOI Listing
August 2017

The Complexity of Zoonotic Filariasis Episystem and Its Consequences: A Multidisciplinary View.

Biomed Res Int 2017 31;2017:6436130. Epub 2017 May 31.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-na-Donu, Russia.

Vector-borne transmitted helminthic zoonosis affects the health and economy of both developing and developed countries. The concept of episystem includes the set of biological, environmental, and epidemiological elements of these diseases in defined geographic and temporal scales. Dirofilariasis caused by different species of the genus is a disease affecting domestic and wild canines and felines and man, transmitted by different species of culicid mosquitoes. This complexity is increased because species harbor intracellular symbiont bacteriae, which play a key role in the embryogenesis and development of dirofilariae and in the inflammatory pathology of the disease. In addition, the vector transmission makes the dirofilariasis susceptible to the influence of the climate and its variations. The present review addresses the analysis of dirofilariasis from the point of view of the episystem, analyzing the complex network of interactions established between biological components, climate, and factors related to human activity, as well as the different problems they pose. The progress of knowledge on human and animal dirofilariasis is largely due to the multidisciplinary approach. Nevertheless, different aspects of the disease need to continue being investigated and cooperation between countries and specialists involved should be intensified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/6436130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5469992PMC
March 2018

Genetic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from nasal samples of healthy ewes in Tunisia. High prevalence of CC130 and CC522 lineages.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2017 Apr 29;51:37-40. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

Área de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Universidad de La Rioja, 26006 Logroño, Spain. Electronic address:

Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile bacterium, which can infect or colonize a variety of host species. The objective of this study was to characterize S. aureus isolates recovered from nasal swabs of 167 healthy ewes sampled from 12 farms in different areas of Tunisia during the period of 2014-2015. Genetic lineages, virulence factors and antibiotic resistance mechanisms were determined for recovered isolates. S. aureus was detected in 45 out of 167 tested samples (26.9%). All isolates were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and the majority of them were susceptible to tested antibiotics with few exceptions (% of resistance): penicillin (8.8), ciprofloxacin (4.4), and tobramycin or tetracycline (2.2, each). Twelve different spa types were detected (t15098, t15099, t1773, t3576, t1534, t5428, t3750, t5970 t254, t2883, t127 and t933), two of them were new (t15098 and t15099). S. aureus isolates were ascribed to agrI (n=23), agrII (n=1) and agrIII (n=20), and one was non-typeable. According to the sequence-type (ST) determined and/or the spa-type detected, the 45S. aureus isolates were assigned to six clonal complexes, with CC522 (44.4%) and CC130 (37.7%) being the most common lineages. Twenty-one (46.6%) and two (4.2%) isolates harbored the tst and eta genes encoding TSST-1 and ETA, respectively. In conclusion, nares of healthy ewes could be a reservoir of MSSA CC522 and CC130, lineages associated with TSST-1 and ETA that might represent a risk to human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2017.03.002DOI Listing
April 2017

Food and beverage advertising on children's TV channels in Argentina: Frequency, duration, and nutritional quality.

Arch Argent Pediatr 2017 02;115(1):28-34

Ministerio de Salud, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Food and beverage marketing has been identified as one of the determinants of unhealthy food and beverage consumption in the child population.

Objective: To determine the frequency and duration of food and beverage advertising in children's programming and the nutritional quality of advertised food and beverages.

Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Children's cable and broadcast channel programming was recorded in two periods: over the week and on the weekend. The type, quantity, and duration of commercials were recorded. The nutritional quality of advertised food and beverages was analyzed.

Results: A total of 402.3 hours of children's programming were recorded. In total, 3711 commercials were identified. Among these, 20.9% corresponded to food and beverages, i.e., an average of 1.9 ± 1.0 commercials per hour or equivalent to 0.68 ± 0.36 min/hour. Dairy products, candies, and fast-food meals were the most advertised food products. Only a third of advertised food and beverages (35.8%) were categorized as healthy as per the nutrient profiling system. Based on the traffic light labeling system, 50% of advertised food and beverages were high in sugar, 25% were high in saturated fat, and approximately 15% were high in sodium or fat.

Conclusion: Food and beverage advertising accounted for 20% of television advertising time. The most advertised products were dairy products, followed by candies and sweet snacks, fast-food meals, and beverages. Two-thirds of advertised food and beverages were considered unhealthy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2017.eng.28DOI Listing
February 2017

Diversity of species and antimicrobial resistance determinants of staphylococci in superficial waters in Spain.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2017 01 8;93(1). Epub 2016 Oct 8.

Área de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño, Spain

The objectives were to determine the presence and diversity of staphylococcal species in surface waters in La Rioja region (Spain), and to characterize recovered isolates. Staphylococci were detected in 42 of 47 evaluable samples, and 72 isolates were obtained, of which 13 were coagulase-positive (CoPS) and 59 were coagulase-negative (CoNS). Twelve CoPS were identified as S. aureus and typed as follows (number of strains): t002/t502/ST5 (four), t10668/ST425 (one), t10712//ST1643 (one), t843/ST130 (one), t10855/ST2461 (one), t3369/ST2657 (one), t1166/ST133 (one), t8083/ST2049 (one) and t045/ST2460 (one); and one as S. pseudintermedius ST147. Virulence genes tst, cna and lukS/F-I were detected, and one strain showed the immune evasion cluster type F. Regarding CoNS, 12 different species were recovered (number of strains): S. epidermidis (11), S. vitulinus (10), S. sciuri (nine), S. fleurettii (seven), S. lentus (six), S. simulans (five), S. xylosus (four), S. chromogenes (two), S. hominis (two), and S. equorum, S. succinus and S. warneri (one each). Fourteen CoNS isolates presented a multidrug resistance phenotype, with the following resistance genes: blaZ, mecA, fusB, fusC, erm(C), mph(C), erm(A), msr(A)/(B), mph(C), ant(4')-Ia, tet(K), tet(L), cat and str The high diversity of staphylococcal species, as well as multiple resistance and virulence genes, highlights the importance of surface waters as a temporary reservoir and source of transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiw208DOI Listing
January 2017

Integrated Medical Curriculum: Advantages and Disadvantages.

J Med Educ Curric Dev 2016 Jan-Dec;3. Epub 2016 Oct 11.

Facilitators of the Integrated-Systems Learning Activities at the School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universidad del Rosario, Bogota, DC, Colombia.

Most curricula for medical education have been integrated horizontally and vertically--vertically between basic and clinical sciences. The Flexnerian curriculum has disappeared to permit integration between basic sciences and clinical sciences, which are taught throughout the curriculum. We have proposed a different form of integration where the horizontal axis represents the defined learning outcomes and the vertical axis represents the teaching of the sciences throughout the courses. We believe that a mere integration of basic and clinical sciences is not enough because it is necessary to emphasize the importance of humanism as well as health population sciences in medicine. It is necessary to integrate basic and clinical sciences, humanism, and health population in the vertical axis, not only in the early years but also throughout the curriculum, presupposing the use of active teaching methods based on problems or cases in small groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4137/JMECD.S18920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5736212PMC
October 2016

Genetic Diversity and Antibiotic Resistance Among Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Recovered from Birds of Prey in Portugal.

Microb Drug Resist 2016 Dec 18;22(8):727-730. Epub 2016 Mar 18.

1 Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD) , Vila Real, Portugal .

Wild animal populations in contact with antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistant bacteria that are daily released into the environment are able to become unintentional hosts of these resistant microorganisms. To clarify this issue, our study evaluated the presence of antibiotic resistance determinants on coagulase-negative staphylococci recovered from birds of prey and studied their genetic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The unusual vga(A) and erm(T) genes, which confer resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin, respectively, were detected in Staphylococcus sciuri or Staphylococcus xylosus strains and the tet(K) gene in Staphylococcus kloosii. The PFGE patterns showed that three S. xylosus (isolated of Strix aluco and Otus scops) and two S. sciuri (recovered from Strix aluco and Milvus migrans) were clonally indistinguishable. These animals could be a source of unusual antimicrobial resistance determinants for highly used antibiotics in veterinary clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2015.0266DOI Listing
December 2016

Characterization of staphylococci in urban wastewater treatment plants in Spain, with detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398.

Environ Pollut 2016 May 1;212:71-76. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Department of Food and Agriculture, University of La Rioja, Logroño, Spain. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus in urban wastewater treatment plants (UWTP) of La Rioja (Spain), and to characterize de obtained isolates. 16 wastewater samples (8 influent, 8 effluent) of six UWTPs were seeded on mannitol-salt-agar and oxacillin-resistance-screening-agar-base for staphylococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovery. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined for 16 antibiotics and the presence of 35 antimicrobial resistance genes and 14 virulence genes by PCR. S. aureus was typed by spa, agr, and multilocus-sequence-typing, and the presence of immune-evasion-genes cluster was analyzed. Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 13 of 16 tested wastewater samples (81%), although the number of CFU/mL decreased after treatment. 40 staphylococci were recovered (1-5/sample), and 8 of them were identified as S. aureus being typed as (number of strains): spa-t011/agr-II/ST398 (1), spa-t002/agr-II/ST5 (2), spa-t3262/agr-II/ST5 (1), spa-t605/agr-II/ST126 (3), and spa-t878/agr-III/ST2849 (1). S. aureus ST398 strain was methicillin-resistant and showed a multidrug resistance phenotype. Virulence genes tst, etd, sea, sec, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and seu, were detected among S. aureus and only ST5 strains showed genes of immune evasion cluster. Thirty-two coagulase-negative Staphylococcus of 12 different species were recovered (number of strains): Staphylococcus equorum (7), Staphylococcus vitulinus (4), Staphylococcus lentus (4), Staphylococcus sciuri (4), Staphylococcus fleurettii (2), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (2), Staphylococcus hominis (2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (2), Staphylococcus succinus (2), Staphylococcus capitis (1), Staphylococcus cohnii (1), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1). Five presented a multidrug resistance phenotype. The following resistance and virulence genes were found: mecA, lnu(A), vga(A), tet(K), erm(C), msr(A)/(B), mph(C), tst, and sem. We found that Staphylococcus spp. are normal contaminants of urban wastewater, including different lineages of S. aureus and a high diversity of coagulase-negative species. The presence of multiple resistance and virulence genes, including mecA, in staphylococci of wastewater can be a concern for the public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.01.038DOI Listing
May 2016