Publications by authors named "Paula F P Henry"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Sex- and Developmental Stage-Related Differences in the Hepatic Transcriptome of Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) Exposed to 17β-Trenbolone.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

U.S. Geological Survey, Eastern Ecological Science Center, Patuxent Research Refuge Beltsville, Maryland, USA.

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can cause transcriptomic changes that may disrupt biological processes associated with reproductive function including metabolism, transport, and cell growth. We investigated effects from in ovo and dietary exposure to 17β-trenbolone (17βT; at 0, 1 and 10 ppm) on the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) hepatic transcriptome. Our objectives were to identify differentially expressed hepatic genes, assess perturbations of biological pathways, and examine sex- and developmental stage-related differences. The number of significantly differentially expressed genes was higher in embryos than in adults. Male embryos exhibited greater differential gene expression than female embryos, whereas in adults, males and females exhibited similar numbers of differentially expressed genes (>2-fold). Vitellogenin and apovitellenin-1 were upregulated in male adults exposed to 10 ppm 17βT and these birds also exhibited indications of immunomodulation. Functional grouping of differentially expressed genes identified processes including metabolism and transport of biomolecules, enzyme activity and extracellular matrix interactions. Pathway enrichment analyses identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathway, cardiac muscle contraction, gluconeogenesis, growth factor signaling, focal adhesion, and bile acid biosynthesis as perturbed. One of the primary uses of 17βT is that of a growth promoter and these results identify effects on mechanistic pathways related to steroidogenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, and growth, and metabolism of lipids and proteins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.5143DOI Listing
June 2021

In ovo exposure to brominated flame retardants Part II: Assessment of effects of TBBPA-BDBPE and BTBPE on hatching success, morphometric and physiological endpoints in American kestrels.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Sep 28;179:151-159. Epub 2019 Apr 28.

Ecotoxicology and Wildlife Health Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Burlington, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether) (TBBPA-BDBPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTPBE) are both brominated flame retardants (BFRs) that have been detected in birds; however, their potential biological effects are largely unknown. We assessed the effects of embryonic exposure to TBBPA-BDBPE and BTBPE in a model avian predator, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Fertile eggs from a captive population of kestrels were injected on embryonic day 5 (ED5) with a vehicle control or one of three doses within the range of concentrations that have been detected in biota (nominal concentrations of 0, 10, 50 or 100 ng/g egg; measured concentrations 0, 3.0, 13.7 or 33.5 ng TBBPA-BDBPE/g egg and 0, 5.3, 26.8 or 58.1 ng BTBPE/g egg). Eggs were artificially incubated until hatching (ED28), at which point blood and tissues were collected to measure morphological and physiological endpoints, including organ somatic indices, circulating and glandular thyroid hormone concentrations, thyroid gland histology, hepatic deiodinase activity, and markers of oxidative stress. Neither compound had any effects on embryo survival through 90% of the incubation period or on hatching success, body mass, organ size, or oxidative stress of hatchlings. There was evidence of sex-specific effects in the thyroid system responses to the BTBPE exposures, with type 2 deiodinase (D2) activity decreasing at higher doses in female, but not in male hatchlings, suggesting that females may be more sensitive to BTBPE. However, there were no effects of TBBPA-BDBPE on the thyroid system in kestrels. For the BTPBE study, a subset of high-dose eggs was collected throughout the incubation period to measure changes in BTBPE concentrations. There was no decrease in BTBPE over the incubation period, suggesting that BTBPE is slowly metabolized by kestrel embryos throughout their ∼28-d development. These two compounds, therefore, do not appear to be particularly toxic to embryos of the American kestrel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.04.047DOI Listing
September 2019

In ovo exposure to brominated flame retardants Part I: Assessment of effects of TBBPA-BDBPE on survival, morphometric and physiological endpoints in zebra finches.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Sep 24;179:104-110. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Ecotoxicology and Wildlife Health Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Delta, British Columbia, Canada; Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

Tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl) ether (TBBPA-BDBPE) is an additive flame retardant used in polyolefins and polymers. It has been detected in biota, including in avian eggs, yet little is known of its effects. We assessed the pattern of TBBPA-BDBPE concentrations in songbird eggs over the incubation period, and the effects of embryonic exposure to TBBPA-BDBPE in a model songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). To assess concentrations during embryo development, eggs were injected on the day they were laid with the vehicle control (safflower oil) or 100 ng TBBPA-BDBPE/g egg, and whole egg contents were collected throughout embryonic development on day 0 (unincubated), 5, 10 and 13. To evaluate effects of embryonic exposure to TBBPA-BDBPE, eggs were injected at Hamburger-Hamilton stage 18 (∼80 h after initiation of incubation) with safflower oil only, 10, 50 or 100 ng TBBPA-BDBPE/g egg (albumin injection volume 1 μl/g). Eggs were monitored for hatching success, and nestlings were monitored for growth and survival. At 15 days post-hatch, tissues were collected to assess physiological effects. TBBPA-BDBPE was incorporated into the egg as the embryo developed, and concentrations started declining in late incubation, suggesting biotransformation by the embryo. There were no effects on hatching success, nestling survival, growth, organ somatic indices, or thyroid hormone homeostasis; however, there was evidence that body condition declined in a dose-dependent manner towards the end of the rapid nestling growth phase. This decreased body condition could be a delayed effect of early developmental exposure, or it may be the result of increased exposure to biotransformation products of TBBPA-BDBPE produced over the nestling period, which are predicted to be more bioaccumulative and toxic than the parent compound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.04.048DOI Listing
September 2019

Toxicokinetics of Imidacloprid-Coated Wheat Seeds in Japanese Quail ( Coturnix japonica) and an Evaluation of Hazard.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 04 13;53(7):3888-3897. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

U.S. Geological Survey Patuxent, Wildlife Research Center , Beltsville , Maryland 20705 , United States.

Birds are potentially exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides by ingestion of coated seeds during crop planting. Adult male Japanese quail were orally dosed with wheat seeds coated with an imidacloprid (IMI) formulation at either 0.9 or 2.7 mg/kg body weight (BW) (∼3 and 9% of IMI LD50 for Japanese quail, respectively) for 1 or 10 days. Quail were euthanized between 1 and 24 h postexposure to assess toxicokinetics. Analysis revealed rapid absorption (1 h) into blood and distribution to the brain, muscle, kidney, and liver. Clearance to below detection limits occurred at both dose levels and exposure durations in all tissues within 24 h. Metabolism was extensive, with 5-OH-IMI and IMI-olefin detected at greater concentrations than IMI in tissues and fecal samples. There was no lethality or overt signs of toxicity at either dose level. Furthermore, no evidence of enhanced expression of mRNA genes associated with hepatic xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative DNA damage, or alterations in concentrations of corticosterone and thyroid hormones was observed. Application of the toxicokinetic data was used to predict IMI residue levels in the liver with reasonable results for some field exposure and avian mortality events. It would appear that some affected species of birds are either consuming larger quantities of seeds or exhibit differences in ADME or sensitivity than predicted by read-across from these data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b07062DOI Listing
April 2019

Sex-specific responses in neuroanatomy of hatchling American kestrels in response to embryonic exposure to the flame retardants bis(2-ethylhexyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate and 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2018 12 19;37(12):3032-3040. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Ecotoxicology & Wildlife Health Division, Science & Technology Branch, Environment & Climate Change Canada, Burlington, Ontario.

Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP) and 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), flame retardant components of FireMaster 550® and 600® have been detected in tissues of wild birds. To address the paucity of information regarding potential impacts of flame retardants on the brain, brain volume regions of hatchling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were evaluated following in ovo injection at embryonic day 5 with safflower oil or to 1 of 3 doses of either BEH-TEBP (12, 60, or 107 ng/g egg) or EH-TBB (11, 55, or 137 ng/g egg). The doses for both chemicals reflected concentrations reported in wild birds. The volumes of the hippocampus and telencephalon and volumetric differences between left and right hemispheres were measured in hatchlings (embryonic day 28). A sex-specific effect of BEH-TEBP on relative hippocampus volume was evident: the hippocampus was significantly enlarged in high-dose females compared to control females but smaller in low-dose females than the other females. There was no significant effect of EH-TBB on hippocampus volume in female kestrel hatchlings or of either chemical in male hatchlings and no effects of these concentrations of EH-TBB or BEH-TEBP on telencephalon volume or the level of symmetry between the hemispheres of the brain. In sum, embryonic exposure of female kestrels to these BEH-TEBP concentrations altered hippocampus volume, having the potential to affect spatial memory relating to ecologically relevant behavior such as prey capture, predator avoidance, and migration. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:3032-3040. © 2018 SETAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.4238DOI Listing
December 2018

Female hatchling American kestrels have a larger hippocampus than males: A link with sexual size dimorphism?

Behav Brain Res 2018 09 24;349:98-101. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Ecotoxicology & Wildlife Health Division, Environment & Climate Change Canada, Canada. Electronic address:

The brain and underlying cognition may vary adaptively according to an organism's ecology. As with all raptor species, adult American kestrels (Falco sparverius) are sexually dimorphic with females being larger than males. Related to this sexual dimorphism, kestrels display sex differences in hunting and migration, with females ranging more widely than males, suggesting possible sex differences in spatial cognition. However, hippocampus volume, the brain region responsible for spatial cognition, has not been investigated in raptors. Here, we measured hippocampus and telencephalon volumes in American kestrel hatchlings. Female hatchlings had a significantly larger hippocampus relative to the telencephalon and brain weight than males (∼12% larger), although telencephalon volume relative to brain weight and body size was similar between the sexes. The magnitude of this hippocampal sex difference is similar to that reported between male and female polygynous Microtus voles and migratory and non-migratory subspecies of Zonotrichia sparrows. Future research should determine if this sex difference in relative hippocampus volume of hatchling kestrels persists into adulthood and if similar patterns exist in other raptor species, thus potentially linking sex differences in the brain to sex differences of space use of adults in the wild.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2018.04.037DOI Listing
September 2018

Effects on Circulating Steroid Hormones and Gene Expression along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Adult Japanese Quail Exposed to 17β-Trenbolone across Multiple Generations.

Toxicol Sci 2017 05;157(1):62-73

U.S. Geological Survey Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland, USA.

We investigated the effects of the androgenic growth promoter 17β-trenbolone (17βTB) on adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) exposed across three generations. The F0 generation was exposed after sexual maturity to 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm through feed. The F1 generation was exposed in ovo by maternal transfer and through feed at the same doses as their parents. The F2 generation was exposed in ovo only. Levels of plasma sex steroids, gonadal Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA and select brain neuroendocrine peptide mRNAs were measured. In males, testosterone levels did not differ in any generation from those in controls. Estradiol was significantly elevated in 17βTB treated F0 and F1 males. In F0 and F1 females, testosterone was suppressed by 17βTB, whereas estradiol was significantly higher at 40 ppm in F0 and at 10 ppm in F1 females. CYP19A1 expression in F1 males and females increased suggesting a compensatory response to the androgenic effects of 17βTB. Few significant effects were observed in the F2 birds indicating that in ovo exposure had limited effects on the monitored endpoints. Overall, our results confirmed endocrine disrupting effects of dietary 17βTB in Japanese quail but the response was dependent on sex, developmental stage at initiation of exposure, and dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfx016DOI Listing
May 2017

Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2016 09 6;35(9):2311-9. Epub 2016 Jun 6.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbia, Missouri, USA.

Hazards of soil-borne lead (Pb) to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, the authors measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from 5 Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33% to 63%, with a mean of approximately 50%. Treatment of 2 of the soils with phosphorus (P) significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. Bioaccessibility of Pb in the test soils was then measured in 6 in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability: the relative bioavailability leaching procedure at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the Ohio State University in vitro gastrointestinal method, the urban soil bioaccessible lead test, the modified physiologically based extraction test, and the waterfowl physiologically based extraction test. All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the relative bioavailability leaching procedure at pH 2.5 and Ohio State University in vitro gastrointestinal tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter (24%), or present as Pb sulfate (18%). Additional Pb was associated with P (chloropyromorphite, hydroxypyromorphite, and tertiary Pb phosphate) and with Pb carbonates, leadhillite (a lead sulfate carbonate hydroxide), and Pb sulfide. The formation of chloropyromorphite reduced the bioavailability of Pb, and the amendment of Pb-contaminated soils with P may be a thermodynamically favored means to sequester Pb. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2311-2319. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.3399DOI Listing
September 2016

Spatiotemporal analysis of gene flow in Chesapeake Bay Diamondback Terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin).

Mol Ecol 2015 12 20;24(23):5864-76. Epub 2015 Nov 20.

U.S. Geological Survey, Leetown Science Center, Aquatic Ecology Laboratory, 11649 Leetown Road, Kearneysville, WV, 25430, USA.

There is widespread concern regarding the impacts of anthropogenic activities on connectivity among populations of plants and animals, and understanding how contemporary and historical processes shape metapopulation dynamics is crucial for setting appropriate conservation targets. We used genetic data to identify population clusters and quantify gene flow over historical and contemporary time frames in the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin). This species has a long and complicated history with humans, including commercial overharvesting and subsequent translocation events during the early twentieth century. Today, terrapins face threats from habitat loss and mortality in fisheries bycatch. To evaluate population structure and gene flow among Diamondback Terrapin populations in the Chesapeake Bay region, we sampled 617 individuals from 15 localities and screened individuals at 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Our goals were to demarcate metapopulation structure, quantify genetic diversity, estimate effective population sizes, and document temporal changes in gene flow. We found that terrapins in the Chesapeake Bay region harbour high levels of genetic diversity and form four populations. Effective population sizes were variable. Among most population comparisons, estimates of historical and contemporary terrapin gene flow were generally low (m ≈ 0.01). However, we detected a substantial increase in contemporary gene flow into Chesapeake Bay from populations outside the bay, as well as between two populations within Chesapeake Bay, possibly as a consequence of translocations during the early twentieth century. Our study shows that inferences across multiple time scales are needed to evaluate population connectivity, especially as recent changes may identify threats to population persistence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.13440DOI Listing
December 2015

A noninvasive, direct real-time PCR method for sex determination in multiple avian species.

Mol Ecol Resour 2011 Mar 12;11(2):415-7. Epub 2010 Dec 12.

U.S. Geological Survey Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods to determine the sex of birds are well established and have seen few modifications since they were first introduced in the 1990s. Although these methods allowed for sex determination in species that were previously difficult to analyse, they were not conducive to high-throughput analysis because of the laboriousness of DNA extraction and gel electrophoresis. We developed a high-throughput real-time PCR-based method for analysis of sex in birds, which uses noninvasive sample collection and avoids DNA extraction and gel electrophoresis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02951.xDOI Listing
March 2011

The eastern box turtle at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center 1940s to the present: another view.

Authors:
Paula F P Henry

Exp Gerontol 2003 Jul;38(7):773-6

USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 11510 American Holly Drive, Laurel, MD 20708, USA.

Several long-term mark recapture studies have been conducted on box turtles (Terrapene c. carolina) providing valuable information on life span, basic demography, home range, and apparent effects of environmental changes on box turtle survival. One of the longest studied populations was first marked in 1942 on the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Maryland, and has been surveyed every 10 years until 1995. The age structure and gender ratio of these turtles in the field may support differential habitat use and survival estimates. A few of the turtles first marked during the 1945 study are still observed throughout the Center. Data collected from turtles marked in the more upland habitats during 1985-2002 indicate a younger age class distribution than that observed in the more protected biota of the bottomland floodplain study area. Extrapolating ages of turtles described in data collected throughout the long-term study, it was estimated that turtles, both males and females, can show reproduction-intent behaviors at ages greater than 54 years old. It is suggested that count data collection be continued on a more frequent cycle, extending over a larger part of the Center.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0531-5565(03)00107-4DOI Listing
July 2003