Publications by authors named "Paul W Sperduto"

44 Publications

Survival in Patients With Brain Metastases: Summary Report on the Updated Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment and Definition of the Eligibility Quotient.

J Clin Oncol 2020 Nov 15;38(32):3773-3784. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Miami Cancer Institute, Miami, FL.

Purpose: Conventional wisdom has rendered patients with brain metastases ineligible for clinical trials for fear that poor survival could mask the benefit of otherwise promising treatments. Our group previously published the diagnosis-specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA). Updates with larger contemporary cohorts using molecular markers and newly identified prognostic factors have been published. The purposes of this work are to present all the updated indices in a single report to guide treatment choice, stratify research, and define an eligibility quotient to expand eligibility.

Methods: A multi-institutional database of 6,984 patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases underwent multivariable analyses of prognostic factors and treatments associated with survival for each primary site. Significant factors were used to define the updated GPA. GPAs of 4.0 and 0.0 correlate with the best and worst prognoses, respectively.

Results: Significant prognostic factors varied by diagnosis and new prognostic factors were identified. Those factors were incorporated into the updated GPA with robust separation ( < .01) between subgroups. Survival has improved, but varies widely by GPA for patients with non-small-cell lung, breast, melanoma, GI, and renal cancer with brain metastases from 7-47 months, 3-36 months, 5-34 months, 3-17 months, and 4-35 months, respectively.

Conclusion: Median survival varies widely and our ability to estimate survival for patients with brain metastases has improved. The updated GPA (available free at brainmetgpa.com) provides an accurate tool with which to estimate survival, individualize treatment, and stratify clinical trials. Instead of excluding patients with brain metastases, enrollment should be encouraged and those trials should be stratified by the GPA to ensure those trials make appropriate comparisons. Furthermore, we recommend the expansion of eligibility to allow for the enrollment of patients with previously treated brain metastases who have a 50% or greater probability of an additional year of survival (eligibility quotient > 0.50).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7655019PMC
November 2020

Indirect cell death and the LQ model in SBRT and SRS.

J Radiosurg SBRT 2020 ;7(1):1-4

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

High-dose hypofractionated SBRT and SRS indirectly kills substantial fractions of tumor cells via causing vascular damage. The LQ formula may work well for certain clinical cases of SBRT and SRS when the indirect/additional tumor cell death secondary to vascular damage is small. However, when the indirect cell death is extensive, the LQ model will underestimate the clinical outcome of SBRT and SRS.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7406346PMC
January 2020

Beyond an Updated Graded Prognostic Assessment (Breast GPA): A Prognostic Index and Trends in Treatment and Survival in Breast Cancer Brain Metastases From 1985 to Today.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2020 06 19;107(2):334-343. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Miami Cancer Institute, Miami, Florida.

Purpose: Brain metastases are a common sequelae of breast cancer. Survival varies widely based on diagnosis-specific prognostic factors (PF). We previously published a prognostic index (Graded Prognostic Assessment [GPA]) for patients with breast cancer with brain metastases (BCBM), based on cohort A (1985-2007, n = 642), then updated it, reporting the effect of tumor subtype in cohort B (1993-2010, n = 400). The purpose of this study is to update the Breast GPA with a larger contemporary cohort (C) and compare treatment and survival across the 3 cohorts.

Methods And Materials: A multi-institutional (19), multinational (3), retrospective database of 2473 patients with breast cancer with newly diagnosed brain metastases (BCBM) diagnosed from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2017, was created and compared with prior cohorts. Associations of PF and treatment with survival were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were compared with log-rank tests. PF were weighted and the Breast GPA was updated such that a GPA of 0 and 4.0 correlate with the worst and best prognoses, respectively.

Results: Median survival (MS) for cohorts A, B, and C improved over time (from 11, to 14 to 16 months, respectively; P < .01), despite the subtype distribution becoming less favorable. PF significant for survival were tumor subtype, Karnofsky Performance Status, age, number of BCBMs, and extracranial metastases (all P < .01). MS for GPA 0 to 1.0, 1.5-2.0, 2.5-3.0, and 3.5-4.0 was 6, 13, 24, and 36 months, respectively. Between cohorts B and C, the proportion of human epidermal receptor 2 + subtype decreased from 31% to 18% (P < .01) and MS in this subtype increased from 18 to 25 months (P < .01).

Conclusions: MS has improved modestly but varies widely by diagnosis-specific PF. New PF are identified and incorporated into an updated Breast GPA (free online calculator available at brainmetgpa.com). The Breast GPA facilitates clinical decision-making and will be useful for stratification of future clinical trials. Furthermore, these data suggest human epidermal receptor 2-targeted therapies improve clinical outcomes in some patients with BCBM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.01.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7276246PMC
June 2020

Development of a disease-specific graded prognostic assessment index for the management of sarcoma patients with brain metastases (Sarcoma-GPA).

BMC Cancer 2020 Feb 12;20(1):117. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.

Background: Brain metastases from sarcomatous lesions pose a management challenge owing to their rarity and the histopathological heterogeneity. Prognostic indices such as the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) index have been developed for several primary tumour types presenting with brain metastases (e.g. lung, breast, melanoma), tailored to the specifics of different primary histologies and molecular profiles. Thus far, a prognostic index to direct treatment decisions is lacking for adult sarcoma patients with brain metastases.

Methods: We performed a multicentre analysis of a national group of expert sarcoma tertiary centres (French Sarcoma Group, GSF-GETO) with the participation of one Canadian and one Swiss centre. The study cohort included adult patients with a diagnosis of a bone or soft tissue sarcoma presenting parenchymal or meningeal brain metastases, managed between January 1992 and March 2012. We assessed the validity of the original GPA index in this patient population and developed a disease-specific Sarcoma-GPA index.

Results: The original GPA index is not prognostic for sarcoma brain metastasis patients. We have developed a dedicated Sarcoma-GPA index that identifies a sub-group of patients with particularly favourable prognosis based on histology, number of brain lesions and performance status.

Conclusions: The Sarcoma-GPA index provides a novel tool for sarcoma oncologists to guide clinical decision-making and outcomes research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-6548-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7014599PMC
February 2020

Estrogen/progesterone receptor and HER2 discordance between primary tumor and brain metastases in breast cancer and its effect on treatment and survival.

Neuro Oncol 2020 09;22(9):1359-1367

Miami Cancer Institute, Miami, Florida, USA.

Background: Breast cancer treatment is based on estrogen receptors (ERs), progesterone receptors (PRs), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). At the time of metastasis, receptor status can be discordant from that at initial diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of discordance and its effect on survival and subsequent treatment in patients with breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM).

Methods: A retrospective database of 316 patients who underwent craniotomy for BCBM between 2006 and 2017 was created. Discordance was considered present if the ER, PR, or HER2 status differed between the primary tumor and the BCBM.

Results: The overall receptor discordance rate was 132/316 (42%), and the subtype discordance rate was 100/316 (32%). Hormone receptors (HR, either ER or PR) were gained in 40/160 (25%) patients with HR-negative primary tumors. HER2 was gained in 22/173 (13%) patients with HER2-negative primary tumors. Subsequent treatment was not adjusted for most patients who gained receptors-nonetheless, median survival (MS) improved but did not reach statistical significance (HR, 17-28 mo, P = 0.12; HER2, 15-19 mo, P = 0.39). MS for patients who lost receptors was worse (HR, 27-18 mo, P = 0.02; HER2, 30-18 mo, P = 0.08).

Conclusions: Receptor discordance between primary tumor and BCBM is common, adversely affects survival if receptors are lost, and represents a missed opportunity for use of effective treatments if receptors are gained. Receptor analysis of BCBM is indicated when clinically appropriate. Treatment should be adjusted accordingly.

Key Points: 1. Receptor discordance alters subtype in 32% of BCBM patients.2. The frequency of receptor gain for HR and HER2 was 25% and 13%, respectively.3. If receptors are lost, survival suffers. If receptors are gained, consider targeted treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523450PMC
September 2020

Current multidisciplinary management of brain metastases.

Cancer 2020 04 23;126(7):1390-1406. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Brain metastasis (BM), the most common adult brain tumor, develops in 20% to 40% of patients with late-stage cancer and traditionally are associated with a poor prognosis. The management of patients with BM has become increasingly complex because of new and emerging systemic therapies and advancements in radiation oncology and neurosurgery. Current therapies include stereotactic radiosurgery, whole-brain radiation therapy, surgical resection, laser-interstitial thermal therapy, systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy, targeted agents, and immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Determining the optimal treatment for a specific patient has become increasingly individualized, emphasizing the need for multidisciplinary discussions of patients with BM. Recognizing and addressing the sequelae of BMs and their treatment while maintaining quality of life and neurocognition is especially important because survival for patients with BMs has improved. The authors present current and emerging treatment options for patients with BM and suggest approaches for managing sequelae and disease recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32714DOI Listing
April 2020

Estimating survival in patients with gastrointestinal cancers and brain metastases: An update of the graded prognostic assessment for gastrointestinal cancers (GI-GPA).

Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 2019 Sep 27;18:39-45. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Miami Cancer Institute, USA.

Background: Patients with gastrointestinal cancers and brain metastases (BM) represent a unique and heterogeneous population. Our group previously published the Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA) for patients with GI cancers (GI-GPA) (1985-2007, n = 209). The purpose of this study is to update the GI-GPA based on a larger contemporary database.

Methods: An IRB-approved consortium database analysis was performed using a multi-institutional (18), multi-national (3) cohort of 792 patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, with newly-diagnosed BM diagnosed between 1/1/2006 and 12/31/2017. Survival was measured from date of first treatment for BM. Multiple Cox regression was used to select and weight prognostic factors in proportion to their hazard ratios. These factors were incorporated into the updated GI-GPA.

Results: Median survival (MS) varied widely by primary site and other prognostic factors. Four significant factors (KPS, age, extracranial metastases and number of BM) were used to formulate the updated GI-GPA. Overall MS for this cohort remains poor; 8 months. MS by GPA was 3, 7, 11 and 17 months for GPA 0-1, 1.5-2, 2.5-3.0 and 3.5-4.0, respectively. >30% present in the worst prognostic group (GI-GPA of ≤1.0).

Conclusions: Brain metastases are not uncommon in GI cancer patients and MS varies widely among them. This updated GI-GPA index improves our ability to estimate survival for these patients and will be useful for therapy selection, end-of-life decision-making and stratification for future clinical trials. A user-friendly, free, on-line app to calculate the GPA score and estimate survival for an individual patient is available at brainmetgpa.com.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctro.2019.06.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612649PMC
September 2019

Survival and prognostic factors in patients with gastrointestinal cancers and brain metastases: have we made progress?

Transl Res 2019 06 27;208:63-72. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Miami Cancer Institute.

The literature describing the prognosis of patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers and brain metastases (BM) is sparse. Our group previously published a prognostic index, the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) for GI cancer patients with BM, based on 209 patients diagnosed from 1985-2005. The purpose of this analysis is to identify prognostic factors for GI cancer patients with newly diagnosed BM in a larger contemporary cohort. A multi-institutional retrospective IRB-approved database of 792 GI cancer patients with new BM diagnosed from 1/1/2006 to 12/31/2016 was created. Demographic data, clinical parameters, and treatment were correlated with survival and time from primary diagnosis to BM (TPDBM). Kaplan-Meier median survival (MS) estimates were calculated and compared with log-rank tests. The MS from time of first treatment for BM for the prior and current cohorts were 5 and 8 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Eight prognostic factors (age, stage, primary site, resection of primary tumor, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), extracranial metastases, number of BM and Hgb were found to be significant for survival, in contrast to only one (KPS) in the prior cohort. In this cohort, the most common primary sites were rectum (24%) and esophagus (23%). Median TPDBM was 22 months. Notably, 37% (267/716) presented with poor prognosis (GPA 0-1.0). Although little improvement in overall survival in this cohort has been achieved in recent decades, survival varies widely and multiple new prognostic factors were identified. Future work will translate these factors into a prognostic index to facilitate clinical decision-making and stratification of future clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2019.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6527460PMC
June 2019

Biological Principles of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) and Stereotactic Radiation Surgery (SRS): Indirect Cell Death.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2019 Mar 2. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Purpose: To review the radiobiological mechanisms of stereotactic body radiation therapy stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS).

Methods And Materials: We reviewed previous reports and recent observations on the effects of high-dose irradiation on tumor cell survival, tumor vasculature, and antitumor immunity. We then assessed the potential implications of these biological changes associated with SBRT and SRS.

Results: Irradiation with doses higher than approximately 10 Gy/fraction causes significant vascular injury in tumors, leading to secondary tumor cell death. Irradiation of tumors with high doses has also been reported to increase the antitumor immunity, and various approaches are being investigated to further elevate antitumor immunity. The mechanism of normal tissue damage by high-dose irradiation needs to be further investigated.

Conclusions: In addition to directly killing tumor cells, high-dose irradiation used in SBRT and SRS induces indirect tumor cell death via vascular damage and antitumor immunity. Further studies are warranted to better understand the biological mechanisms underlying the high efficacy of clinical SBRT and SRS and to further improve the efficacy of SBRT and SRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.02.047DOI Listing
March 2019

Estimating survival for renal cell carcinoma patients with brain metastases: an update of the Renal Graded Prognostic Assessment tool.

Neuro Oncol 2018 11;20(12):1652-1660

Miami Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Miami, Florida.

Background: Brain metastases are a common complication of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Our group previously published the Renal Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) tool. In our prior RCC study (n = 286, 1985-2005), we found marked heterogeneity and variation in outcomes. In our recent update in a larger, more contemporary cohort, we identified additional significant prognostic factors. The purpose of this study is to update the original Renal-GPA based on the newly identified prognostic factors.

Methods: A multi-institutional retrospective institutional review board-approved database of 711 RCC patients with new brain metastases diagnosed from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2015 was created. Clinical parameters and treatment were correlated with survival. A revised Renal GPA index was designed by weighting the most significant factors in proportion to their hazard ratios and assigning scores such that the patients with the best and worst prognoses would have a GPA of 4.0 and 0.0, respectively.

Results: The 4 most significant factors were Karnofsky performance status, number of brain metastases, extracranial metastases, and hemoglobin. The overall median survival was 12 months. Median survival for GPA groups 0-1.0, 1.5-2.0, 2.5-3, and 3.5-4.0 (% n = 25, 27, 30 and 17) was 4, 12, 17, and 35 months, respectively.

Conclusion: The updated Renal GPA is a user-friendly tool that will help clinicians and patients better understand prognosis, individualize clinical decision making and treatment selection, provide a means to compare retrospective literature, and provide more robust stratification of future clinical trials in this heterogeneous population. To simplify use of this tool in daily practice, a free online application is available at brainmetgpa.com.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noy099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6231200PMC
November 2018

Prognostic models for patients with brain metastases after stereotactic radiosurgery with or without whole brain radiotherapy: a validation study.

J Neurooncol 2018 Nov 21;140(2):341-349. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Miami Cancer Institute, Miami, FL, USA.

Purpose/objective(s): To compare the performance of five prognostic models [RTOG recursive partitioning analysis (RPA), Score Index for Radiosurgery in Brain Metastases (SIR), Barnholtz-Sloan-Kattan nomogram (BSKN), diagnosis-specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (dsGPA), and Graded Prognostic Assessment for Lung Cancer Using Molecular Markers (Lung-molGPA)] against actual survival in patients with brain metastases treated with SRS +/- WBRT.

Materials/methods: 100 consecutive patients treated with SRS +/- WBRT between January 2006 and July 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were binned according to 33 percentiles of the predicted survival distribution for the BSKN and dsGPA models to compare with LungmolGPA, RPA and SIR. Pearson's correlation coefficients between predicted and observed survival were estimated to quantify the proportion of variance in observed survival.

Results: Median survival for the entire cohort was 13.5 months, with predicted vs actual MS by BSKN, SIR, dsGPA, RPA, adenocarcinoma Lung-molGPA, and nonadenocarcinoma Lung-molGPA was 3.8 vs 15.6 months, 7 vs 13.5 months, 9.4 vs 13.5 months, 10.3 vs 13.5 months, 13.7 vs 13.7 months, and 9.8 vs 9.7 months, respectively. The BSKN model and adenocarcinoma LungmolGPA created three groups with a statistically significantly different MS (p = 0.002 and p = 0.01, respectively).

Conclusion: All models under-predicted MS and only the BSKN and Lung-molGPA model stratified patients into three risk groups with statistically significant actual MS. The prognostic groupings of the adenocarcinoma Lung-molGPA group was the best predictor of MS, and showed that we are making improvements in our prognostic ability by utilizing molecular information that is much more widely available in the current treatment era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-018-2958-6DOI Listing
November 2018

Omitting radiosurgery in melanoma brain metastases: a drastic and dangerous de-escalation.

Lancet Oncol 2018 08;19(8):e366

Miami Cancer Institute, Miami, FL, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30439-XDOI Listing
August 2018

Effect of Targeted Therapies on Prognostic Factors, Patterns of Care, and Survival in Patients With Renal Cell Carcinoma and Brain Metastases.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 07 12;101(4):845-853. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Miami Cancer Institute, Miami, Florida.

Purpose: To identify prognostic factors, define evolving patterns of care, and the effect of targeted therapies in a larger contemporary cohort of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients with new brain metastases (BM).

Methods And Materials: A multi-institutional retrospective institutional review board-approved database of 711 RCC patients with new BM diagnosed from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2015, was created. Clinical parameters and treatment were correlated with median survival and time from primary diagnosis to BM. Multivariable analyses were performed.

Results: The median survival for the prior/present cohorts was 9.6/12 months, respectively (P < .01). Four prognostic factors (Karnofsky performance status, extracranial metastases, number of BM, and hemoglobin b) were significant for survival after the diagnosis of BM. Of the 6 drug types studied, only cytokine use after BM was associated with improved survival. The use of whole-brain radiation therapy declined from 50% to 22%, and the use of stereotactic radiosurgery alone increased from 46% to 58%. Nonneurologic causes of death were twice as common as neurologic causes.

Conclusions: Additional prognostic factors refine prognostication in this larger contemporary cohort. Patterns of care have changed, and survival of RCC patients with BM has improved over time. The reasons for this improvement in survival remain unknown but may relate to more aggressive use of local brain metastasis therapy and a wider array of systemic treatment options for those patients with progressive extracranial tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2018.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6925530PMC
July 2018

In Regard to Churilla et al.

Authors:
Paul W Sperduto

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 05;101(1):238-239

Minneapolis Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Gamma Knife Center, Waconia, Minnesota.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2018.01.017DOI Listing
May 2018

Case Report of Extended Survival and Quality of Life in a Melanoma Patient with Multiple Brain Metastases and Review of Literature.

Cureus 2017 Dec 14;9(12):e1947. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Minneapolis Radiation Oncology & Gamma Knife Center, University of Minnesota.

Long-term survival for melanoma patients with multiple brain metastases is rare. A review of the literature reveals only three reported melanoma patients with multiple brain metastases who survived more than 10 years. We present a patient who is recurrence-free 11 years after the diagnosis of three brain metastases. Her treatment consisted of cytokine (interferon and interleukin-2) and chemotherapy nine months prior to developing brain and soft tissue metastases, which were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy, respectively, followed by six months of chemotherapy. Notably, she has not received any treatment for over 10 years, never underwent craniotomy or whole brain radiation therapy, currently has a perfect score on the functional assessment of cancer therapy for brain (FACT-Br) quality of life (QoL) scale, and runs marathons. This treatment course is consistent with emerging literature on the abscopal effect (radiation-induced immune response). Clinical trials are needed to better understand and harness the abscopal effect in order to optimally integrate targeted drug and radiation therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.1947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5814294PMC
December 2017

Effect of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery and Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor Antagonists on Metastatic Melanoma.

Cureus 2017 Dec 13;9(12):e1943. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota.

Learning objectives To evaluate radiation-induced changes in patients with brain metastasis secondary to malignant melanoma who received treatment with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor antagonists. Introduction  Stereotactic radiosurgery and chemotherapeutics are used together for treatment of metastatic melanoma and have been linked to delayed radiation-induced vasculitic leukoencephalopathy (DRIVL). There have been reports of more intense interactions with new immunotherapeutics targeting PD-1 receptors, but their interactions have not been well described and may result in an accelerated response to GKRS. Here we present data on subjects treated with this combination from a single institution. Methods Records from patients who underwent treatment for metastatic melanoma to the brain with GKRS from 2011 to 2016 were reviewed. Demographics, date of brain metastasis diagnosis, cause of death when applicable, immunotherapeutics, and imaging findings were recorded. The timing of radiation therapy and medications were also documented.  Results A total of 79 subjects were treated with GKRS, and 66 underwent treatment with both GKRS and immunotherapy. Regarding the 30 patients treated with anti-PD-1 immunotherapy, 21 patients received pembrolizumab, seven patients received nivolumab, and two patients received pembrolizumab and nivolumab. Serial imaging was available for interpretation in 25 patients, with 13 subjects who received GKRS and anti-PD-1 immunotherapy less than six weeks of each other. While four subjects had indeterminate/mixed findings on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nine subjects were noted to have progression. Two of these patients showed progression but subsequent imaging revealed a decrease in progression or improvement on MRI to previously targeted lesions by GKRS. None of the 13 subjects had surgery following their combined therapies. Conclusions This data suggests that there is need for further investigation of the role for concurrent treatment with PD-1 inhibitors and GKRS to enhance the treatment of metastatic melanoma. We present data on 13 patients who appear to have some radiologic benefit to this treatment combination, two of whom had radiographic pseudoprogression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.1943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5811164PMC
December 2017

Estimating Survival in Melanoma Patients With Brain Metastases: An Update of the Graded Prognostic Assessment for Melanoma Using Molecular Markers (Melanoma-molGPA).

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2017 11;99(4):812-816

Miami Cancer Institute, Miami, Florida.

Purpose: To update the Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA) for a markedly heterogeneous patient population, patients with melanoma and brain metastases, using a larger, more current cohort, including molecular markers.

Methods: The original Melanoma-GPA is based on data from 483 patients whose conditions were diagnosed between 1985 and 2005. This is a multi-institutional retrospective database analysis of 823 melanoma patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2015. Multivariable analyses identified significant prognostic factors, which were weighted and included in the updated index (Melanoma-molGPA). Multiple Cox regression was used to select and weight prognostic factors in proportion to their hazard ratios to design the updated Melanoma-molGPA in which scores of 4.0 and 0.0 are associated with the best and worst prognoses, as with all of the diagnosis-specific GPA indices. Log-rank tests were used to compare adjacent classes.

Results: There were 5 significant prognostic factors for survival (age, Karnofsky performance status [KPS], extracranial metastases [ECM], number of brain metastases, and BRAF status), whereas only KPS and the number of brain metastases were significant in the original Melanoma-GPA. Median survival improved from 6.7 to 9.8 months between the 2 treatment eras, and the median survival times for patients with Melanoma-molGPA of 0 to 1.0, 1.5 to 2.0, 2.5 to 3.0, and 3.5 to 4.0 were 4.9, 8.3, 15.8, and 34.1 months (P<.0001 between each adjacent group).

Conclusions: Survival and our ability to estimate survival in melanoma patients with brain metastases has improved significantly. The updated Melanoma-molGPA, a user-friendly tool to estimate survival, will facilitate clinical decision making regarding whether and which treatment is appropriate and will also be useful for stratification of future clinical trials. To further simplify use, a free online/smart phone app is available at brainmetgpa.com.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.06.2454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6925529PMC
November 2017

Brain Metastases in Lung Cancer With Targetable Mutations-Reply.

JAMA Oncol 2018 03;4(3):422-423

Miami Cancer Institute, Miami, Florida.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2017.3375DOI Listing
March 2018

The Prognostic Value of BRAF, C-KIT, and NRAS Mutations in Melanoma Patients With Brain Metastases.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2017 08 29;98(5):1069-1077. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

Miami Cancer Institute, Miami, Florida.

Purpose: Brain metastases are a common problem in patients with melanoma, but little is known about the effect of gene mutations on survival in these patients.

Methods And Materials: We created a retrospective multi-institutional database of 823 patients with melanoma and brain metastases diagnosed between 2006 and 2015. Clinical parameters, gene mutation status (BRAF, C-KIT, NRAS), and treatment were correlated with survival. Treatment patterns and outcomes were compared with a prior era (1985-2005).

Results: BRAF status was known in 584 of 823 patients (71%). BRAF, NRAS, and C-KIT mutations were present in 51%, 22%, and 11% of tested patients, respectively. The median time from primary diagnosis to brain metastasis was 32 months, and overall median survival (MS) from the time of initial treatment of brain metastases was 10 months. MS for BRAF-positive and BRAF-negative patients was 13 months and 9 months, respectively (P=.02). There was no significant difference in MS in patients with or without NRAS or C-KIT mutations. The time from primary diagnosis to brain metastasis did not vary by mutation and was not associated with survival after the diagnosis of brain metastases. MS for the 1985 to 2005 and 2006 to 2015 cohorts was 6.7 months and 10.0 months, respectively (P<.01). Reflecting treatment-trend changes, use of whole-brain radiation therapy decreased from 48% to 26% during this period. Among BRAF-positive patients, 71% received targeted BRAF and/or MEK inhibitors and 57% received some combination of targeted therapy, chemotherapy, and/or immunotherapy.

Conclusions: For melanoma patients with brain metastases, BRAF-positive patients survive longer than BRAF-negative patients and overall survival has improved from 1985-2005 to 2006-2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.03.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6925531PMC
August 2017

Adjuvant radiation therapy, androgen deprivation, and docetaxel for high-risk prostate cancer postprostatectomy: Results of NRG Oncology/RTOG study 0621.

Cancer 2017 Jul 21;123(13):2489-2496. Epub 2017 Mar 21.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

Background: Phase 3 trials have demonstrated a benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy (ART) for men who have adverse factors at radical prostatectomy (RP). However, some patients have a high risk of progression despite ART. The role of systemic therapy with ART in this high-risk group remains to be defined.

Methods: Patients who had either a post-RP prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir > 0.2 ng/mL and a Gleason score ≥7 or a PSA nadir ≤0.2 ng/mL, a Gleason score ≥8, and a pathologic tumor (pT) classification ≥ pT3 received 6 months of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) plus radiotherapy and 6 cycles of docetaxel. The primary objective was to assess whether the addition of ADT and docetaxel to ART resulted in a freedom from progression (FFP) rate ≥ 70% compared with an expected rate of 50%. Multivariate logistic and Cox regression analyses were used to model associations between factors and outcomes.

Results: In total, 74 patients were enrolled. The median follow-up was 4.4 years. The pathologic tumor classification was pT2 in 4% of patients, pT3 in 95%, and pT4 in 1%. The Gleason score was 7 in 18% of patients and ≥8 in 82%. Post-RP PSA levels were ≤0.2 ng/mL in 53% of patients and >0.2 ng/mL in 47%. The 3-year FFP rate was 73% (95% confidence interval, 61%-83%), and the 3-year cumulative incidence of biochemical, distant, and local failure was 26%, 7%, and 0%, respectively. In multivariate models, postprostatectomy PSA nadir was associated with 3-year FFP, Gleason score, and PSA with biochemical failure. Grade 3 and 4 neutropenia was common; however, only 3 episodes of febrile neutropenia occurred. Late toxicities were not impacted by the addition of systemic therapy.

Conclusions: Combined ADT, docetaxel, and ART for men with high-risk prostate cancer after prostatectomy exceeded the prespecified study endpoint of 70% 3-year FFP. Phase 3 trials assessing combined local and systemic therapies for these high-risk patients are warranted. Cancer 2017;123:2489-96. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.30620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5474197PMC
July 2017

Significance of Co-expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Ki67 on Clinical Outcome in Patients With Anal Cancer Treated With Chemoradiotherapy: An Analysis of NRG Oncology RTOG 9811.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2017 03 23;97(3):554-562. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida.

Purpose: To measure co-expression of EGFR and Ki67 proteins in pretreatment tumor biopsies of anal cancer patients enrolled on NRG Oncology RTOG 9811, a phase III trial comparing 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin-C/radiation therapy (Arm A) versus 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin/radiation therapy (Arm B), and to correlate expression with clinical outcome.

Methods And Materials: EGFR and Ki67 co-expression was measured after constructing a tissue microarray using fluorescence immunohistochemistry and automated quantitative image analysis. The Ki67 score within EGFR high versus low areas (Ki67ratio in EGFR) in each tumor core was analyzed at the median, quartiles, and as a continuous variable. Associations between the tumor markers and clinical endpoints (overall and disease-free survival, locoregional and colostomy failure, and distant metastases) were explored.

Results: A total of 282 pretreatment tumors were analyzed from NRG Oncology RTOG 9811. Of evaluated specimens, 183 (65%, n=89, Arm A; n=94, Arm B) were eligible and analyzable. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics or outcomes between analyzable and unanalyzable patient cases. Median follow-up was 6.0 years. On multivariate analysis, after adjusting for gender, patients with Ki67ratio in EGFR ≥median had worse overall survival (hazard ratio 2.41, 95% confidence interval 1.38-4.19, P=.0019). After adjusting for N stage and largest tumor dimension, patients with Ki67ratio in EGFR ≥ median had a higher risk of a disease-free failure (hazard ratio 1.85, 95% confidence interval 1.18-2.92, P=.0078). Technical validation with an independent anal cancer patient cohort was performed and shows a very similar biomarker score distribution.

Conclusions: High Ki67ratio in EGFR is associated with worse clinical outcome in this subset of patients with anal cancer treated with chemoradiation on NRG Oncology RTOG 9811. Evaluation within a clinical trial will be required to determine whether patients with these tumor characteristics may specifically benefit from an EGFR-targeted therapeutic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2016.11.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5687248PMC
March 2017

Estimating Survival in Patients With Lung Cancer and Brain Metastases: An Update of the Graded Prognostic Assessment for Lung Cancer Using Molecular Markers (Lung-molGPA).

JAMA Oncol 2017 Jun;3(6):827-831

University of Maryland, Baltimore.

Importance: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States and worldwide. As systemic therapies improve, patients with lung cancer live longer and thus are at increased risk for brain metastases. Understanding how prognosis varies across this heterogeneous patient population is essential to individualize care and design future clinical trials.

Objective: To update the current Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA) for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and brain metastases. The DS-GPA is based on data from patients diagnosed between 1985 and 2005, and we set out to update it by incorporating more recently reported gene and molecular alteration data for patients with NSCLC and brain metastases. This new index is called the Lung-molGPA.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This is a multi-institutional retrospective database analysis of 2186 patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2014 with NSCLC and newly diagnosed brain metastases. The multivariable analyses took place between December 2015 and May 2016, and all prognostic factors were weighted for significance by hazard ratios. Significant factors were included in the updated Lung-molGPA prognostic index.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The main outcome was survival. Multiple Cox regression was used to select and weight prognostic factors in proportion to their hazard ratios. Log rank tests were used to compare adjacent classes and to compare overall survival for adenocarcinoma vs nonadenocarcinoma groups.

Results: The original DS-GPA was based on 4 factors found in 1833 patients with NSCLC and brain metastases diagnosed between 1985 and 2005: patient age, Karnofsky Performance Status, extracranial metastases, and number of brain metastases. The patients studied for the creation of the DS-GPA had a median survival of 7 months from the time of initial treatment of brain metastases. To design the updated Lung-molGPA, we analyzed data from 2186 patients from 2006 through 2014 with NSCLC and newly diagnosed brain metastases (1521 adenocarcinoma and 665 nonadenocarcinoma). Significant prognostic factors included the original 4 factors used in the DS-GPA index plus 2 new factors: EGFR and ALK alterations in patients with adenocarcinoma (mutation status was not routinely tested for nonadenocarcinoma). The overall median survival for the cohort in the present study was 12 months, and those with NSCLC-adenocarcinoma and Lung-molGPA scores of 3.5 to 4.0 had a median survival of nearly 4 years.

Conclusions And Relevance: In recent years, patient survival and physicians' ability to predict survival in NSCLC with brain metastases has improved significantly. The updated Lung-molGPA incorporating gene alteration data into the DS-GPA is a user-friendly tool that may facilitate clinical decision making and appropriate stratification of future clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.3834DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5824323PMC
June 2017

The Effect of Gene Alterations and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition on Survival and Cause of Death in Patients With Adenocarcinoma of the Lung and Brain Metastases.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2016 10 14;96(2):406-413. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland.

Purpose: Lung cancer remains the most common cause of both cancer mortality and brain metastases (BM). The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of gene alterations and tyrosine kinase inhibition (TKI) on median survival (MS) and cause of death (CoD) in patients with BM from lung adenocarcinoma (L-adeno).

Methods: A multi-institutional retrospective database of patients with L-adeno and newly diagnosed BM between 2006 and 2014 was created. Demographics, gene alterations, treatment, MS, and CoD were analyzed. The treatment patterns and outcomes were compared with those in prior trials.

Results: Of 1521 L-adeno patients, 816 (54%) had known alteration status. The gene alteration rates were 29%, 10%, and 26% for EGFR, ALK, and KRAS, respectively. The time from primary diagnosis to BM for EGFR-/+ was 10/15 months (P=.02) and for ALK-/+ was 10/20 months (P<.01), respectively. The MS for the group overall (n=1521) was 15 months. The MS from first treatment for BM for EGFR and ALK-, EGFR+, ALK+ were 14, 23 (P<.01), and 45 (P<.0001) months, respectively. The MS after BM for EGFR+ patients who did/did not receive TKI before BM was 17/30 months (P<.01), respectively, but the risk of death was not statistically different between TKI-naïve patients who did/did not receive TKI after the diagnosis of BM (EGFR/ALK hazard ratios: 1.06 [P=.84]/1.60 [P=.45], respectively). The CoD was nonneurologic in 82% of patients with known CoD.

Conclusion: EGFR and ALK gene alterations are associated with delayed onset of BM and longer MS relative to patients without these alterations. The CoD was overwhelmingly nonneurologic in patients with known CoD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2016.06.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5575932PMC
October 2016

Integrating bevacizumab and radiation treatment of brain metastasis: is there sense and sensibility in this approach?

Ann Transl Med 2016 Jan;4(2):36

1 Division of Hematology, Oncology and Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA ; 2 Minneapolis Radiation Oncology & University of Minnesota Gamma Knife Center, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

The incidence of brain metastasis has increased over the past decade. Standard treatment options for brain metastases include whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and surgery for patients with operable lesions and either mass effect or need for histologic confirmation of the diagnosis. Patients are living longer due to improvements in systemic therapeutic approaches, included targeted therapies such as inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) using the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab (Bev). A recent phase I trial (REBECA) investigated adding Bev to whole-brain radiation for patients with brain metastasis from solid tumors. In this Perspectives article, we discuss the results of the REBECA trial in context of advancements in radiation and medical oncology in the era of targeted therapies, and discuss pertinent questions of interest in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2015.12.42DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4731601PMC
January 2016

Indirect Tumor Cell Death After High-Dose Hypofractionated Irradiation: Implications for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiation Surgery.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2015 Sep 16;93(1):166-72. Epub 2015 May 16.

Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to reveal the biological mechanisms underlying stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS).

Methods And Materials: FSaII fibrosarcomas grown subcutaneously in the hind limbs of C3H mice were irradiated with 10 to 30 Gy of X rays in a single fraction, and the clonogenic cell survival was determined with in vivo--in vitro excision assay immediately or 2 to 5 days after irradiation. The effects of radiation on the intratumor microenvironment were studied using immunohistochemical methods.

Results: After cells were irradiated with 15 or 20 Gy, cell survival in FSaII tumors declined for 2 to 3 days and began to recover thereafter in some but not all tumors. After irradiation with 30 Gy, cell survival declined continuously for 5 days. Cell survival in some tumors 5 days after 20 to 30 Gy irradiation was 2 to 3 logs less than that immediately after irradiation. Irradiation with 20 Gy markedly reduced blood perfusion, upregulated HIF-1α, and increased carbonic anhydrase-9 expression, indicating that irradiation increased tumor hypoxia. In addition, expression of VEGF also increased in the tumor tissue after 20 Gy irradiation, probably due to the increase in HIF-1α activity.

Conclusions: Irradiation of FSaII tumors with 15 to 30 Gy in a single dose caused dose-dependent secondary cell death, most likely by causing vascular damage accompanied by deterioration of intratumor microenvironment. Such indirect tumor cell death may play a crucial role in the control of human tumors with SBRT and SRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.05.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4729457PMC
September 2015

A hypothesis: indirect cell death in the radiosurgery era.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2015 Jan;91(1):11-3

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.08.355DOI Listing
January 2015

Secondary analysis of RTOG 9508, a phase 3 randomized trial of whole-brain radiation therapy versus WBRT plus stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with 1-3 brain metastases; poststratified by the graded prognostic assessment (GPA).

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2014 Nov 26;90(3):526-31. Epub 2014 Sep 26.

University of Maryland Medical System, Baltimore, Maryland.

Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9508 showed a survival advantage for patients with 1 but not 2 or 3 brain metastasis (BM) treated with whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) versus WBRT alone. An improved prognostic index, the graded prognostic assessment (GPA) has been developed. Our hypothesis was that if the data from RTOG 9508 were poststratified by the GPA, the conclusions may vary.

Methods And Materials: In this analysis, 252 of the 331 patients were evaluable by GPA. Of those, 211 had lung cancer. Breast cancer patients were excluded because the components of the breast GPA are not in the RTOG database. Multiple Cox regression was used to compare survival between treatment groups, adjusting for GPA. Treatment comparisons within subgroups were performed with the log-rank test. A free online tool (brainmetgpa.com) simplified GPA use.

Results: The fundamental conclusions of the primary analysis were confirmed in that there was no survival benefit overall for patients with 1 to 3 metastases; however, there was a benefit for the subset of patients with GPA 3.5 to 4.0 (median survival time [MST] for WBRT + SRS vs WBRT alone was 21.0 versus 10.3 months, P=.05) regardless of the number of metastases. Among patients with GPA 3.5 to 4.0 treated with WBRT and SRS, the MST for patients with 1 versus 2 to 3 metastases was 21 and 14.1 months, respectively.

Conclusions: This secondary analysis of predominantly lung cancer patients, consistent with the original analysis, shows no survival advantage for the group overall when treated with WBRT and SRS; however, in patients with high GPA (3.5-4), there is a survival advantage regardless of whether they have 1, 2, or 3 BM. This benefit did not extend to patients with lower GPA. Prospective validation of this survival benefit for patients with multiple BM and high GPA when treated with WBRT and SRS is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.07.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4700538PMC
November 2014

Radiobiological basis of SBRT and SRS.

Int J Clin Oncol 2014 Aug 5;19(4):570-8. Epub 2014 Jul 5.

Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, K119 Diehl Hall, 424 Harvard Street S.E., MMC 494, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA,

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) have been demonstrated to be highly effective for a variety of tumors. However, the radiobiological principles of SBRT and SRS have not yet been clearly defined. It is well known that newly formed tumor blood vessels are fragile and extremely sensitive to ionizing radiation. Various lines of evidence indicate that irradiation of tumors with high dose per fraction, i.e. >10 Gy per fraction, not only kills tumor cells but also causes significant damage in tumor vasculatures. Such vascular damage and ensuing deterioration of the intratumor environment then cause ischemic or indirect/secondary tumor cell death within a few days after radiation exposure, indicating that vascular damage plays an important role in the response of tumors to SBRT and SRS. Indications are that the extensive tumor cell death due to the direct effect of radiation on tumor cells and the secondary effect through vascular damage may lead to massive release of tumor-associated antigens and various pro-inflammatory cytokines, thereby triggering an anti-tumor immune response. However, the precise role of immune assault on tumor cells in SBRT and SRS has not yet been clearly defined. The "4 Rs" for conventional fractionated radiotherapy do not include indirect cell death and thus 4 Rs cannot account for the effective tumor control by SBRT and SRS. The linear-quadratic model is for cell death caused by DNA breaks and thus the usefulness of this model for ablative high-dose SBRT and SRS is limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10147-014-0717-zDOI Listing
August 2014

In reply to Robins et al.

Authors:
Paul W Sperduto

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2013 Aug;86(5):810

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2013.04.003DOI Listing
August 2013

The effect of tumor subtype on the time from primary diagnosis to development of brain metastases and survival in patients with breast cancer.

J Neurooncol 2013 May 6;112(3):467-72. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

Minneapolis Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Gamma Knife, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Our group has previously published the Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) showing the prognostic factors associated with survival in patients with brain metastases (BM). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship of breast cancer subtype to the time interval from primary diagnosis (PD) to development of BM (TPDBM), number of BM at initial BM presentation and survival. We analyzed our previously described multi-institutional retrospective database of 865 breast cancer patients treated for newly-diagnosed BM from 1993 to 2010. Several factors found to be associated with survival were incorporated into the Breast-GPA, including tumor subtype. The GPA database was further analyzed to determine if the subtype correlated with the TPDBM, number of BM, and survival from PD. After exclusions for incomplete data, 383 patients remained eligible for analysis. The subtypes were approximated as follows: Luminal B: triple positive; HER2: HER2 positive/ER/PR negative; Luminal A; ER/PR positive/HER2 negative; Basal: triple negative. Patients with Basal (90), HER2 (119), Luminal B (98) and Luminal A (76) tumor subtypes had a median TPDBM of 27.5, 35.8, 47.4 and 54.4 months (p < 0.01), median survival from PD of 39.6, 66.4, 90.3 and 72.7 months (p < 0.01) and median survival from BM of 7.3, 17.9, 22.9 and 10.0 months (p < 0.01), respectively. Tumor subtype is an important prognostic factor for survival in patients with breast cancer and BM. Although TPDBM is not an independent prognostic factor for survival (and thus not part of the Breast-GPA), the TPDBM does correlate with tumor subtype but does not correlate with the number of BM. Patients with Basal and HER2 tumor subtypes have short TPDBM. Prospective studies are needed to determine if screening brain MRIs are indicated in patients with Basal or HER2 subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-013-1083-9DOI Listing
May 2013