Publications by authors named "Paul Roschger"

130 Publications

Dual targeting of salt inducible kinases and CSF1R uncouples bone formation and bone resorption.

Elife 2021 06 23;10. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States.

Bone formation and resorption are typically coupled, such that the efficacy of anabolic osteoporosis treatments may be limited by bone destruction. The multi-kinase inhibitor YKL-05-099 potently inhibits salt inducible kinases (SIKs) and may represent a promising new class of bone anabolic agents. Here, we report that YKL-05-099 increases bone formation in hypogonadal female mice without increasing bone resorption. Postnatal mice with inducible, global deletion of SIK2 and SIK3 show increased bone mass, increased bone formation, and, distinct from the effects of YKL-05-099, increased bone resorption. No cell-intrinsic role of SIKs in osteoclasts was noted. In addition to blocking SIKs, YKL-05-099 also binds and inhibits CSF1R, the receptor for the osteoclastogenic cytokine M-CSF. Modeling reveals that YKL-05-099 binds to SIK2 and CSF1R in a similar manner. Dual targeting of SIK2/3 and CSF1R induces bone formation without concomitantly increasing bone resorption and thereby may overcome limitations of most current anabolic osteoporosis therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.67772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238509PMC
June 2021

Clinical Phenotype and Bone Biopsy Characteristics in a Child with Proteus Syndrome.

Calcif Tissue Int 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Orthopaedic Hospital Speising, Vienna, Austria.

Proteus syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, which is characterized by progressive, segmental, or patchy overgrowth of diverse tissues of all germ layers, including the skeleton. Here, we present a 9-year-old girl with a somatic-activating mutation (c.49G > A; p.Glu17Lys) in AKT1 gene in a mosaic status typical for Proteus syndrome. She presented with hemihypertrophy of the right lower limb and a "moccasin" lesion among others. A transiliac bone biopsy was analyzed for bone histology/histomorphometry as well as bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) and osteocyte lacunae sections (OLS) characteristics based on quantitative backscattered electron imaging. Bone histomorphometry revealed highly increased mineralizing surface (Z-score + 2.3) and mineral apposition rate (Z-score + 19.3), no osteoclasts (Z-score - 2.1), and an increased amount of primary bone in the external cortex. BMDD abnormalities included a decreased mode calcium concentration in cancellous bone (Z-score - 1.7) and an increased percentage of highly mineralized cortical bone area (Z-score + 2.4) compared to reference. OLS characteristics showed several differences compared to reference data; among them, there were the highly increased OLS-porosity, OLS-area, and OLS-perimeter on the external cortex (Z-scores + 6.8, + 4.4 and 5.4, respectively). Our findings suggest that increased bone formation reduced matrix mineralization in cancellous bone while the enhanced amount of primary bone in the external cortex increased the portion of highly mineralized cortical bone and caused OLS-characteristics abnormalities. Our results indicate further that remodeling of primary bone might be disturbed or delayed in agreement with the decreased number of osteoclasts observed in this child with Proteus syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-021-00862-zDOI Listing
May 2021

3D Interrelationship between Osteocyte Network and Forming Mineral during Human Bone Remodeling.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Jun 8;10(12):e2100113. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam, 14476, Germany.

During bone remodeling, osteoblasts are known to deposit unmineralized collagenous tissue (osteoid), which mineralizes after some time lag. Some of the osteoblasts differentiate into osteocytes, forming a cell network within the lacunocanalicular network (LCN) of bone. To get more insight into the potential role of osteocytes in the mineralization process of osteoid, sites of bone formation are three-dimensionally imaged in nine forming human osteons using focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). In agreement with previous observations, the mineral concentration is found to gradually increase from the central Haversian canal toward pre-existing mineralized bone. Most interestingly, a similar feature is discovered on a length scale more than 100-times smaller, whereby mineral concentration increases from the LCN, leaving around the canaliculi a zone virtually free of mineral, the size of which decreases with progressing mineralization. This suggests that the LCN controls mineral formation but not just by diffusion of mineralization precursors, which would lead to a continuous decrease of mineral concentration from the LCN. The observation is, however, compatible with the codiffusion and reaction of precursors and inhibitors from the LCN into the bone matrix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202100113DOI Listing
June 2021

Hypermineralization of Hearing-Related Bones by a Specific Osteoblast Subtype.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Laboratory of Cell and Tissue Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Auditory ossicles in the middle ear and bony labyrinth of the inner ear are highly mineralized in adult mammals. Cellular mechanisms underlying formation of dense bone during development are unknown. Here, we found that osteoblast-like cells synthesizing highly mineralized hearing-related bones produce both type I and type II collagens as the bone matrix, while conventional osteoblasts and chondrocytes primarily produce type I and type II collagens, respectively. Furthermore, these osteoblast-like cells were not labeled in a "conventional osteoblast"-specific green fluorescent protein (GFP) mouse line. Type II collagen-producing osteoblast-like cells were not chondrocytes as they express osteocalcin, localize along alizarin-labeled osteoid, and form osteocyte lacunae and canaliculi, as do conventional osteoblasts. Auditory ossicles and the bony labyrinth exhibit not only higher bone matrix mineralization but also a higher degree of apatite orientation than do long bones. Therefore, we conclude that these type II collagen-producing hypermineralizing osteoblasts (termed here auditory osteoblasts) represent a new osteoblast subtype. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4320DOI Listing
April 2021

Quantitative Backscattered Electron Imaging of Bone Using a Thermionic or a Field Emission Electron Source.

Calcif Tissue Int 2021 Aug 10;109(2):190-202. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Biomaterials, Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476, Potsdam, Germany.

Quantitative backscattered electron imaging is an established method to map mineral content distributions in bone and to determine the bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD). The method we applied was initially validated for a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a tungsten hairpin cathode (thermionic electron emission) under strongly defined settings of SEM parameters. For several reasons, it would be interesting to migrate the technique to a SEM with a field emission electron source (FE-SEM), which, however, would require to work with different SEM parameter settings as have been validated for DSM 962. The FE-SEM has a much better spatial resolution based on an electron source size in the order of several 100 nanometers, corresponding to an about [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] times smaller source area compared to thermionic sources. In the present work, we compare BMDD between these two types of instruments in order to further validate the methodology. We show that a transition to higher pixel resolution (1.76, 0.88, and 0.57 μm) results in shifts of the BMDD peak and BMDD width to higher values. Further the inter-device reproducibility of the mean calcium content shows a difference of up to 1 wt% Ca, while the technical variance of each device can be reduced to [Formula: see text] wt% Ca. Bearing in mind that shifts in calcium levels due to diseases, e.g., high turnover osteoporosis, are often in the range of 1 wt% Ca, both the bone samples of the patients as well as the control samples have to be measured on the same SEM device. Therefore, we also constructed new reference BMDD curves for adults to be used for FE-SEM data comparison.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-021-00832-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273060PMC
August 2021

No Role of Osteocytic Osteolysis in the Development and Recovery of the Bone Phenotype Induced by Severe Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Vitamin D Receptor Deficient Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Oct 27;21(21). Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine, 1210 Vienna, Austria.

Osteocytic osteolysis/perilacunar remodeling is thought to contribute to the maintenance of mineral homeostasis. Here, we utilized a reversible, adult-onset model of secondary hyperparathyroidism to study femoral bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) and osteocyte lacunae sections (OLS) based on quantitative backscattered electron imaging. Male mice with a non-functioning vitamin D receptor (VDR) or wild-type mice were exposed to a rescue diet (RD) (baseline) and subsequently to a low calcium challenge diet (CD). Thereafter, VDR mice received either the CD, a normal diet (ND), or the RD. At baseline, BMDD and OLS characteristics were similar in VDR and wild-type mice. The CD induced large cortical pores, osteomalacia, and a reduced epiphyseal average degree of mineralization in the VDR mice relative to the baseline (-9.5%, < 0.05 after two months and -10.3%, < 0.01 after five months of the CD). Switching VDR mice on the CD back to the RD fully restored BMDD to baseline values. However, OLS remained unchanged in all groups of mice, independent of diet. We conclude that adult VDR animals on an RD lack any skeletal abnormalities, suggesting that VDR signaling is dispensable for normal bone mineralization as long as mineral homeostasis is normal. Our findings also indicate that VDR mice attempt to correct a calcium challenge by enhanced osteoclastic resorption rather than by osteocytic osteolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21217989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662929PMC
October 2020

Heterogeneity of the osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network architecture and material characteristics across different tissue types in healing bone.

J Struct Biol 2020 11 11;212(2):107616. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Department of Biomaterials, Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam, Germany. Electronic address:

Various tissue types, including fibrous connective tissue, bone marrow, cartilage, woven and lamellar bone, coexist in healing bone. Similar to most bone tissue type, healing bone contains a lacuno-canalicular network (LCN) housing osteocytes. These cells are known to orchestrate bone remodeling in healthy bone by sensing mechanical strains and translating them into biochemical signals. The structure of the LCN is hypothesized to influence mineralization processes. Hence, the aim of the present study was to visualize and match spatial variations in the LCN topology with mineral characteristics, within and at the interfaces of the different tissue types that comprise healing bone. We applied a correlative multi-method approach to visualize the LCN architecture and quantify mineral particle size and orientation within healing femoral bone in a mouse osteotomy model (26 weeks old C57BL/6 mice). This approach revealed structural differences across several length scales during endochondral ossification within the following regions: calcified cartilage, bony callus, cortical bone and a transition zone between the cortical and callus region analyzed 21 days after the osteotomy. In this transition zone, we observed a continuous convergence of mineral characteristics and osteocyte lacunae shape as well as discontinuities in the lacunae volume and LCN connectivity. The bony callus exhibits a 34% higher lacunae number density and 40% larger lacunar volume compared to cortical bone. The presented correlations between LCN architecture and mineral characteristics improves our understanding of how bone develops during healing and may indicate a contribution of osteocytes to bone (re)modeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsb.2020.107616DOI Listing
November 2020

Increased FGF-23 levels are linked to ineffective erythropoiesis and impaired bone mineralization in myelodysplastic syndromes.

JCI Insight 2020 08 6;5(15). Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Bone Lab Dresden, Department of Medicine III & Center for Healthy Aging, and.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal malignant hematopoietic disorders in the elderly characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis. This is accompanied by an altered bone microenvironment, which contributes to MDS progression and higher bone fragility. The underlying mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that myelodysplastic NUP98‑HOXD13 (NHD13) transgenic mice display an abnormally high number of osteoblasts, yet a higher fraction of nonmineralized bone, indicating delayed bone mineralization. This was accompanied by high fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) serum levels, a phosphaturic hormone that inhibits bone mineralization and erythropoiesis. While Fgf23 mRNA expression was low in bone, brain, and kidney of NHD13 mice, its expression was increased in erythroid precursors. Coculturing these precursors with WT osteoblasts induced osteoblast marker gene expression, which was inhibited by blocking FGF-23. Finally, antibody-based neutralization of FGF-23 in myelodysplastic NHD13 mice improved bone mineralization and bone microarchitecture, and it ameliorated anemia. Importantly, higher serum levels of FGF‑23 and an elevated amount of nonmineralized bone in patients with MDS validated the findings. C‑terminal FGF‑23 correlated negatively with hemoglobin levels and positively with the amount of nonmineralized bone. Thus, our study identifies FGF-23 as a link between altered bone structure and ineffective erythropoiesis in MDS with the prospects of a targeted therapeutic intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.137062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7455070PMC
August 2020

Alterations of bone material properties in adult patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH).

J Struct Biol 2020 09 30;211(3):107556. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology at Hanusch Hospital of OEGK and AUVA Trauma Centre Meidling, 1st Medical Department Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria; Medical Directorate, Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria.

X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) caused by PHEX mutations results in elevated serum FGF23 levels, renal phosphate wasting and low 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The glycophosphoprotein osteopontin, a potent inhibitor of mineralization normally degraded by PHEX, accumulates within the bone matrix. Conventional therapy consisting of supplementation with phosphate and vitamin D analogs is burdensome and the effects on bone material poorly characterized. We analyzed transiliac bone biopsies from four adult patients, two of them severely affected due to no diagnosis and no treatment until adulthood. We used light microscopy, qBEI and FTIRI to study histology, histomorphometry, bone mineralization density distribution, properties of the organic matrix and size of hypomineralized periosteocytic lesions. Non-treatment resulted in severe osteomalacia, twice the amount of mineralized trabecular volume, multiple osteon-like perforations, continuity of lamellae from mineralized to unmineralized areas and distinctive patches of woven bone. Periosteocytic lesions were larger than in treated patients. The latter had nearly normal osteoid thicknesses, although surface was still elevated. The median calcium content of the matrix was always within normal range, although the percentage of lowly mineralized bone areas was highly increased in non-treated patients, resulting in a marked heterogeneity in mineralization. Divalent collagen cross-links were evident independently of the mineral content of the matrix. Broad osteoid seams lacked measurable pyridinoline, a mature trivalent cross-link and exhibited considerable acidic lipid content, typically found in matrix vesicles. Based on our results, we propose a model that possibly integrates the relationship between the observed mineralization disturbances, FGF23 secretion and the known osteopontin accumulation in XLH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsb.2020.107556DOI Listing
September 2020

Detection and imaging of gadolinium accumulation in human bone tissue by micro- and submicro-XRF.

Sci Rep 2020 04 14;10(1):6301. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

TU Wien, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, Vienna, 1020, Austria.

Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are frequently used in patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. In GBCAs gadolinium (Gd) is present in a bound chelated form. Gadolinium is a rare-earth element, which is normally not present in human body. Though the blood elimination half-life of contrast agents is about 90 minutes, recent studies demonstrated that some tissues retain gadolinium, which might further pose a health threat due to toxic effects of free gadolinium. It is known that the bone tissue can serve as a gadolinium depot, but so far only bulk measurements were performed. Here we present a summary of experiments in which for the first time we mapped gadolinium in bone biopsy from a male patient with idiopathic osteoporosis (without indication of renal impairment), who received MRI 8 months prior to biopsy. In our studies performed by means of synchrotron radiation induced micro- and submicro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SR-XRF), gadolinium was detected in human cortical bone tissue. The distribution of gadolinium displays a specific accumulation pattern. Correlation of elemental maps obtained at ANKA synchrotron with qBEI images (quantitative backscattered electron imaging) allowed assignment of Gd structures to the histological bone structures. Follow-up beamtimes at ESRF and Diamond Light Source using submicro-SR-XRF allowed resolving thin Gd structures in cortical bone, as well as correlating them with calcium and zinc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63325-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156386PMC
April 2020

Somatic SMAD3-activating mutations cause melorheostosis by up-regulating the TGF-β/SMAD pathway.

J Exp Med 2020 05;217(5)

Section on Heritable Disorders of Bone and Extracellular Matrix, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Melorheostosis is a rare sclerosing dysostosis characterized by asymmetric exuberant bone formation. Recently, we reported that somatic mosaicism for MAP2K1-activating mutations causes radiographical "dripping candle wax" melorheostosis. We now report somatic SMAD3 mutations in bone lesions of four unrelated patients with endosteal pattern melorheostosis. In vitro, the SMAD3 mutations stimulated the TGF-β pathway in osteoblasts, enhanced nuclear translocation and target gene expression, and inhibited proliferation. Osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were stimulated by the SMAD3 mutation, consistent with higher mineralization in affected than in unaffected bone, but differing from MAP2K1 mutation-positive melorheostosis. Conversely, osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were inhibited when osteogenesis of affected osteoblasts was driven in the presence of BMP2. Transcriptome profiling displayed that TGF-β pathway activation and ossification-related processes were significantly influenced by the SMAD3 mutation. Co-expression clustering illuminated melorheostosis pathophysiology, including alterations in ECM organization, cell growth, and interferon signaling. These data reveal antagonism of TGF-β/SMAD3 activation by BMP signaling in SMAD3 mutation-positive endosteal melorheostosis, which may guide future therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20191499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201932PMC
May 2020

No evidence for alteration in early secondary mineralization by either alendronate, teriparatide or combination of both in transiliac bone biopsy samples from postmenopausal osteoporotic patients.

Bone Rep 2020 Jun 27;12:100253. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Regional Bone Center and Clinical Research Center, Helen Hayes Hospital, West Haverstraw, NY, USA.

The influence of treatment with alendronate (ALN), teriparatide (TPTD) or concurrent treatment with both on the human bone matrix mineralization has not yet been fully elucidated. For this purpose we analyzed quadruple fluorochrome labelled transiliac bone biopsy samples ( = 66) from postmenopausal osteoporotic women with prior and ongoing ALN (ALN-Rx arm) or without ALN (Rx-Naïve arm) after 7 months treatment with cyclic or daily TPTD or without TPTD using quantitative backscattered electron imaging and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Additionally to the bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) of entire cancellous and cortical compartments, we measured the mineralization kinetics, i.e. the calcium concentration between the younger (Ca_DL2) and older double labels (Ca_DL1), and in interstitial bone (Ca_int) in a subset of the biopsy cohort. We found the BMDD from the patients with prior and ongoing ALN generally shifted to higher calcium concentrations compared to those without ALN (average degree of mineralization in cancellous bone Cn.CaMean + 3.1%, <0.001). The typical BMDD changes expected by cyclic or daily TPTD treatment due to the increased bone turnover/formation, e.g. an increase in low mineralized bone area were not observed. Additionally, we found no influence of treatment with ALN or TPTD or combination thereof on Ca_DL2, Ca_DL1, or Ca_int. Pooling the information from all groups, Ca_DL1 was +5.9% (<0.001) higher compared to Ca_DL2, corresponding to a mineralization rate of 0.18 wt% Ca per week during the early secondary mineralization process. Our data suggest that the patients in the ALN-Rx arm had more highly mineralized bone matrix than those without ALN due to their lower bone turnover. The reason for the unexpected BMDD findings in the TPTD treated remain unknown and cannot be attributed to altered mineralization kinetics as no differences in the time course of early secondary mineralization were observed between the treatment groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2020.100253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7090359PMC
June 2020

Substitution of murine type I collagen A1 3-hydroxylation site alters matrix structure but does not recapitulate osteogenesis imperfecta bone dysplasia.

Matrix Biol 2020 08 26;90:20-39. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Section on Heritable Disorders of Bone and Extracellular Matrix, NICHD, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Null mutations in CRTAP or P3H1, encoding cartilage-associated protein and prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1, cause the severe bone dysplasias, types VII and VIII osteogenesis imperfecta. Lack of either protein prevents formation of the ER prolyl 3-hydroxylation complex, which catalyzes 3Hyp modification of types I and II collagen and also acts as a collagen chaperone. To clarify the role of the A1 3Hyp substrate site in recessive bone dysplasia, we generated knock-in mice with an α1(I)P986A substitution that cannot be 3-hydroxylated. Mutant mice have normal survival, growth, femoral breaking strength and mean bone mineralization. However, the bone collagen HP/LP crosslink ratio is nearly doubled in mutant mice, while collagen fibril diameter and bone yield energy are decreased. Thus, 3-hydroxylation of the A1 site α1(I)P986 affects collagen crosslinking and structural organization, but its absence does not directly cause recessive bone dysplasia. Our study suggests that the functions of the modification complex as a collagen chaperone are thus distinct from its role as prolyl 3-hydroxylase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matbio.2020.02.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7476075PMC
August 2020

Newly formed and remodeled human bone exhibits differences in the mineralization process.

Acta Biomater 2020 03 9;104:221-230. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, D-14424 Potsdam, Germany.

During human skeletal growth, bone is formed via different processes. Two of them are: new bone formation by depositing bone at the periosteal (outer) surface and bone remodeling corresponding to a local renewal of tissue. Since in remodeling formation is preceded by resorption, we hypothesize that modeling and remodeling could require radically different transport paths for ionic precursors of mineralization. While remodeling may recycle locally resorbed mineral, modeling implies the transport over large distances to the site of bone apposition. Therefore, we searched for potential differences of size, arrangement and chemical composition of mineral particles just below surfaces of modeling and remodeling sites in femur midshaft cross-sections from healthy children. These bone sites were mapped using scanning synchrotron X-ray scattering, Raman microspectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and quantitative backscattered electron microscopy. The results show clear differences in mineral particle size and composition between the sites, which cannot be explained by a change in the rate of mineral apposition or accumulation. At periosteal modeling sites, mineral crystals are distinctly larger, display higher crystallinity and exhibit a lower calcium to phosphorus ratio and elevated Na and Mg content. The latter may originate from Mg used for phase stabilization of mineral precursors and therefore indicate different time periods for mineral transport. We conclude that the mineralization process is distinctively different between modeling and remodeling sites due to varying requirements for the transport distance and, therefore, the stability of non-crystalline ionic precursors, resulting in distinct compositions of the deposited mineral phase. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In growing children new bone is formed either due to apposition of bone tissue e.g. at the outer ridge of long bones to allow growth in thickness (bone modeling), or in cavities inside the mineralized matrix when replacing tissue (bone remodeling). We demonstrate that mineral crystal shape and composition are not the same between these two sites, which is indicative of differences in mineralization precursors. We suggest that this may be due to a longer mineral transport distance to sites of new bone formation as compared to remodeling where mineral can be locally recycled.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.01.004DOI Listing
March 2020

Biomechanical and Bone Material Properties of Schnurri-3 Null Mice.

JBMR Plus 2019 Nov 11;3(11):e10226. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

1st Medical Department Hanusch Hospital Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology at the Hanusch Hospital of WGKK and AUVA Trauma Centre Meidling Vienna Austria.

is an essential regulator of postnatal skeletal remodeling. Shn3-deficient mice (Shn3-/-) have high bone mass; however, their bone mechanical and material properties have not been investigated to date. We performed three-point bending of femora, compression tests of L3 vertebrae. We also measured intrinsic material properties, including bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) and osteocyte lacunae section (OLS) characteristics by quantitative backscatter electron imaging, as well as collagen cross-linking by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy of femora from Shn3-/- and WT mice at different ages (6 weeks, 4 months, and 18 months). Moreover, computer modeling was performed for the interpretation of the BMDD outcomes. Femora and L3 vertebrae from Shn3-/- aged 6 weeks revealed increased ultimate force (2.2- and 3.2-fold, < .01, respectively). Mineralized bone volume at the distal femoral metaphysis was about twofold (at 6 weeks) to eightfold (at 4 and 18 months of age) in Shn3-/- ( < .001). Compared with WT, the average degree of trabecular bone mineralization was similar at 6 weeks, but increased at 4 and 18 months of age (+12.6% and +7.7%, < .01, respectively) in Shn3-/-. The analysis of OLS characteristics revealed a higher OLS area for Shn3-/- versus WT at all ages (+16%, +23%, +21%, respectively, < .01). The collagen cross-link ratio was similar between groups. We conclude that femora and vertebrae from Shn3-/- had higher ultimate force in mechanical testing. Computer modeling demonstrated that in cases of highly increased bone volume, the average degree of bone matrix mineralization can be higher than in WT bone, which was actually measured in the older Shn3-/- groups. The area of 2D osteocyte lacunae sections was also increased in Shn3-deficiency, which could only partly be explained by larger remnant areas of primary cortical bone. © 2019 The Authors. published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm4.10226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6874182PMC
November 2019

Melorheostosis: A Clinical, Pathologic, and Radiologic Case Series.

Am J Surg Pathol 2019 11;43(11):1554-1559

Clinical and Investigative Orthopedics Surgery Unit, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.

Melorheostosis is a rare sclerosing bone disease characterized by excessive cortical bone deposition that is frequently on the differential diagnosis for bone biopsies. Although the radiologic pattern of "dripping candle wax" is well known, the pathologic findings have been poorly defined. Here, we comprehensively describe the histology of melorheostosis in 15 patients who underwent bone biopsies. Common histologic findings included: dense cortical bone (73.3%), woven bone (60%), and hypervascular features and increased porosity (66.7%). One third of the patients (5/15) also had prominent cement lines. Multiple patients had >1 histologic pattern (ie, dense cortical bone and hypervascularity). Overall, this study suggests that melorheostosis exists with several histologically distinct patterns. When confronted with a case of suspected melorheostosis, the clinical pathologist should use the histologic features common to melorheostotic lesions presented here in conjunction with the patient's clinical presentation and radiographic findings to arrive at a diagnosis. An illustrative case is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832124PMC
November 2019

Mechanical properties of stingray tesserae: High-resolution correlative analysis of mineral density and indentation moduli in tessellated cartilage.

Acta Biomater 2019 09 27;96:421-435. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Department of Biomaterials, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14424 Potsdam, Germany. Electronic address:

Skeletal tissues are built and shaped through complex, interacting active and passive processes. These spatial and temporal variabilities make interpreting growth mechanisms from morphology difficult, particularly in bone, where the remodeling process erases and rewrites local structural records of growth throughout life. In contrast to the majority of bony vertebrates, the elasmobranch fishes (sharks, rays, and their relatives) have skeletons made of cartilage, reinforced by an outer layer of mineralized tiles (tesserae), which are believed to grow only by deposition, without remodeling. We exploit this structural permanence, performing the first fine-scale correlation of structure and material properties in an elasmobranch skeleton. Our characterization across an age series of stingray tesserae allows unique insight into the growth processes and mechanical influences shaping the skeleton. Correlated quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and nanoindentation measurements show a positive relationship between mineral density and tissue stiffness/hardness. Although tessellated cartilage as a whole (tesserae plus unmineralized cartilage) is considerably less dense than bone, we demonstrate that tesserae have exceptional local material properties, exceeding those of (mammal) bone and calcified cartilage. We show that the finescale ultrastructures recently described in tesserae have characteristic material properties suggesting distinct mechanical roles and that regions of high mineral density/stiffness in tesserae are confined predominantly to regions expected to bear high loads. In particular, tesseral spokes (laminated structures flanking joints) exhibit particularly high mineral densities and tissue material properties, more akin to teeth than bone or calcified cartilage. We conclude that these spokes toughen tesserae and reinforce points of contact between them. These toughening and reinforcing functions are supported by finite element simulations incorporating our material data. The high stresses predicted for spokes, and evidence we provide that new spoke laminae are deposited according to their local mechanical environment, suggest tessellated cartilage is both mutable and responsive, despite lacking remodeling capability. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: The study of vertebrate skeletal materials is heavily biased toward mammal bone, despite evidence that bone and cartilage are extremely diverse. We broaden the perspective on vertebrate skeleton materials and evolution in an investigation of stingray tessellated cartilage, a curious type of unmineralized cartilage with a shell of mineralized tiles (tesserae). Combining high-resolution imaging and material testing, we demonstrate that tesserae have impressive local material properties for a vertebrate skeletal tissue, arguing for unique tissue organization relative to mammalian calcified cartilage and bone. Incorporating our materials data into mechanical models, we show that finescale material arrangements allow this cartilage to act as a functional and responsive alternative to bone, despite lacking bone's ability to remodel. These results are relevant to a diversity of researchers, from skeletal, developmental, and evolutionary biologists, to materials scientists interested in high-performance, low-density composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2019.06.038DOI Listing
September 2019

Bone matrix mineralization and osteocyte lacunae characteristics in patients with chronic kidney disease - mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD).

J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2019 06;19(2):196-206

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology at Hanusch Hospital of WGKK and AUVA Trauma Centre Meidling, 1st Med. Dept. Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria.

Objectives: Little is known about bone mineralization and osteocyte lacunae properties in chronic kidney disease mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD).

Methods: In this retrospective study, we measured the bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) and osteocyte lacunar section (OLS) 2D-characteristics by quantitative backscatter electron imaging in Straumann drill biopsy samples from n=58 patients with CKD-MBD. Outcomes were studied in relation to serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), alkaline phosphatase (APH), histomorphometric bone turnover and treatment with cinacalcet or phosphate binders.

Results: Lower calcium concentrations in bone from high turnover (average degree of bone mineralization -6.2%, p<0.001) versus low turnover patients were observed. OLS-characteristics were distinctly different (p<0.01 to p<0.05) in patients with highest compared to those with lowest turnover. Patients with cinacalcet had different OLS-characteristics (p<0.05) compared to those without cinacalcet. Furthermore, patients with phosphate binders had differences in BMDD and OLS-characteristics (p<0.05) compared to patients without phosphate binders.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that in patients with CKD-MBD secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased bone turnover decrease the average degree of bone matrix mineralization. Conversely, density and lacunar size of the osteocytes are increased compared to adynamic bone disease pointing at distinct patterns of bone mineralization and osteocyte lacunar properties in these two disease entities.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6587090PMC
June 2019

Osteoporosis and skeletal dysplasia caused by pathogenic variants in SGMS2.

JCI Insight 2019 04 4;4(7). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland, and Research Program for Clinical and Molecular Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.

Mechanisms leading to osteoporosis are incompletely understood. Genetic disorders with skeletal fragility provide insight into metabolic pathways contributing to bone strength. We evaluated 6 families with rare skeletal phenotypes and osteoporosis by next-generation sequencing. In all the families, we identified a heterozygous variant in SGMS2, a gene prominently expressed in cortical bone and encoding the plasma membrane-resident sphingomyelin synthase SMS2. Four unrelated families shared the same nonsense variant, c.148C>T (p.Arg50*), whereas the other families had a missense variant, c.185T>G (p.Ile62Ser) or c.191T>G (p.Met64Arg). Subjects with p.Arg50* presented with childhood-onset osteoporosis with or without cranial sclerosis. Patients with p.Ile62Ser or p.Met64Arg had a more severe presentation, with neonatal fractures, severe short stature, and spondylometaphyseal dysplasia. Several subjects had experienced peripheral facial nerve palsy or other neurological manifestations. Bone biopsies showed markedly altered bone material characteristics, including defective bone mineralization. Osteoclast formation and function in vitro was normal. While the p.Arg50* mutation yielded a catalytically inactive enzyme, p.Ile62Ser and p.Met64Arg each enhanced the rate of de novo sphingomyelin production by blocking export of a functional enzyme from the endoplasmic reticulum. SGMS2 pathogenic variants underlie a spectrum of skeletal conditions, ranging from isolated osteoporosis to complex skeletal dysplasia, suggesting a critical role for plasma membrane-bound sphingomyelin metabolism in skeletal homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.126180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6483641PMC
April 2019

Melorheostotic Bone Lesions Caused by Somatic Mutations in MAP2K1 Have Deteriorated Microarchitecture and Periosteal Reaction.

J Bone Miner Res 2019 05 22;34(5):883-895. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Section on Heritable Disorders of Bone and Extracellular Matrix, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Melorheostosis is a rare non-hereditary condition characterized by dense hyperostotic lesions with radiographic "dripping candle wax" appearance. Somatic activating mutations in MAP2K1 have recently been identified as a cause of melorheostosis. However, little is known about the development, composition, structure, and mechanical properties of the bone lesions. We performed a multi-method phenotype characterization of material properties in affected and unaffected bone biopsy samples from six melorheostosis patients with MAP2K1 mutations. On standard histology, lesions show a zone with intensively remodeled osteonal-like structure and prominent osteoid accumulation, covered by a shell formed through bone apposition, consisting of compact multi-layered lamellae oriented parallel to the periosteal surface and devoid of osteoid. Compared with unaffected bone, melorheostotic bone has lower average mineralization density measured by quantitative backscattered electron imaging (CaMean: -4.5%, p = 0.04). The lamellar portion of the lesion is even less mineralized, possibly because the newly deposited material has younger tissue age. Affected bone has higher porosity by micro-CT, due to increased tissue vascularity and elevated 2D-microporosity (osteocyte lacunar porosity: +39%, p = 0.01) determined on quantitative backscattered electron images. Furthermore, nano-indentation modulus characterizing material hardness and stiffness was strictly dependent on tissue mineralization (correlation with typical calcium concentration, CaPeak: r = 0.8984, p = 0.0150, and r = 0.9788, p = 0.0007, respectively) in both affected and unaffected bone, indicating that the surgical hardness of melorheostotic lesions results from their lamellar structure. The results suggest a model for pathophysiology of melorheostosis caused by somatic activating mutations in MAP2K1, in which the genetically induced gradual deterioration of bone microarchitecture triggers a periosteal reaction, similar to the process found to occur after bone infection or local trauma, and leads to an overall cortical outgrowth. The micromechanical properties of the lesions reflect their structural heterogeneity and correlate with local variations in mineral content, tissue age, and remodeling rates, in the same way as normal bone. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3656DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8302214PMC
May 2019

Bone Matrix Mineralization in Patients With Gain-of-Function Calcium-Sensing Receptor Mutations Is Distinctly Different From that in Postsurgical Hypoparathyroidism.

J Bone Miner Res 2019 04 15;34(4):661-668. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology at the Hanusch Hospital of Social Health Insurance Vienna (WGKK) and Austrian Social Insurance for Occupational Risk (AUVA) Trauma Centre Meidling, 1st Medical Department, Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria.

The role of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) as a regulator of parathyroid hormone secretion is well established, but its function in bone is less well defined. In an effort to elucidate the CaSR's skeletal role, bone tissue and material characteristics from patients with autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH), a genetic form of primary hypoparathyroidism caused by CASR gain-of-function mutations, were compared to patients with postsurgical hypoparathyroidism (PSH). Bone structure and formation/resorption indices and mineralization density distribution (BMDD), were examined in transiliac biopsy samples from PSH (n = 13) and ADH (n = 6) patients by histomorphometry and quantitative backscatter electron imaging, respectively. Bone mineral density (BMD by DXA) and biochemical characteristics were measured at the time of the biopsy. Because both study groups comprised children and adults, all measured biopsy parameters and BMD outcomes were converted to Z-scores for comparison. Histomorphometric indices were normal and not different between ADH and PSH, with the exception of mineral apposition rate Z-score, which was higher in the ADH group. Similarly, average BMD Z-scores were normal and not different between ADH and PSH. Significant differences were observed for the BMDD: average Z-scores of mean and typical degree of mineralization (CaMean, CaPeak, respectively) were lower (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively), whereas the heterogeneity of mineralization (CaWidth) and percentage of lower mineralized areas (CaLow) were increased in ADH versus PSH (p = 0.01 and p = 0.002, respectively). The BMDD outcomes point toward a direct, PTH-independent role of the CaSR in the regulation of bone mineralization. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3638DOI Listing
April 2019

Impaired osteocyte maturation in the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy.

Kidney Int 2018 11;94(5):1002-1012

Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA. Electronic address:

Pediatric renal osteodystrophy is characterized by skeletal mineralization defects, but the role of osteoblast and osteocyte maturation in the pathogenesis of these defects is unknown. We evaluated markers of osteocyte maturation and programmed cell death in iliac crest biopsy samples from pediatric dialysis patients and healthy controls. We evaluated the relationship between numbers of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-expressing osteocytes and histomorphometric parameters of skeletal mineralization. We confirmed that chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes intrinsic changes in bone cell maturation using an in vitro model of primary osteoblasts from patients with CKD and healthy controls. FGF23 co-localized with the early osteocyte marker E11/gp38, suggesting that FGF23 is a marker of early osteocyte maturation. Increased numbers of early osteocytes and decreased osteocyte apoptosis characterized CKD bone. Numbers of FGF23-expressing osteocytes were highest in patients with preserved skeletal mineralization indices, and packets of matrix surrounding FGF23-expressing osteocytes appeared to have entered secondary mineralization. Primary osteoblasts from patients with CKD retained impaired maturation and mineralization characteristics in vitro. Addition of FGF23 did not affect primary osteoblast mineralization. Thus, CKD is associated with intrinsic changes in osteoblast and osteocyte maturation, and FGF23 appears to mark a relatively early stage in osteocyte maturation. Improved control of renal osteodystrophy and FGF23 excess will require further investigation into the pathogenesis of CKD-mediated osteoblast and osteocyte maturation failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2018.08.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6662203PMC
November 2018

Bone matrix hypermineralization associated with low bone turnover in a case of Nasu-Hakola disease.

Bone 2019 06 11;123:48-55. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology at Hanusch Hospital of WGKK and AUVA Trauma Centre Meidling, 1st Med. Dept. Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria; Orthopedic Hospital of Speising, Pediatric Department, Vienna, Austria.

Analysis of tissue from a 34-years-old male patient from Austrian origin with a history of multiple fractures associated with painful episodes over the carpal, tarsal and at the end of the long bones respectively is presented. Radiographic images and axial 3DCT scans showed widespread defects in trabecular bone architecture and ill-defined cortices over these skeletal sites in the form of discrete cystic-like lesions. Family history indicated two sisters (one half and one full biological sisters) also with a history of fractures. Whole exome sequencing revealed two heterozygous missense mutations in TYROBP (MIM 604142; NM_003332.3) gene encoding for a cell-surface adaptor protein, which is part of a signaling complex triggering activation of immune responses. It is expressed in cells of the ectoderm cell linage such as NK and dendritic cells, macrophages, monocytes, myeloid cells, microglia cells and osteoclasts. The phenotype and genotype of the patient were consistent with the diagnosis of Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) (OMIM 221770). Investigations at the bone material level of a transiliac bone biopsy sample from the patient using polarized light microscopy and backscatter electron imaging revealed disordered lamellar collagen fibril arrangement and extensively increased matrix mineralization. These findings are the first bone material data in a patient with NHD and point toward an osteoclast defect involvement in this genetic condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2018.10.008DOI Listing
June 2019

Attaining the optimal flange for intrascleral intraocular lens fixation.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2018 11 12;44(11):1303-1305. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

From the Vienna Institute for Research in Ocular Surgery (Kronschläger, Varsits, Findl), Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, and Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology at the Hanusch Hospital of WGKK and AUVA Trauma Centre Meidling (Blouin, Roschger), 1st Medical Department Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

We describe a technique for making an optimal flange in intraocular lenses (IOLs) used for flanged intrascleral IOL fixation. The flange shape varies in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) haptics of different IOLs of different manufacturers. We identified the distance between the forceps grip of the haptic and the end of the haptic during heating with a cauter as a critical factor for the optimal flange shape in 5 PMMA haptics but not in 2 polyvinylidene fluoride haptics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrs.2018.07.042DOI Listing
November 2018

Hypophosphatasia: From Diagnosis to Treatment.

Curr Rheumatol Rep 2018 09 10;20(11):69. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

1st Medical Department, Hanusch Hospital, Heinrich Collin-Str. 30, 1140, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose Of Review: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations of the ALPL gene. ALPL encodes the tissue-non-specific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). Consequently, bone mineralization is decreased leading to fractures, arthralgia, and extra-skeletal manifestations including tissue calcification, respiratory failure, and neurological complications. This review summarizes the most important clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment options for HPP.

Recent Findings: Asfotase alfa is a recombinant human alkaline phosphatase, used as treatment for the underlying cause of HPP. Asfotase alfa enhances the survival in life-threatening HPP and improves bone mineralization, muscle strength, and pulmonary function. However, discontinuation of asfotase alfa leads to reappearance of bone hypomineralization. Due to its varied manifestations, HPP often mimics rheumatological and other bone diseases, thereby delaying its diagnosis. Asfotase alfa, a recombinant alkaline phosphatase, is available for the long-term enzyme replacement therapy in patients with pediatric-onset HPP to treat the bone manifestations of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11926-018-0778-5DOI Listing
September 2018

Distinct Clinical and Pathological Features of Melorheostosis Associated With Somatic MAP2K1 Mutations.

J Bone Miner Res 2019 01 14;34(1):145-156. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Clinical and Investigative Orthopedics Surgery Unit, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA.

Melorheostosis is a rare hyperostotic disease of the long bones classically characterized by a "dripping candle-wax" radiographic appearance. We recently described somatic activating mutations in MAP2K1 as a cause of melorheostosis. Here, we report distinguishing characteristics of patients with MAP2K1-positive melorheostosis. Fifteen unrelated patients with radiographic appearance of melorheostosis underwent paired biopsies of affected and unaffected bone for whole-exome sequencing, histology, and cell culture. Eight patients with mutations in MAP2K1 in affected bone were compared to the seven MAP2K1-negative patients to identify distinguishing characteristics. Patients with MAP2K1-positive melorheostosis had a distinct phenotype with classic "dripping candle-wax" appearance on radiographs (p = 0.01), characteristic vascular lesions on skin overlying affected bone (p = 0.01), and higher prevalence of extraosseous mineralization and joint involvement (p = 0.04 for both). Melorheostotic bone from both MAP2K1-positive and MAP2K1-negative patients showed two zones of distinct morphology-an outer segment of parallel layers of primary lamellar bone and a deeper zone of intensely remodeled highly porous osteonal-like bone. Affected bone from MAP2K1-positive patients showed excessive osteoid (p = 0.0012), increased number of osteoblasts (p = 0.012) and osteoclasts (p = 0.04), and increased vascularity on histology in comparison to paired unaffected bone which was not seen in affected bone in most MAP2K1-negative patients. The identification of a distinct phenotype of patients with MAP2K1-positive melorheostosis demonstrates clinical and genetic heterogeneity among patients with the disease. Further studies are needed to better understand the underlying pathophysiology and associated skin findings. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577747PMC
January 2019

Cardiac, bone and growth plate manifestations in hypocalcemic infants: revealing the hidden body of the vitamin D deficiency iceberg.

BMC Pediatr 2018 06 26;18(1):183. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Department of Endocrinology & Diabetes, Birmingham Women's and Children's Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, Birmingham, B4 6NH, UK.

Background: Whilst hypocalcemic complications from vitamin D deficiency are considered rare in high-income countries, they are highly prevalent among Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) group with darker skin. To date, the extent of osteomalacia in such infants and their family members is unknown. Our aim was to investigate clinical, cardiac and bone histomorphometric characteristics, bone matrix mineralization in affected infants and to test family members for biochemical evidence of osteomalacia.

Case Presentation: Three infants of BAME origin (aged 5-6 months) presented acutely in early-spring with cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest following seizure or severe respiratory distress, with profound hypocalcemia (serum calcium 1.22-1.96 mmol/L). All infants had dark skin and vitamin D supplementation had not been addressed during child surveillance visits. All three had severely dilated left ventricles (z-scores + 4.6 to + 6.5) with reduced ejection fraction (25-30%; normal 55-70), fractional shortening (7 to 15%; normal 29-40) and global hypokinesia, confirming hypocalcemic dilated cardiomyopathy. They all had low serum levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD < 15 nmol/L), and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH; 219-482 ng/L) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP; 802-1123 IU/L), with undiagnosed rickets on radiographs. One infant died from cardiac arrest. At post-mortem examination, his growth plate showed a widened, irregular zone of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Histomorphometry and backscattered electron microscopy of a trans-iliac bone biopsy sample revealed increased osteoid thickness (+ 262% of normal) and osteoid volume/bone volume (+ 1573%), and extremely low bone mineralization density. Five of the nine tested family members had vitamin D deficiency (25OHD < 30 nmol/L), three had insufficiency (< 50 nmol/L) and 6/9 members had elevated PTH and ALP levels.

Conclusions: The severe, hidden, cardiac and bone pathology described here exposes a failure of public health prevention programs, as complications from vitamin D deficiency are entirely preventable by routine supplementation. The family investigations demonstrate widespread deficiency and undiagnosed osteomalacia in ethnic risk groups and call for protective legislation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-018-1159-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6019205PMC
June 2018

Homozygosity for CREB3L1 premature stop codon in first case of recessive osteogenesis imperfecta associated with OASIS-deficiency to survive infancy.

Bone 2018 09 22;114:268-277. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Dept. of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Mutations of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress transducer OASIS (encoded by CREB3L1), cause severe recessive osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) not compatible with surviving the neonatal period, as has been shown in two unrelated families through a whole gene deletion vs. a qualitative alteration of OASIS. Heterozygous carriers in the described families have exhibited a mild phenotype. OASIS is a transcription factor highly expressed in osteoblasts, and OASIS mice exhibit severe osteopenia and spontaneous fractures. Here, we expand the clinical spectrum by a detailed phenotypic characterization of the first case of OASIS-associated OI surviving the neonatal period, with heterozygous family members being unaffected.

Methods: All OI-associated genes were sequenced. Primary human osteoblast-like cell (hOB) and fibroblast (FB) cultures were obtained for qPCR, and steady-state collagen biochemistry. FB, hOB and skin biopsies were ultrastructurally analyzed. Bone was analyzed by μCT, histomorphometry, quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI), and Raman microspectroscopy.

Results: The proband, a boy with severe OI, had blue sclera and tooth agenesis. A homozygous CREB3L1 stop codon mutation was detected by sequencing, while several family members were heterozygotes. Markedly low levels of CREB3L1 mRNA were confirmed by qPCR in hOBs (16%) and FB (21%); however, collagen I levels were only reduced in hOBs (5-10%). Electron microscopy of hOBs showed pronounced alterations, with numerous myelin figures and diminished RER vs. normal ultrastructure of FB. Bone histomorphometry and qBEI were similar to collagen I OI, with low trabecular thickness and mineral apposition rate, and increased bone matrix mineralization. Raman microspectroscopy revealed low level of glycosaminoglycans. Clinical response to life-long bisphosphonate treatment was as expected in severe OI with steadily increasing bone mineral density, but despite this the boy suffered repeated childhood fractures.

Conclusions: Deficiency of OASIS can cause severe OI compatible with surviving the neonatal period. A marked decrease of collagen type I transcription was noted in bone tissue, but not in skin, and ultrastructure of hOBs was pathological. Results also suggested OASIS involvement in glycosaminoglycan secretion in bone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2018.06.019DOI Listing
September 2018

Confocal laser scanning microscopy-a powerful tool in bone research.

Wien Med Wochenschr 2018 Sep 25;168(11-12):314-321. Epub 2018 May 25.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology at the Hanusch Hospital of WGKK and AUVA Trauma Centre Meidling, 1st Medical Department, Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria.

The confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) enables the collection of images picturing selected planes in depth of thick samples, thus giving 3D information while keeping the sample intact. In this article we give an overview of our CLSM applications in bone research: (i) the characterization of osteoblasts and osteoclasts properties in cell biology, (ii) the visualization of the three dimensional (3D) osteocyte lacunar canalicular network in undemineralized plastic-embedded bone samples, (iii) the observation of tetracycline labels in bone biopsy samples from patients in combination with information on the mineralization density from quantitative backscatter electron imaging, which enables the time course of mineral accumulation in newly formed bone to be followed, (iv) the precise measurement of the thickness of thin ground bone sections, a prerequisite for the mapping of local mechanical properties by scanning acoustic microscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10354-018-0639-xDOI Listing
September 2018

Late stages of mineralization and their signature on the bone mineral density distribution.

Connect Tissue Res 2018 12;59(sup1):74-80

c Department of Biomaterials , Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces , Potsdam , Germany.

Purpose: Experimental measurements of bone mineral density distributions (BMDDs) enable a determination of secondary mineralization kinetics in bone, but the maximum degree of mineralization and how this maximum is approached remain uncertain. We thus test computationally different hypotheses on late stages of bone mineralization by simulating BMDDs in low-turnover conditions.

Materials And Methods: An established computational model of the BMDD that accounts for mineralization and remodeling processes was extended to limit mineralization to various maximum calcium capacities of bone. Simulated BMDDs obtained by reducing turnover rate from the reference trabecular BMDD under different assumptions on late stage mineralization kinetics were compared with experimental BMDDs of low-turnover bone.

Results: Simulations show that an abrupt stopping of mineralization near a maximum calcium capacity induces a pile-up of minerals in the BMDD statistics that is not observed experimentally. With a smooth decrease of mineralization rate, imposing low maximum calcium capacities helps to match peak location and width of simulated low-turnover BMDDs with peak location and width of experimental BMDDs, but results in a distinctive asymmetric peak shape. No tuning of turnover rate and maximum calcium capacity was able to explain the differences found in experimental BMDDs between trabecular bone (high turnover) and femoral cortical bone (low turnover).

Conclusions: Secondary mineralization in human bone does not stop abruptly, but continues slowly up to a calcium content greater than 30 wt% Ca. The similar mineral heterogeneity seen in trabecular and femoral cortical bones at different peak locations was unexplained by the turnover differences tested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03008207.2018.1424149DOI Listing
December 2018
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