Publications by authors named "Paul Reneau"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Metabolically healthy obese vs. Metabolic syndrome - The crosslink between nutritional exposure to bisphenols and physical exercise.

Med Hypotheses 2021 Apr 18;149:110542. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

School of Education Health and Human Performance, Fairmont State University, United States. Electronic address:

Obesity has become a worldwide pandemic as well as a major contributing factor to the increasing rate of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, there is an intriguing variance demonstrated by a subset of obesity defined as metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). MHO individuals are less prone to develop obesity-related metabolic complications, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) and further T2D. The exact reason why an MHO person does not present the cluster of risk factors associated with insulin resistance is unknown due to the challenge to mimic MHO in experimental settings. However, MHO individuals present lower sedentary behaviors in comparison to individuals with MetS, which might indicate that an adaptation to skeletal muscle, such as increased insulin sensitivity and glucose transporter (GLUT4), could play a major role in their healthy characteristics. The hypothesis invoked in this paper is that lower exposure to bisphenol together with increased levels of physical exercise underlie the physiological aspects behind MHO characteristics. Evidence suggests that exposure to "obseogens," such as bisphenol A (BPA), appears to impair insulin secretion and insulin response in cells containing GLUT4. Epidemiological studies have associated higher levels of BPA, as well as bisphenol S and F, in children with a risk for MetS development. Therefore, the combination between low bisphenol exposure and increased physical exercise may not necessarily affect body weight, but it could modify several metabolic pathways inhibiting insulin resistance, which characterize the heathy status of the MHO. If confirmed, this hypothesis could lead to therapeutic approaches to reverse MetS and inhibit T2D onset.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2021.110542DOI Listing
April 2021

The effect of BPA exposure on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes - The impact of muscle contraction.

Med Hypotheses 2020 Mar 11;140:109675. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

School of Education, Health and Human Performance, Fairmont State University, Fairmont, WV, United States; Detroit R&D, Inc, Detroit, MI, United States. Electronic address:

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is considered one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In addition to physical inactivity and obesity, established risk factors for T2D, chemical contaminants consumed in industrialized food such as BPA might also be a contributor to the development of T2D. Epidemiological studies have shown that BPA concentrations are higher in human specimens of T2D when compared to healthy subjects, while experimental studies suggested that bisphenol A (BPA) impairs the pathway by which insulin stimulates glucose uptake. In skeletal muscle and adipocytes, insulin resistance is developed by the impairment of the insulin pathway to stimulate the translocation of glucose transporter, GLUT4, to the cell membrane. Recent results demonstrated that BPA impairs several components of insulin-induced glucose uptake pathway and affect the expression of GLUT4. Regular physical exercise delays or inhibits the development of T2D due to the physiologic processes taking place during muscle contraction, and the fact that skeletal muscle is the site for almost 80% of the glucose transported under insulin stimulation. In fact, the mechanism by which contraction induces glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is partially independent of the insulin pathway, therefore, the effect of BPA on this mechanism is unknown. We hypothesize that during the development of insulin resistance, BPA contributes to the impairment of the molecular pathway by which insulin induces glucose uptake while contraction-induced glucose uptake is not impaired. At the late stages of T2D, BPA may affect GLUT4 expression that will decrease the ability of muscle contraction to induce glucose uptake.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109675DOI Listing
March 2020

Vertical Distribution of Microplastics in the Water Column and Surficial Sediment from the Milwaukee River Basin to Lake Michigan.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 Nov 16;53(21):12227-12237. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Illinois Sustainable Technology Center/Prairie Research Institute , University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign , One Hazelwood Road , Champaign , Illinois 61820 , United States.

Microplastic contamination was studied along a freshwater continuum from inland streams to the Milwaukee River estuary to Lake Michigan and vertically from the water surface, water subsurface, and sediment. Microplastics were detected in all 96 water samples and 9 sediment samples collected. Results indicated a gradient of polymer presence with depth: low-density particles decreased from the water surface to the subsurface to sediment, and high-density particles had the opposite result. Polymer identification results indicated that water surface and subsurface samples were dominated by low-density polypropylene particles, and sediment samples were dominated by more dense polyethylene terephthalate particles. Of the five particle-type categories (fragments, films, foams, pellets/beads, and fibers/lines), fibers/lines were the most common particle-type and were present in every water and sediment sample collected. Fibers represented 45% of all particles in water samples and were distributed vertically throughout the water column regardless of density. Sediment samples were dominated by black foams (66%, identified as styrene-butadiene rubber) and to a lesser extent fibers/lines (29%) with approximately 89% of all of the sediment particles coming from polymers with densities greater than 1.1 g cm. Results demonstrated that polymer density influenced partitioning between the water surface and subsurface and the underlying surficial sediment and the common practice of sampling only the water surface can result in substantial bias, especially in estuarine, harbor, and lake locations where water surface concentrations tend to overestimate mean water column concentrations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b03850DOI Listing
November 2019

Neuromuscular Adaptations in Elderly Adults are Task-Specific During Stepping and Obstacle Clearance Tasks.

Int J Exerc Sci 2011;4(1):77-85. Epub 2011 Jan 15.

Rehabilitation Science Research Laboratory, Department of Physical Therapy, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Elderly adults have a diminished movement capacity due to physiological and neurological declines associated with advancing age. Previous research suggests that elderly adults use altered neuromuscular patterns to conduct activities of daily living (ADLs). Limited research has addressed these altered activation strategies in obstacle clearance, stair ascent and stair descent. The purpose of this study was to compare neuromuscular activation patterns in young and elderly adults during these tasks. Eleven young and 10 healthy elderly adults performed five downward stepping, upward stepping and obstacle clearance trials. Surface EMG was measured from the quadriceps, hamstrings, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles. A 2×3 (group × condition) repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine significant differences in muscle activation intensity. An alpha level was set at p<0.05. The results showed that elderly adults exhibited greater activation intensity than the young adults in all movement conditions. The significant differences in muscle activation intensity in the elderly adults were limited to the musculature driving the tested movement. The findings of the current study support previous research that elderly adults perform ADLs at a greater relative intensity than young adults. Furthermore, the current study shows that the disproportionate increase in muscle activation intensity is limited to the muscles that functionally drive the required task.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4738966PMC
January 2011