Publications by authors named "Paul Olowoyo"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Novel Afrocentric Stroke Risk Assessment Score: Models from the Siren Study.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jul 28;30(10):106003. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Medical University of South Carolina, SC, USA.

Background: Stroke risk can be quantified using risk factors whose effect sizes vary by geography and race. No stroke risk assessment tool exists to estimate aggregate stroke risk for indigenous African.

Objectives: To develop Afrocentric risk-scoring models for stroke occurrence.

Materials And Methods: We evaluated 3533 radiologically confirmed West African stroke cases paired 1:1 with age-, and sex-matched stroke-free controls in the SIREN study. The 7,066 subjects were randomly split into a training and testing set at the ratio of 85:15. Conditional logistic regression models were constructed by including 17 putative factors linked to stroke occurrence using the training set. Significant risk factors were assigned constant and standardized statistical weights based on regression coefficients (β) to develop an additive risk scoring system on a scale of 0-100%. Using the testing set, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to obtain a total score to serve as cut-off to discriminate between cases and controls. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) at this cut-off.

Results: For stroke occurrence, we identified 15 traditional vascular factors. Cohen's kappa for validity was maximal at a total risk score of 56% using both statistical weighting approaches to risk quantification and in both datasets. The risk score had a predictive accuracy of 76% (95%CI: 74-79%), sensitivity of 80.3%, specificity of 63.0%, PPV of 68.5% and NPV of 76.2% in the test dataset. For ischemic strokes, 12 risk factors had predictive accuracy of 78% (95%CI: 74-81%). For hemorrhagic strokes, 7 factors had a predictive accuracy of 79% (95%CI: 73-84%).

Conclusions: The SIREN models quantify aggregate stroke risk in indigenous West Africans with good accuracy. Prospective studies are needed to validate this instrument for stroke prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.106003DOI Listing
July 2021

Strategies for Reducing Non-Communicable Diseases in Africa.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Aug 17;170:105736. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105736DOI Listing
August 2021

Dietary intakes of green leafy vegetables and incidence of cardiovascular diseases.

Cardiovasc J Afr 2021 Jul-Aug 23;32(4):215-223. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan; University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria; Centre for Genomic and Precision Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan; University College Hospital; Blossom Specialist Medical Centre, Ibadan, Nigeria. Email:

Aim: Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are currently experiencing increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates. Green leafy vegetables (GLV), which are abundant in these countries, are known to be particularly rich in cardioprotective nutrients. This study sought to determine the specific effect of GLV intake on the incidence of CVD.

Methods: Previously published cohort studies on GLV intake and incidence of CVD were retrieved through a systematic search of Google Scholar, EMBASE, MEDLINE, HINARI and Cochrane Library. A methodological evaluation of studies was carried out using the network of Ottawa scale, and a fixed-effect meta-analysis was applied to estimate pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was determined using the I statistic. Sensitivity analysis was done using the leave-one-study-out technique. All statistical analysis was carried out at < 0.05 using RevMan 5.4.

Results: The pooled RR (95% CI) of incident CVD events from 17 studies was 0.93 (0.92-0.95). Specifically, GLV intake was inversely related with incident cerebral infarction (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88-0.96), heart disease (RR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87-0.99) and other CVD events (RR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.93-0.98).

Conclusions: GLV intake was associated with a lower incidence of CVD, and may be a promising primary-prevention strategy against CVD events. The findings are especially important in LMICs where the burden of CVD remains high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2021-017DOI Listing
June 2021

Green leafy vegetable intakes are inversely related to the incidence of stroke.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020 Oct 23. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Centre for Genomic and Precision Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan 200284 Ibadan, Nigeria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwaa040DOI Listing
October 2020

Pragmatic Solutions for Stroke Recovery and Improved Quality of Life in Low- and Middle-Income Countries-A Systematic Review.

Front Neurol 2020 25;11:337. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Given the limited healthcare resources in low and middle income countries (LMICs), effective rehabilitation strategies that can be realistically adopted in such settings are required. A systematic review of literature was conducted to identify pragmatic solutions and outcomes capable of enhancing stroke recovery and quality of life of stroke survivors for low- and middle- income countries. PubMed, HINARI, and Directory of Open Access Journals databases were searched for published Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) till November 2018. Only completed trials published in English with non-pharmacological interventions on adult stroke survivors were included in the review while published protocols, pilot studies and feasibility analysis of trials were excluded. Obtained data were synthesized thematically and descriptively analyzed. One thousand nine hundred and ninety six studies were identified while 347 (65.22% high quality) RCTs were found to be eligible for the review. The most commonly assessed variables (and outcome measure utility) were activities of daily living [75.79% of the studies, with Barthel Index (37.02%)], motor function [66.57%; with Fugl Meyer scale (71.88%)], and gait [31.12%; with 6 min walk test (38.67%)]. Majority of the innovatively high technology interventions such as robot therapy (95.24%), virtual reality (94.44%), transcranial direct current stimulation (78.95%), transcranial magnetic stimulation (88.0%) and functional electrical stimulation (85.00%) were conducted in high income countries. Several traditional and low-cost interventions such as constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), resistant and aerobic exercises (R&AE), task oriented therapy (TOT), body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) were reported to significantly contribute to the recovery of motor function, activity, participation, and improvement of quality of life after stroke. Several pragmatic, in terms of affordability, accessibility and utility, stroke rehabilitation solutions, and outcome measures that can be used in resource-limited settings were found to be effective in facilitating and enhancing post-stroke recovery and quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7336355PMC
June 2020

The Nigeria Parkinson Disease Registry: Process, Profile, and Prospects of a Collaborative Project.

Mov Disord 2020 08 19;35(8):1315-1322. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Muritala Muhammed Specialist Hospital, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria.

Background: Clinical disease registries are useful for quality improvement in care, benchmarking standards, and facilitating research. Collaborative networks established thence can enhance national and international studies by generating more robust samples and credible data and promote knowledge sharing and capacity building. This report describes the methodology, baseline data, and prospects of the Nigeria Parkinson Disease Registry.

Methods: This national registry was established in November 2016. Ethics approval was obtained for all sites. Basic anonymized data for consecutive cases fulfilling the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Brain Bank criteria (except the exclusion criterion of affected family members) are registered by participating neurologists via a secure registry website (www.parkinsonnigeria.com) using a minimal common data capture format.

Results: The registry had captured 578 participants from 5 of 6 geopolitical zones in Nigeria by July 2019 (72.5% men). Mean age at onset was 60.3 ± 10.7 years; median disease duration (interquartile range) was 36 months (18-60.5 months). Young-onset disease (<50 years) represented 15.2%. A family history was documented in 4.5% and 7.8% with age at onset <50 and ≥ 50, respectively. The most frequent initial symptom was tremor (45.3%). At inclusion, 93.4% were on treatment (54.5% on levodopa monotherapy). Per-capita direct cost for the registry was $3.37.

Conclusions: This is the first published national Parkinson's disease registry in sub-Saharan Africa. The registry will serve as a platform for development of multipronged evidence-based policies and initiatives to improve quality of care of Parkinson's disease and research engagement in Nigeria. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28123DOI Listing
August 2020

Adult-Onset Seizure Disorder Secondary to Schizencephaly.

Asian J Neurosurg 2020 Jan-Mar;15(1):159-161. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Surgery, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria.

Schizencephaly is a very rare neurological disorder usually discovered during radiological evaluation of children and young adults with seizure disorders or neurodevelopmental anomalies. We present a 66-year-old patient with right-sided hemiatrophy and paresis presenting with an adult-onset seizure disorder. Her seizure was satisfactorily controlled with a single-therapy antiseizure drug. Congenital brain lesions should be part of the differential diagnoses in patients with epilepsy who have body asymmetry dated back to childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ajns.AJNS_293_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7057868PMC
February 2020

Differential Impact of Risk Factors on Stroke Occurrence Among Men Versus Women in West Africa.

Stroke 2019 04;50(4):820-827

Centre for Genomic and Precision Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria (R.A., A.A., M.O.).

Background and Purpose- The interplay between sex and the dominant risk factors for stroke occurrence in sub-Saharan Africa has not been clearly delineated. We compared the effect sizes of risk factors of stroke by sex among West Africans. Methods- SIREN study (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Networks) is a case-control study conducted at 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases were adults aged >18 years with computerized tomography/magnetic resonance imaging confirmed stroke, and controls were age- and sex-matched stroke-free adults. Comprehensive evaluation for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was performed using validated tools. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and reported risk factor specific and composite population attributable risks with 95% CIs. Results- Of the 2118 stroke cases, 1193 (56.3%) were males. The mean±SD age of males was 58.1±13.2 versus 60.15±14.53 years among females. Shared modifiable risk factors for stroke with adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) among females versus males, respectively, were hypertension [29.95 (12.49-71.77) versus 16.1 0(9.19-28.19)], dyslipidemia [2.08 (1.42-3.06) versus 1.83 (1.29-2.59)], diabetes mellitus [3.18 (2.11-4.78) versus 2.19 (1.53-3.15)], stress [2.34 (1.48-3.67) versus 1.61 (1.07-2.43)], and low consumption of green leafy vegetables [2.92 (1.89-4.50) versus 2.00 (1.33-3.00)]. However, salt intake and income were significantly different between males and females. Six modifiable factors had a combined population attributable risk of 99.1% (98.3%-99.6%) among females with 9 factors accounting for 97.2% (94.9%-98.7%) among males. Hemorrhagic stroke was more common among males (36.0%) than among females (27.6%), but stroke was less severe among males than females. Conclusions- Overall, risk factors for stroke occurrence are commonly shared by both sexes in West Africa favoring concerted interventions for stroke prevention in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.022786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433514PMC
April 2019

Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to stroke in Ghana and Nigeria: A SIREN call to action.

PLoS One 2018 16;13(11):e0206548. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana.

Introduction: Stroke is a prominent cause of death, disability, and dementia in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network works collaboratively with stroke survivors and individuals serving as community controls to comprehensively characterize the genomic, sociocultural, economic and behavioral risk factors for stroke in SSA.

Purpose: In this paper, we aim to: i) explore the attitudes, beliefs, and practices related to stroke in Ghana and Nigeria using the process of qualitative description; and ii) propose actions for future research and community-based participation and education.

Methods: Stroke survivors, their caregivers, health care professionals, and community representatives and faith-based leaders participated in one of twenty-six focus groups, which qualitatively explored community beliefs, attitudes and practices related to stroke in Ghana and Nigeria. Arthur Kleinman's Explanatory Model of Illness and the Social Ecological Model guided the questions and/or thematic analysis of the qualitative data. We hereby describe our focus group methods and analyses of qualitative data, as well as the findings and suggestions for improving stroke outcomes.

Results And Discussion: The major findings illustrate the fears, causes, chief problems, treatment, and recommendations related to stroke through the views of the participants, as well as recommendations for working effectively with the SIREN communities. Findings are compared to SIREN quantitative data and other qualitative studies in Africa. As far as we are aware, this is the first paper to qualitatively explore and contrast community beliefs, attitudes, and practices among stroke survivors and their caregivers, community and faith-based leaders, and health professionals in multiple communities within Nigeria and Ghana.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206548PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6239297PMC
April 2019

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of West Africans on genetic studies of stroke: Evidence from the SIREN Study.

Int J Stroke 2019 01 24;14(1):69-79. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

7 Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Background: It is crucial to assess genomic literacy related to stroke among Africans in preparation for the ethical, legal and societal implications of the genetic revolution which has begun in Africa.

Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of West Africans about stroke genetic studies.

Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among stroke patients and stroke-free controls recruited across 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Participants' knowledge of heritability of stroke, willingness to undergo genetic testing and perception of the potential benefits of stroke genetic research were assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Descriptive, frequency distribution and multiple regression analyses were performed.

Results: Only 49% of 2029 stroke patients and 57% of 2603 stroke-free individuals knew that stroke was a heritable disorder. Among those who knew, 90% were willing to undergo genetic testing. Knowledge of stroke heritability was associated with having at least post-secondary education (OR 1.51, 1.25-1.81) and a family history of stroke (OR 1.20, 1.03-1.39) while Islamic religion (OR=0.82, CI: 0.72-0.94), being currently unmarried (OR = 0.81, CI: 0.70-0.92), and alcohol use (OR = 0.78, CI: 0.67-0.91) were associated with lower odds of awareness of stroke as a heritable disorder. Willingness to undergo genetic testing for stroke was associated with having a family history of stroke (OR 1.34, 1.03-1.74) but inversely associated with a medical history of high blood pressure (OR = 0.79, 0.65-0.96).

Conclusion: To further improve knowledge of stroke heritability and willingness to embrace genetic testing for stroke, individuals with less formal education, history of high blood pressure and no family history of stroke require targeted interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493018790059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325169PMC
January 2019

Biobanking in a Challenging African Environment: Unique Experience from the SIREN Project.

Biopreserv Biobank 2018 Jun 7;16(3):217-232. Epub 2018 May 7.

Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Center, Umuahia, Nigeria.

Africa was previously insufficiently represented in the emerging discipline of biobanking despite commendable early efforts. However, with the Human, Heredity, and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative, biorepository science has been bolstered, regional biobanks are springing up, and awareness about biobanks is growing on the continent. The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) project is a transnational, multicenter, hospital and community-based study involving over 3000 cases and 3000 controls recruited from 16 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. SIREN aims to explore and unravel the genetic and environmental factors that interact to produce the peculiar phenotypic and clinical characteristics of stroke as seen in people of African ancestry and facilitate the development of new diagnostics, therapeutics, and preventative strategies. The aim of this article is to describe our experience with the development of the procedure for collection, processing, storage, and shipment of biological samples (blood, serum, plasma, buffy coat, red cell concentrates, and DNA) and brain imaging across coordinating and participating sites within the SIREN Project. The SIREN network was initiated in 2014 with support and funding from the H3Africa Initiative. The SIREN Biobank currently has 3015 brain images, 92,950 blood fractions (serum, plasma, red cell concentrates, and buffy coat) accrued from 8450 recruited subjects, and quantified and aliquoted good-quality DNA extracts from 6150 study subjects. This represents an invaluable resource for future research with expanding genomic and trans-omic technologies. This will facilitate the involvement of indigenous African samples in cutting-edge stroke genomics and trans-omics research. It is, however, critical to effectively engage African stroke patients and community members who have contributed precious biological materials to the SIREN Biobank to generate appropriate evidence base for dealing with ethical, legal, and social issues of privacy, autonomy, identifiability, biorights, governance issues, and public understanding of stroke biobanking in the context of unique African culture, language, and belief systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/bio.2017.0113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5995267PMC
June 2018

H3Africa: current perspectives.

Pharmgenomics Pers Med 2018 10;11:59-66. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town.

Precision medicine is being enabled in high-income countries by the growing availability of health data, increasing knowledge of the genetic determinants of disease and variation in response to treatment (pharmacogenomics), and the decreasing costs of data generation, which promote routine application of genomic technologies in the health sector. However, there is uncertainty about the feasibility of applying precision medicine approaches in low- and middle-income countries, due to the lack of population-specific knowledge, skills, and resources. The Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative was established to drive new research into the genetic and environmental basis for human diseases of relevance to Africans as well as to build capacity for genomic research on the continent. Precision medicine requires this capacity, in addition to reference data on local populations, and skills to analyze and interpret genomic data from the bedside. The H3Africa consortium is collectively processing samples and data for over 70,000 participants across the continent, accompanied in most cases by rich clinical information on a variety of non-communicable and infectious diseases. These projects are increasingly providing novel insights into the genetic basis of diseases in indigenous populations, insights that have the potential to drive the development of new diagnostics and treatments. The consortium has also invested significant resources into establishing high-quality biorepositories in Africa, a bioinformatic network, and a strong training program that has developed skills in genomic data analysis and interpretation among bioinformaticians, wet-lab researchers, and health-care professionals. Here, we describe the current perspectives of the H3Africa consortium and how it can contribute to making precision medicine in Africa a reality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PGPM.S141546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5903476PMC
April 2018

Gaps in Guidelines for the Management of Diabetes in Low- and Middle-Income Versus High-Income Countries-A Systematic Review.

Diabetes Care 2018 05;41(5):1097-1105

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Objective: The extent to which diabetes (DM) practice guidelines, often based on evidence from high-income countries (HIC), can be implemented to improve outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is a critical challenge. We carried out a systematic review to compare type 2 DM guidelines in individual LMIC versus HIC over the past decade to identify aspects that could be improved to facilitate implementation.

Research Design And Methods: Eligible guidelines were sought from online databases and websites of diabetes associations and ministries of health. Type 2 DM guidelines published between 2006 and 2016 with accessible full publications were included. Each of the 54 eligible guidelines was assessed for compliance with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) standards, coverage of the cardiovascular quadrangle (epidemiologic surveillance, prevention, acute care, and rehabilitation), translatability, and its target audiences.

Results: Most LMIC guidelines were inadequate in terms of applicability, clarity, and dissemination plan as well as socioeconomic and ethical-legal contextualization. LMIC guidelines targeted mainly health care providers, with only a few including patients (7%), payers (11%), and policy makers (18%) as their target audiences. Compared with HIC guidelines, the spectrum of DM clinical care addressed by LMIC guidelines was narrow. Most guidelines from the LMIC complied with less than half of the IOM standards, with 12% of the LMIC guidelines satisfying at least four IOM criteria as opposed to 60% of the HIC guidelines ( < 0.001).

Conclusions: A new approach to the contextualization, content development, and delivery of LMIC guidelines is needed to improve outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc17-1795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5911785PMC
May 2018

The epidemiology of stroke in Africa: A systematic review of existing methods and new approaches.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2018 01 11;20(1):47-55. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Accurate epidemiological surveillance of the burden of stroke is direly needed to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective interventions in Africa. The authors therefore conducted a systematic review of the methodology of stroke epidemiological studies conducted in Africa from 1970 to 2017 using gold standard criteria obtained from landmark epidemiological publications. Of 1330 articles extracted, only 50 articles were eligible for review grouped under incidence, prevalence, case-fatality, health-related quality of life, and disability-adjusted life-years studies. Because of various challenges, no study fulfilled the criteria for an excellent stroke incidence study. The relatively few stroke epidemiology studies in Africa have significant methodological flaws. Innovative approaches leveraging available information and communication technology infrastructure are recommended to facilitate rigorous epidemiological studies for accurate stroke surveillance in Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.13152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5777902PMC
January 2018

Development and Reliability of a User-Friendly Multicenter Phenotyping Application for Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Stroke.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2017 Nov 29;26(11):2662-2670. Epub 2017 Jul 29.

University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Annotation and Image Markup on ClearCanvas Enriched Stroke-phenotyping Software (ACCESS) is a novel stand-alone computer software application that allows the creation of simple standardized annotations for reporting brain images of all stroke types. We developed the ACCESS application and determined its inter-rater and intra-rater reliability in the Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) study to assess its suitability for multicenter studies.

Methods: One hundred randomly selected stroke imaging reports from 5 SIREN sites were re-evaluated by 4 trained independent raters to determine the inter-rater reliability of the ACCESS (version 12.0) software for stroke phenotyping. To determine intra-rater reliability, 6 raters reviewed the same cases previously reported by them after a month of interval. Ischemic stroke was classified using the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP), Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST), and Atherosclerosis, Small-vessel disease, Cardiac source, Other cause (ASCO) protocols, while hemorrhagic stroke was classified using the Structural lesion, Medication, Amyloid angiopathy, Systemic disease, Hypertensive angiopathy and Undetermined (SMASH-U) protocol in ACCESS. Agreement among raters was measured with Cohen's kappa statistics.

Results: For primary stroke type, inter-rater agreement was .98 (95% confidence interval [CI], .94-1.00), while intra-rater agreement was 1.00 (95% CI, 1.00). For OCSP subtypes, inter-rater agreement was .97 (95% CI, .92-1.00) for the partial anterior circulation infarcts, .92 (95% CI, .76-1.00) for the total anterior circulation infarcts, and excellent for both lacunar infarcts and posterior circulation infarcts. Intra-rater agreement was .97 (.90-1.00), while inter-rater agreement was .93 (95% CI, .84-1.00) for TOAST subtypes. Inter-rater agreement ranged between .78 (cardioembolic) and .91 (large artery atherosclerotic) for ASCO subtypes and was .80 (95% CI, .56-1.00) for SMASH-U subtypes.

Conclusion: The ACCESS application facilitates a concordant and reproducible classification of stroke subtypes by multiple investigators, making it suitable for clinical use and multicenter research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2017.06.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5624839PMC
November 2017

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) rs1800796 and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKN2A/CDKN2B) rs2383207 are associated with ischemic stroke in indigenous West African Men.

J Neurol Sci 2017 Aug 23;379:229-235. Epub 2017 May 23.

University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; WFNR-Blossom Specialist Medical Center Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Inherited genetic variations offer a possible explanation for the observed peculiarities of stroke in sub - Saharan African populations. Interleukin-6 polymorphisms have been previously associated with ischemic stroke in some non-African populations.

Aim: Herein we investigated, for the first time, the association of genetic polymorphisms of IL-6, CDKN2A- CDKN2B and other genes with ischemic stroke among indigenous West African participants in the Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) Study.

Methods: Twenty-three previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 genes of relevance to the neurobiology of ischemic stroke were investigated. Logistic regression models adjusting for known cardiovascular disease risk factors were constructed to assess the associations of the 23 SNPs in rigorously phenotyped cases (N=429) of ischemic stroke (Men=198; Women=231) and stroke- free (N=483) controls (Men=236; Women=247).

Results: Interleukin-6 (IL6) rs1800796 (C minor allele; frequency: West Africans=8.6%) was significantly associated with ischemic stroke in men (OR=2.006, 95% CI=[1.065, 3.777], p=0.031) with hypertension in the model but not in women. In addition, rs2383207 in CDKN2A/CDKN2B (minor allele A with frequency: West Africans=1.7%) was also associated with ischemic stroke in men (OR=2.550, 95% CI=[1.027, 6.331], p=0.044) with primary covariates in the model, but not in women. Polymorphisms in other genes did not show significant association with ischemic stroke.

Conclusion: Polymorphisms rs1800796 in IL6 gene and rs2383207 in CDKN2A/CDKN2B gene have significant associations with ischemic stroke in indigenous West African men. CDKN2A/CDKN2B SNP rs2383207 is independently associated with ischemic stroke in indigenous West African men. Further research should focus on the contributions of inflammatory genes and other genetic polymorphisms, as well as the influence of sex on the neurobiology of stroke in people of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2017.05.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5546618PMC
August 2017

A systematic comparison of key features of ischemic stroke prevention guidelines in low- and middle-income vs. high-income countries.

J Neurol Sci 2017 Apr 20;375:360-366. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, USA.

Background And Purpose: Implementation of contextually appropriate, evidence-based, expert-recommended stroke prevention guideline is particularly important in Low-Income Countries (LMICs), which bear disproportional larger burden of stroke while possessing fewer resources. However, key quality characteristics of guidelines issued in LMICs compared with those in High-Income Countries (HICs) have not been systematically studied. We aimed to compare important features of stroke prevention guidelines issued in these groups.

Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, AJOL, SciELO, and LILACS databases for stroke prevention guidelines published between January 2005 and December 2015 by country. Primary search items included: "Stroke" and "Guidelines". We critically appraised the articles for evidence level, issuance frequency, translatability to clinical practice, and ethical considerations. We followed the PRISMA guidelines for the elaboration process.

Results: Among 36 stroke prevention guidelines published, 22 (61%) met eligibility criteria: 8 from LMICs (36%) and 14 from HICs (64%). LMIC-issued guidelines were less likely to have articulation of recommendations (62% vs. 100%, p=0.03), involve high quality systematic reviews (21% vs. 79%, p=0.006), have a good dissemination channels (12% vs 71%, p=0.02) and have an external reviewer (12% vs 57%, p=0.07). The patient views and preferences were the most significant stakeholder considerations in HIC (57%, p=0.01) compared with LMICs. The most frequent evidence grading system was American Heart Association (AHA) used in 22% of the guidelines. The Class I/III and Level (A) recommendations were homogenous among LMICs.

Conclusions: The quality and quantity of stroke prevention guidelines in LMICs are less than those of HICs and need to be significantly improved upon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2017.02.040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5813247PMC
April 2017

Prevalence and Prognostic Features of ECG Abnormalities in Acute Stroke: Findings From the SIREN Study Among Africans.

Glob Heart 2017 06 14;12(2):99-105. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Africa has a growing burden of stroke with associated high morbidity and a 3-year fatality rate of 84%. Cardiac disease contributes to stroke occurrence and outcomes, but the precise relationship of abnormalities as noted on a cheap and widely available test, the electrocardiogram (ECG), and acute stroke outcomes have not been previously characterized in Africans.

Objectives: The study assessed the prevalence and prognoses of various ECG abnormalities among African acute stroke patients encountered in a multisite, cross-national epidemiologic study.

Methods: We included 890 patients from Nigeria and Ghana with acute stroke who had 12-lead ECG recording within first 24 h of admission and stroke classified based on brain computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging. Stroke severity at baseline was assessed using the Stroke Levity Scale (SLS), whereas 1-month outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS).

Results: Patients' mean age was 58.4 ± 13.4 years, 490 were men (55%) and 400 were women (45%), 65.5% had ischemic stroke, and 85.4% had at least 1 ECG abnormality. Women were significantly more likely to have atrial fibrillation, or left ventricular hypertrophy with or without strain pattern. Compared to ischemic stroke patients, hemorrhagic stroke patients were less likely to have atrial fibrillation (1.0% vs. 6.7%; p = 0.002), but more likely to have left ventricular hypertrophy (64.4% vs. 51.4%; p = 0.004). Odds of severe disability or death at 1 month were higher with severe stroke (AOR: 2.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.44 to 3.50), or atrial enlargement (AOR: 1.45; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 2.02).

Conclusions: About 4 in 5 acute stroke patients in this African cohort had evidence of a baseline ECG abnormality, but presence of any atrial enlargement was the only independent ECG predictor of death or disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gheart.2017.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5582979PMC
June 2017

Exploring Overlaps Between the Genomic and Environmental Determinants of LVH and Stroke: A Multicenter Study in West Africa.

Glob Heart 2017 06 13;12(2):107-113.e5. Epub 2017 Mar 13.

University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Whether left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is determined by similar genomic and environmental risk factors with stroke, or is simply an intermediate stroke marker, is unknown.

Objectives: We present a research plan and preliminary findings to explore the overlap in the genomic and environmental determinants of LVH and stroke among Africans participating in the SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network) study.

Methods: SIREN is a transnational, multicenter study involving acute stroke patients and age-, ethnicity-, and sex-matched control subjects recruited from 9 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Genomic and environmental risk factors and other relevant phenotypes for stroke and LVH are being collected and compared using standard techniques.

Results: This preliminary analysis included only 725 stroke patients (mean age 59.1 ± 13.2 years; 54.3% male). Fifty-five percent of the stroke subjects had LVH with greater proportion among women (51.6% vs. 48.4%; p < 0.001). Those with LVH were younger (57.9 ± 12.8 vs. 60.6 ± 13.4; p = 0.006) and had higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure (167.1/99.5 mm Hg vs 151.7/90.6 mm Hg; p < 0.001). Uncontrolled blood pressure at presentation was prevalent in subjects with LVH (76.2% vs. 57.7%; p < 0.001). Significant independent predictors of LVH were age <45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14 to 3.19), female sex (AOR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.44 to 2.81), and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mm Hg (AOR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.39 to 3.19; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The prevalence of LVH was high among stroke patients especially the younger ones, suggesting a genetic component to LVH. Hypertension was a major modifiable risk factor for stroke as well as LVH. It is envisaged that the SIREN project will elucidate polygenic overlap (if present) between LVH and stroke among Africans, thereby defining the role of LVH as a putative intermediate cardiovascular phenotype and therapeutic target to inform interventions to reduce stroke risk in populations of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gheart.2017.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5583025PMC
June 2017

Gaps in Hypertension Guidelines in Low- and Middle-Income Versus High-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

Hypertension 2016 12 3;68(6):1328-1337. Epub 2016 Oct 3.

From the Department of Medicine and University College Hospital (M.O., J.Y., T.M., L.O., T.F., E.S.M., B.S.) and Institute for Advanced Medical Research and Training, College of Medicine (R.A.), University of Ibadan, Nigeria; WFNR-Blossom Specialist Medical Center, Ibadan, Nigeria (M.O., E.U.); Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria (P.O.); Department of Medicine, CRONICAS Center of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru (J.J.M.); Department of Neurology (W.F., R.S., B.O.) and Department of Public Health Sciences (M.G.), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (S.Y.); Department of Family and Emergency Medicine, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada (J.K.); Department of Public Health, Health Service Organization, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (L.T.); Departments of Anesthesia/Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (J.V.O.); Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, India (P.M.); Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (C.C., R.J.); Non Communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa (A.K.); School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia (A.G.T.); Cardiovascular Global Health Division of Cardiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (G.S.B.); Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases, UCL Institute for Global Health, London, United Kingdom (G.P.); Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands (C.A.); Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Italy (P.A.M.); and Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa (S.N.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.08290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5159303PMC
December 2016
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