Publications by authors named "Paul Murphy"

521 Publications

Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) in preclinical research: A scoping review protocol.

HRB Open Res 2021 31;4:61. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dublin, D02 YN77, Ireland.

Patient and public involvement (PPI) aims to improve the quality, relevance, and appropriateness of research and ensure that it meets the needs and expectations of those affected by particular conditions to the greatest possible degree. The evidence base for the positive impact of PPI on clinical research continues to grow, but the role of PPI in preclinical research (an umbrella term encompassing 'basic', 'fundamental', 'translational' or 'lab-based' research) remains limited. As funding bodies and policymakers continue to increase emphasis on the relevance of PPI to preclinical research, it is timely to map the PPI literature to support preclinical researchers involving the public, patients, or other service users in their research. Therefore, the aim of this scoping review is to explore the literature on patient and public involvement in preclinical research from any discipline. This scoping review will search the literature in Medline (PubMed), Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science Core Collection, Scopus, and OpenGrey.net to explore the application of PPI in preclinical research. This review will follow the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidelines for scoping reviews. It will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). Two reviewers will independently review articles for inclusion in the final review. Data extraction will be guided by the research questions. The PPI advisory panel will then collaboratively identify themes in the extracted data. This scoping review will provide a map of current evidence surrounding preclinical PPI, and identify the body of literature on this topic, which has not been comprehensively reviewed to date. Findings will inform ongoing work of the research team, support the work of other preclinical researchers aiming to include PPI in their own research, and identify knowledge and practice gaps. Areas for future research will be identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/hrbopenres.13303.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8420886PMC
August 2021

What is the Sugar Code?

Chembiochem 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Structural and Chemical Biology, CIB Margarita Salas, CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040, Madrid, Spain.

A code is defined by the nature of the symbols, which are used to generate information-storing combinations (e. g. oligo- and polymers). Like nucleic acids and proteins, oligo- and polysaccharides are ubiquitous, and they are a biochemical platform for establishing molecular messages. Of note, the letters of the sugar code system (third alphabet of life) excel in coding capacity by making an unsurpassed versatility for isomer (code word) formation possible by variability in anomery and linkage position of the glycosidic bond, ring size and branching. The enzymatic machinery for glycan biosynthesis (writers) realizes this enormous potential for building a large vocabulary. It includes possibilities for dynamic editing/erasing as known from nucleic acids and proteins. Matching the glycome diversity, a large panel of sugar receptors (lectins) has developed based on more than a dozen folds. Lectins 'read' the glycan-encoded information. Hydrogen/coordination bonding and ionic pairing together with stacking and C-H/π-interactions as well as modes of spatial glycan presentation underlie the selectivity and specificity of glycan-lectin recognition. Modular design of lectins together with glycan display and the nature of the cognate glycoconjugate account for the large number of post-binding events. They give an entry to the glycan vocabulary its functional, often context-dependent meaning(s), hereby building the dictionary of the sugar code.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.202100327DOI Listing
September 2021

Rectal endometriosis mimicking primary rectal adenocarcinoma.

Diagn Cytopathol 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego, California, USA.

Endometriosis is a benign entity defined as the presence of endometrium tissue outside of uterine cavity. It is a common disease involving peritoneum, pelvic organs, gastrointestinal tract, and so on. Diagnosis based on cytology specimen can be challenge when we encounter increased cytological atypia in the glandular epithelium, with abundant inflammatory cells and debris in the background. We presented a case of deep rectal endometriosis mimicking rectal adenocarcinoma on cytology specimen and on MRI imaging studies. The combination of endometrial glands, cellular Mullerian stroma, hemorrhage, and hemosiderin-laden macrophages are the characteristic features on cytologic specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dc.24847DOI Listing
August 2021

HUWE1 employs a giant substrate-binding ring to feed and regulate its HECT E3 domain.

Nat Chem Biol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna BioCenter, Vienna, Austria.

HUWE1 is a universal quality-control E3 ligase that marks diverse client proteins for proteasomal degradation. Although the giant HECT enzyme is an essential component of the ubiquitin-proteasome system closely linked with severe human diseases, its molecular mechanism is little understood. Here, we present the crystal structure of Nematocida HUWE1, revealing how a single E3 enzyme has specificity for a multitude of unrelated substrates. The protein adopts a remarkable snake-like structure, where the C-terminal HECT domain heads an extended alpha-solenoid body that coils in on itself and houses various protein-protein interaction modules. Our integrative structural analysis shows that this ring structure is highly dynamic, enabling the flexible HECT domain to reach protein targets presented by the various acceptor sites. Together, our data demonstrate how HUWE1 is regulated by its unique structure, adapting a promiscuous E3 ligase to selectively target unassembled orphan proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41589-021-00831-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Immunomodulatory properties of characellide A on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Inflammopharmacology 2021 Aug 9;29(4):1201-1210. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Center for Basic and Clinical Immunology Research (CISI), WAO Center of Excellence, University of Naples Federico II, Via S. Pansini 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.

Marine sponges and their associated microbiota are multicellular animals known to produce metabolites with interesting pharmacological properties playing a pivotal role against a plethora of pathologic disorders such as inflammation, cancer and infections. Characellide A and B belong to a novel class of glycolipopeptides isolated from the deep sea marine sponge Characella pachastrelloides. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of characellide A and B on cytokine and chemokine release from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Characellide A induces a concentration- and time-dependent CXCL8, IL-6 and TNF-α release from PBMC. This production is mediated by the induction of gene transcription. Moreover, cytokine/chemokine release induced by characellide A from PBMC is CD1d-dependent because a CD1d antagonist, 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane [DPPE]-polyethylene glycolmonomethylether [PEG], specifically inhibits characellide A-induced activation of PBMC. In conclusion, characellide A is a novel modulator of adaptative/innate immune responses. Further studies are needed to understand its potential pharmacological application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10787-021-00836-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298336PMC
August 2021

Imitating evolution's tinkering by protein engineering reveals extension of human galectin-7 activity.

Histochem Cell Biol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, 80539, Munich, Germany.

Wild-type lectins have distinct types of modular design. As a step to explain the physiological importance of their special status, hypothesis-driven protein engineering is used to generate variants. Concerning adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins, non-covalently associated homodimers are commonly encountered in vertebrates. The homodimeric galectin-7 (Gal-7) is a multifunctional context-dependent modulator. Since the possibility of conversion from the homodimer to hybrids with other galectin domains, i.e. from Gal-1 and Gal-3, has recently been discovered, we designed Gal-7-based constructs, i.e. stable (covalently linked) homo- and heterodimers. They were produced and purified by affinity chromatography, and the sugar-binding activity of each lectin unit proven by calorimetry. Inspection of profiles of binding of labeled galectins to an array-like platform with various cell types, i.e. sections of murine epididymis and jejunum, and impact on neuroblastoma cell proliferation revealed no major difference between natural and artificial (stable) homodimers. When analyzing heterodimers, acquisition of altered properties was seen. Remarkably, binding properties and activity as effector can depend on the order of arrangement of lectin domains (from N- to C-termini) and on the linker length. After dissociation of the homodimer, the Gal-7 domain can build new functionally active hybrids with other partners. This study provides a clear direction for research on defining the full range of Gal-7 functionality and offers the perspective of testing applications for engineered heterodimers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00418-021-02004-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Blame it on the pump.

Clin Case Rep 2021 Jun 9;9(6):e04195. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine St. Vincent's University Hospital Dublin 4 Ireland.

Although intrathecal pumps may lead to spinal symptoms that are likely related to the pump itself, the case presented herein underscores the importance of casting a broad differential diagnosis at the time of initial presentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.4195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190513PMC
June 2021

NEOURETEROCYSTOSTOMY AND URETHRAL STENT PLACEMENT IN A BLACK-HANDED SPIDER MONKEY ().

J Zoo Wildl Med 2021 Jun;52(2):843-848

Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

A 27-y-old female black-handed spider monkey () was evaluated 13 d after an ovariohysterectomy because of abdominal distension, anorexia, and absent urination. The animal was diagnosed with a uroabdomen and urethral obstruction from computed tomographic findings and fluid creatinine levels. During exploratory laparotomy, a defect in the right ureter was confirmed as the source of the uroabdomen. Utilizing intraoperative fluoroscopy, a urethral obstruction with an irregular luminal filling defect was evident. A self-expanding nitinol urethral stent was placed, and a ureteral transposition was performed. Two months after the procedure, the animal developed dysuria, a urinary tract infection, recurrent bladder distension and a partial urethral obstruction. Treatment with prazosin 1 mg/kg PO q12h improved urination. Reobstruction of the urethra occurred 17 mo postsurgery, and the animal was euthanatized. On postmortem examination, the animal had ingrowth into the stent with proliferative granulation tissue, detrusor muscle degeneration, pelvic adhesions, cystitis, pyelonephritis, and hydronephrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2020-0131DOI Listing
June 2021

Characterizing the oligogenic architecture of plant growth phenotypes informs genomic selection approaches in a common wheat population.

BMC Genomics 2021 May 31;22(1):402. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 27695, NC, United States.

Background: Genetic variation in growth over the course of the season is a major source of grain yield variation in wheat, and for this reason variants controlling heading date and plant height are among the best-characterized in wheat genetics. While the major variants for these traits have been cloned, the importance of these variants in contributing to genetic variation for plant growth over time is not fully understood. Here we develop a biparental population segregating for major variants for both plant height and flowering time to characterize the genetic architecture of the traits and identify additional novel QTL.

Results: We find that additive genetic variation for both traits is almost entirely associated with major and moderate-effect QTL, including four novel heading date QTL and four novel plant height QTL. FT2 and Vrn-A3 are proposed as candidate genes underlying QTL on chromosomes 3A and 7A, while Rht8 is mapped to chromosome 2D. These mapped QTL also underlie genetic variation in a longitudinal analysis of plant growth over time. The oligogenic architecture of these traits is further demonstrated by the superior trait prediction accuracy of QTL-based prediction models compared to polygenic genomic selection models.

Conclusions: In a population constructed from two modern wheat cultivars adapted to the southeast U.S., almost all additive genetic variation in plant growth traits is associated with known major variants or novel moderate-effect QTL. Major transgressive segregation was observed in this population despite the similar plant height and heading date characters of the parental lines. This segregation is being driven primarily by a small number of mapped QTL, instead of by many small-effect, undetected QTL. As most breeding populations in the southeast U.S. segregate for known QTL for these traits, genetic variation in plant height and heading date in these populations likely emerges from similar combinations of major and moderate effect QTL. We can make more accurate and cost-effective prediction models by targeted genotyping of key SNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07574-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166015PMC
May 2021

Evaluation of Oral Transmucosal Administration of Pentobarbital for Euthanasia of Conscious Wild Birds.

J Appl Anim Welf Sci 2021 Apr 10:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA, USA.

This prospective study evaluated oral transmucosal pentobarbital sodium at three doses in 110 wild-caught wild birds requiring euthanasia. Birds received transmucosal pentobarbital at five (430 mg/kg), six (516 mg/kg), and seven times (602 mg/kg) the intravenous dose for mammals. Time to first effects and loss of consciousness, presence of pupillary light and corneal reflexes, apnea, and asystole were recorded each minute. When asystole was not achieved at 5 minutes, IV pentobarbital was administered. Combining data for all doses, loss of consciousness occurred at a median (range) of 2 minutes (0-4.75 min), apnea at 3 minutes (0-6 min), and asystole at 4 minutes (0.5-5 min). Loss of consciousness and apnea occurred significantly faster in the 602 mg/kg dose group than in the 430 mg/kg group (p = 0.009, difference of 0.6 ± 0.2 min; p = 0.024, difference of 0.7 ± 0.3 min), respectively. Apnea and asystole were achieved in 80/110 birds within 5 minutes. Oral transmucosal pentobarbital results in rapid loss of consciousness and respiratory arrest and provides a reliable alternative euthanasia method compared to intravenous administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10888705.2021.1911655DOI Listing
April 2021

Source partitioning using NO isotopomers and soil WFPS to establish dominant NO production pathways from different pasture sward compositions.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 17;781:146515. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland; UCD Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Electronic address:

Nitrous oxide (NO) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted from agricultural soils and is influenced by nitrogen (N) fertiliser management and weather and soil conditions. Source partitioning NO emissions related to management practices and soil conditions could suggest effective mitigation strategies. Multispecies swards can maintain herbage yields at reduced N fertiliser rates compared to grass monocultures and may reduce N losses to the wider environment. A restricted-simplex centroid experiment was used to measure daily NO fluxes and associated isotopomers from eight experimental plots (7.8 m) post a urea-N fertiliser application (40 kg N ha). Experimental pastures consisted of differing proportions of grass, legume and forage herb represented by perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens) and ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), respectively. NO isotopomers were measured using a cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument adapted with a small sample isotope module (SSIM) for the analysis of gas samples ≤20 mL. Site preference (SP = δN - δN) and δN ((δN + δN) / 2) values were used to attribute NO production to nitrification, denitrification or a mixture of both nitrification and denitrification over a range of soil WFPS (%). Daily NO fluxes ranged from 8.26 to 86.86 g NO-N ha d. Overall, 34.2% of daily NO fluxes were attributed to nitrification, 29.0% to denitrification and 36.8% to a mixture of both. A significant diversity effect of white clover and ribwort plantain on predicted SP and δN indicated that the inclusion of ribwort plantain may decrease NO emission through biological nitrification inhibition under drier soil conditions (31%-75% WFPS). Likewise, a sharp decline in predicted SP indicates that increased white clover content could increase NO emissions associated with denitrification under elevated soil moisture conditions (43%-77% WFPS). Biological nitrification inhibition from ribwort plantain inclusion in grassland swards and management of N fertiliser source and application timing to match soil moisture conditions could be useful NO mitigation strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146515DOI Listing
August 2021

CLEAR - Effect of contact lens materials and designs on the anatomy and physiology of the eye.

Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2021 Apr 25;44(2):192-219. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW Sydney, Australia.

This paper outlines changes to the ocular surface caused by contact lenses and their degree of clinical significance. Substantial research and development to improve oxygen permeability of rigid and soft contact lenses has meant that in many countries the issues caused by hypoxia to the ocular surface have largely been negated. The ability of contact lenses to change the axial growth characteristics of the globe is being utilised to help reduce the myopia pandemic and several studies and meta-analyses have shown that wearing orthokeratology lenses or soft multifocal contact lenses can reduce axial length growth (and hence myopia). However, effects on blinking, ptosis, the function of Meibomian glands, fluorescein and lissamine green staining of the conjunctiva and cornea, production of lid-parallel conjunctival folds and lid wiper epitheliopathy have received less research attention. Contact lens wear produces a subclinical inflammatory response manifested by increases in the number of dendritiform cells in the conjunctiva, cornea and limbus. Papillary conjunctivitis is also a complication of all types of contact lenses. Changes to wear schedule (daily disposable from overnight wear) or lens materials (hydrogel from SiHy) can reduce papillary conjunctivitis, but the effect of such changes on dendritic cell migration needs further study. These changes may be associated with decreased comfort but confirmatory studies are needed. Contact lenses can affect the sensitivity of the ocular surface to mechanical stimulation, but whether these changes affect comfort requires further investigation. In conclusion, there have been changes to lens materials, design and wear schedules over the past 20+ years that have improved their safety and seen the development of lenses that can reduce the myopia development. However, several changes to the ocular surface still occur and warrant further research effort in order to optimise the lens wearing experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clae.2021.02.006DOI Listing
April 2021

Crystal Structure of the Carbohydrate Recognition Domain of the Human Macrophage Galactose C-Type Lectin Bound to GalNAc and the Tumor-Associated Tn Antigen.

Biochemistry 2021 05 16;60(17):1327-1336. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, United States.

The human macrophage galactose lectin (MGL) is an endocytic type II transmembrane receptor expressed on immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells and activated macrophages and plays a role in modulating the immune system in response to infections and cancer. MGL contains an extracellular calcium-dependent (C-type) carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) that specifically binds terminal acetylgalactosamine glycan residues such as the Tn and sialyl-Tn antigens found on tumor cells, as well as other and glycans displayed on certain viruses and parasites. Even though the glycan specificity of MGL is known and several binding glycoproteins have been identified, the molecular basis for substrate recognition has remained elusive due to the lack of high-resolution structures. Here we present crystal structures of the MGL CRD at near endosomal pH and in several complexes, which reveal details of the interactions with the natural ligand, GalNAc, the cancer-associated Tn-Ser antigen, and a synthetic GalNAc mimetic ligand. Like the asialoglycoprotein receptor, additional calcium atoms are present and contribute to stabilization of the MGL CRD fold. The structure provides the molecular basis for preferential binding of acetylgalactosamine over galactose and prompted the re-evaluation of the binding modes previously proposed in solution. Saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance data acquired using the MGL CRD and interpreted using the crystal structure indicate a single binding mode for GalNAc in solution. Models of MGL1 and MGL2, the mouse homologues of MGL, explain how these proteins might recognize Lewis and GalNAc, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.1c00009DOI Listing
May 2021

The ubiquity of uncertainty: a scoping review on how undergraduate health professions' students engage with uncertainty.

Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 2021 08 1;26(3):913-958. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

RCSI Health Professions' Education Centre, 123 St Stephen's Green, Dublin, Ireland.

Although the evidence base around uncertainty and education has expanded in recent years, a lack of clarity around conceptual terms and a heterogeneity of study designs means that this landscape remains indistinct. This scoping review explores how undergraduate health professions' students learn to engage with uncertainty related to their academic practice. To our knowledge, this is the first scoping review which examines teaching and learning related to uncertainty across multiple health professions. The scoping review is underpinned by the five-stage framework of (Arksey and O'Malley in Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework International Journal of Social Research Methodology 8(1) 19-32, 2005). We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsychINFO, ISI Web of Science, and CINAHL and hand-searched selected health professions' education journals. The search strategy yielded a total of 5,017 articles, of which 97 were included in the final review. Four major themes were identified: "Learners' interactions with uncertainty"; "Factors that influence learner experiences"; "Educational outcomes"; and, "Teaching and learning approaches". Our findings highlight that uncertainty is a ubiquitous concern in health professions' education, with students experiencing different forms of uncertainty at many stages of their training. These experiences are influenced by both individual and system-related factors. Formal teaching strategies that directly support learning around uncertainty were infrequent, and included arts-based teaching, and clinical case presentations. Students also met with uncertainty indirectly through problem-based learning, clinical teaching, humanities teaching, simulation, team-based learning, small group learning, tactical games, online discussion of anatomy topics, and virtual patients. Reflection and reflective practice are also mentioned as strategies within the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10459-021-10028-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917952PMC
August 2021

Comparative Analysis of Tear Proteins in Keratoconic Scleral Lens Wearers with Variation in Limbal Clearance.

Optom Vis Sci 2021 02;98(2):143-149

School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Significance: Cytokine and protease analysis revealed relative changes in the post-lens tear film of scleral lenses with low and high limbal clearances. Results from this study indicate that midperipheral lens fit is an important fitting feature that can impact the inflammatory response of a keratoconic eye.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in levels of inflammatory mediators in the post-lens tear film of keratoconic scleral lens wearers with varying limbal clearance designs.

Methods: Twenty-two keratoconic eyes were fitted with two sets of scleral lenses that were consistent in lens diameter and central sagittal depth but varied in limbal clearance by approximately 50 μm. Lenses were worn in a randomly assigned order for a 2-week period each. At each follow-up visit, immediately after lens removal, tear samples were collected with a microcapillary tube (10 μL, 0.5 mm in diameter) from the bowl of the inverted scleral lens. Tear cytokine and protease analysis was performed using a multiplex electrochemiluminescent array (Meso Scale Discovery, Rockville, MD) instrument. Levels of interleukins 1, 6, and 8; tumor necrosis factor α; and matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 9 were compared and analyzed.

Results: Levels of interleukin 1β, tumor necrosis factor α, and matrix metalloproteinase 1 increased with high limbal clearance (P = .01, .006, and .02, respectively). No change in interleukins 6 and 8 levels was found (P > .05). A decrease in matrix metalloproteinase 9 was noted in post-lens tear film of scleral lenses with high limbal clearance (P = .10).

Discussion: Relative changes in the cytokine and protease levels were found when comparing low and high limbal clearance, indicating that the midperipheral lens fit is an important feature that can impact the inflammatory response of the keratoconic eye.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OPX.0000000000001645DOI Listing
February 2021

Development and verification of a novel isotopic N O measurement technique for discrete static chamber samples using cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2021 Apr;35(8):e9049

UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Rationale: N O isotopomers are a useful tool to study soil N cycling processes. The reliability of such measurements requires a consistent set of international N O isotope reference materials to improve inter-laboratory and inter-instrument comparability and avoid reporting inaccurate results. All these are the more important given the role of N O in anthropogenic climate change and the pressing need to develop our understanding of soil N cycling and N O emission to mitigate such emissions. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) could potentially overcome resource requirements and technical challenges, making N O isotopomer measurements more feasible and less expensive than previous approaches (e.g., gas chromatography [GC] and isotope ratio mass spectrometry [IRMS]).

Methods: A combined laser spectrometer and small sample isotope module (CRDS & SSIM) method enabled N O concentration, δ N , δ N , δ N and site preference (SP) measurements of sample volumes <20 mL, such as static chamber samples. Sample dilution and isotopic mixing as well as N O concentration dependence were corrected numerically. A two-point calibration procedure normalised δ values to the international isotope-ratio scales. The CRDS & SSIM repeatability was determined using a reference gas (Ref Gas). CRDS & SSIM concentration measurements were compared with those obtained by GC, and the isotope ratio measurements from two different mass spectrometers were compared.

Results: The repeatability (mean ± 1σ; n = 10) of the CRDS & SSIM measurements of the Ref Gas was 710.64 ppb (± 8.64), 2.82‰ (± 0.91), 5.41‰ (± 2.00), 0.23‰ (± 0.22) and 5.18‰ (± 2.18) for N O concentration, δ N , δ N , δ N and SP, respectively. The CRDS & SSIM concentration measurements were strongly correlated with GC (r = 0.99), and they were more precise than those obtained using GC except when the N O concentrations exceeded the specified operating range. Normalising CRDS & SSIM δ values to the international isotope-ratio scales using isotopic N O standards (AK1 and Mix1) produced accurate results when the samples were bracketed within the range of the δ values of the standards. The CRDS & SSIM δ N and SP precision was approximately one order of magnitude less than the typical IRMS precision.

Conclusions: CRDS & SSIM is a promising approach that enables N O concentrations and isotope ratios to be measured by CRDS for samples <20 mL. The CRDS & SSIM repeatability makes this approach suitable for N O "isotopomer mapping" to distinguish dominant source pathways, such as nitrification and denitrification, and requires less extensive lab resources than the traditionally used GC/IRMS. Current study limitations highlighted potential improvements for future users of this approach to consider, such as automation and physical removal of interfering trace gases before sample analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.9049DOI Listing
April 2021

Probing sulfatide-tissue lectin recognition with functionalized glycodendrimersomes.

iScience 2021 Jan 10;24(1):101919. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Veterinärstr. 13, 80539 Munich, Germany.

The small 3--sulfated galactose head group of sulfatides, an abundant glycosphingolipid class, poses the (sphinx-like) riddle on involvement of glycan bridging by tissue lectins (sugar code). First, synthesis of head group derivatives for functionalization of amphiphilic dendrimers is performed. Aggregation of resulting (biomimetic) vesicles, alone or in combination with lactose, demonstrates bridging by a tissue lectin (galectin-4). Physiologically, this can stabilize glycolipid-rich microdomains (rafts) and associate sulfatide-rich regions with specific glycoproteins. Further testing documents importance of heterobivalency and linker length. Structurally, sulfatide recognition by galectin-8 is shown to involve sphingosine's OH group as substitute for the 3'-hydroxyl of glucose of lactose. These discoveries underscore functionality of this small determinant on biomembranes intracellularly and on the cell surface. Moreover, they provide a role model to examine counterreceptor capacity of more complex glycans of glycosphingolipids and to start their bottom-up glycotope surface programming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773886PMC
January 2021

Development of Mcl-1 inhibitors for cancer therapy.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jan 24;210:113038. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway, H91 TK33, Ireland. Electronic address:

The myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein (Mcl-1) is an anti-apoptotic protein of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family, which regulates cellular apoptosis. Mcl-1 expression plays a key role in survival of cancer cells and therefore serves as a promising target in cancer therapy. Besides, its importance as a cancer target, various peptides and small-molecule inhibitors have been successfully designed and synthesized, yet no Mcl-1 inhibitor is approved for clinical use. However, recent development on the understanding of Mcl-1's role in key cellular processes in cancer and an upsurge of reports highlighting its association in various anticancer drug resistance supports the view that Mcl-1 is a key target in various cancers, especially hematological cancers. This review compiles structures of a variety of inhibitors of Mcl-1 reported to date. These include inhibitors based on a diverse range of heterocycles (e.g. indole, imidazole, thiophene, nicotinic acid, piperazine, triazine, thiazole, isoindoline), oligomers (terphenyl, quaterpyridine), polyphenol, phenalene, anthranilic acid, anthraquinone, macrocycles, natural products, and metal-based complexes. In addition, an effort has been made to summarize the structure activity relationships, based on a variety of assays, of some important classes of Mcl-1 inhibitors, giving affinities and selectivities for Mcl-1 compared to other Bcl-2 family members. A focus has been placed on categorizing the inhibitors based on their core frameworks (scaffolds) to appeal to the chemical biologist or medicinal chemist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2020.113038DOI Listing
January 2021

Transition from child-centred to adult-oriented healthcare systems for young people with neurodisability: a scoping review protocol.

HRB Open Res 2020 4;3:61. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

RCSI University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dublin, Ireland.

The transition from child-centred to adult-oriented healthcare is a challenging time for young people with neurodisability. As the prevalence of neurodisability increases, greater numbers of young people will eventually transfer to the adult healthcare system. While there is a growing recognition of the importance of providing quality, transitional care, little is known about how to manage and optimise this process for young people with neurodisability. The objective of this scoping review is to examine and map existing literature related to the transition from child-centred to adult-oriented healthcare systems for young people with neurodisability. Systematic literature searches of OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and Web of Science will be conducted from inception to present. A structured iterative search of grey literature will be conducted. This review will consider all study designs examining the transition from child to adult health services in neurodisability. Two reviewers will independently screen each retrieved title and abstract and assess full-text articles against the inclusion criteria to determine eligibility. Data will be extracted and synthesised quantitatively and qualitatively. The process and reporting will follow PRISMA-ScR guidelines. This review will provide a broad and systematically mapped synthesis of the extent and nature of the available published and unpublished literature on transition from child-centred to adult-oriented healthcare systems in neurodisability. The results will be used to determine gaps in the current evidence base in order to prioritise areas for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/hrbopenres.13095.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7656277PMC
September 2020

Varying Expression of Mu and Kappa Opioid Receptors in Cockatiels () and Domestic Pigeons (.

Front Genet 2020 15;11:549558. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California - Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

Avian species have varying analgesic responses to opioid drugs. Some of this variability could be due to extrinsic factors such as administration route or dose. However, intrinsic factors such as gene expression or polymorphic differences in opioid receptors may be important components.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the relative gene expression and polymorphisms present for mu and kappa opioid receptors ( and ) in the cerebrum, brainstem, spinal cord, and footpad of cockatiels and pigeons.

Methods: Tissue biopsies were obtained from 11 adult cockatiels (6 male and 5 female) and 11 adult pigeons (6 male and 5 female). RNA was extracted and qPCR was performed to determine the level of gene expression for and relative to a reference gene phosphoglycerate kinase 1 ( using the ΔΔCt method. Sanger sequencing was performed to identify polymorphisms, if present.

Results: There were higher expression levels of compared to in all tissues examined regardless of species ( < 0.001, FDR < 0.001) Cockatiels had less expression in the cerebrum compared to pigeons ( = 0.005, FDR = 0.004). Cockatiels had more expression in the brainstem ( = 0.045, FDR = 0.029), but less expression in the footpad compared to pigeons ( = 0.029, FDR = 0.021). No other significant differences in or expression were identified across species. Two missense polymorphisms were identified in none were found in

Conclusion: The differential expression of opioid receptors between cockatiels and pigeons could have implications for variability in analgesic response between these two species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.549558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7593685PMC
October 2020

Altered prolactin and androgen receptors expression in companion rat benign mammary tumours.

Vet Comp Oncol 2021 Jun 20;19(2):213-221. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Département de Pathologie et de Microbiologie, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada.

Benign mammary tumours are among the most common tumours of companion rats (Rattus norvegicus domestica), as well as a major animal welfare concern and euthanasia. The first objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of oestrogen, progesterone, androgen, and prolactin receptors in neoplastic and normal mammary gland tissues and compare the expression of these receptors between groups. The second objective was to determine if the expression of these receptors in neoplastic mammary gland tissue correlates with overall survival and occurrence of an additional mass after initial mammary mass excision. The third objective was to determine if the expression of oestrogen, progesterone, androgen and prolactin receptors was associated with mammary tumor clinical parameters or with the age of the animals. Thirty-two benign mammary tumours were collected from companion rats and submitted for immunohistochemistry staining of prolactin receptor, oestrogen receptor alpha (ERa), progesterone and androgen receptors (AR). Allred score were obtained for mammary tumours (n = 32) and surrounding normal mammary tissue (n = 20) when present. Prolactin receptor expression increased significantly with mammary gland tumorigenesis (P < .0001), while AR expression decreased with tumorigenesis (P < .0001). Lower expression of ERa in tumor stroma was associated with shorter survival (P = .02). Hormonal receptor expression was not significantly associated with age, mass diameter, location nor likelihood of additional mass development. Further studies should investigate the effects of prolactin antagonists in a prospective study involving companion rats with benign mammary tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vco.12664DOI Listing
June 2021

Elderly people are inherently sensitive to the pharmacological activity of rivaroxaban: implications for DOAC prescribing.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2021 Jul 1;52(1):170-178. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, and Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust, NE1 7RU, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

According to both trial and clinical data on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) elderly patients are at greatest risk of bleeding. It is unclear whether age intrinsically affects anticoagulation response. To investigate the age-related sensitivity to DOACs, we compared the pharmacological activity of the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban, between young and elderly subjects ex-vivo. 36 fit elderly and 30 fit young subjects [median (IQR) age: 83(75-87) vs 30(26-38) years] provided a blood sample. Clotting parameters were measured in the resultant plasma samples incubated with rivaroxaban (100-500 ng/ml). Parametric, non-parametric tests and regression lines adjusted for rivaroxaban concentration and baseline values were used to compare data. Rivaroxaban produced a greater prolongation of both Prothrombin Time (PT) and modified Prothrombin Time (mPT) (both p < 0.001) in the elderly compared to young subjects (with difference in mean PT increasing from 1.6 to 6.1s and for mPT from 23.5 to 71.1s at 100 ng/ml and 500 ng/ml plasma rivaroxaban concentration, respectively). Factor X and factor II activity was significantly lower in the elderly in the presence of rivaroxaban (p < 0.001 for both). Rivaroxaban prolonged time-based parameters and suppressed the amount of thrombin generation to a significantly greater extent in the elderly compared to young subjects [%change from baseline for Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP): - 35.0 ± 4.4 vs - 29.8 ± 7.4 nM*min; p = 0.002]. The use of validated DOAC assays will be of considerable benefit for monitoring elderly patients who, because of their increased sensitivity to rivaroxaban, may require lower doses of the drug for therapeutic anticoagulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11239-020-02326-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8282548PMC
July 2021

Multi-Trait Genomic Prediction of Yield-Related Traits in US Soft Wheat under Variable Water Regimes.

Genes (Basel) 2020 10 28;11(11). Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Agronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

The performance of genomic prediction (GP) on genetically correlated traits can be improved through an interdependence multi-trait model under a multi-environment context. In this study, a panel of 237 soft facultative wheat ( L.) lines was evaluated to compare single- and multi-trait models for predicting grain yield (GY), harvest index (HI), spike fertility (SF), and thousand grain weight (TGW). The panel was phenotyped in two locations and two years in Florida under drought and moderately drought stress conditions, while the genotyping was performed using 27,957 genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) makers. Five predictive models including Multi-environment Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Predictor (MGBLUP), Bayesian Multi-trait Multi-environment (BMTME), Bayesian Multi-output Regressor Stacking (BMORS), Single-trait Multi-environment Deep Learning (SMDL), and Multi-trait Multi-environment Deep Learning (MMDL) were compared. Across environments, the multi-trait statistical model (BMTME) was superior to the multi-trait DL model for prediction accuracy in most scenarios, but the DL models were comparable to the statistical models for response to selection. The multi-trait model also showed 5 to 22% more genetic gain compared to the single-trait model across environment reflected by the response to selection. Overall, these results suggest that multi-trait genomic prediction can be an efficient strategy for economically important yield component related traits in soft wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11111270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716228PMC
October 2020

Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intramuscular and intravenous administration of a single dose to orange-winged Amazon parrots ().

Am J Vet Res 2020 Nov;81(11):894-898

Objective: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after IM and IV administration to orange-winged Amazon parrots ().

Animals: 8 orange-winged Amazon parrots (4 males and 4 females).

Procedures: Hydromorphone (1 mg/kg) was administered once IM. Blood samples were collected 5 minutes and 0.5, 1.5, 2, 3, 6, and 9 hours after drug administration. Plasma hydromorphone concentrations were determined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with a compartmental model. The experiment was repeated 1 month later with the same dose of hydromorphone administered IV.

Results: Plasma hydromorphone concentrations were > 1 ng/mL for 6 hours in 8 of 8 and 6 of 7 parrots after IM and IV injection, respectively. After IM administration, mean bioavailability was 97.6%, and mean maximum plasma concentration was 179.1 ng/mL 17 minutes after injection. Mean volume of distribution and plasma drug clearance were 4.24 L/kg and 64.2 mL/min/kg, respectively, after IV administration. Mean elimination half-lives were 1.74 and 1.45 hours after IM and IV administration, respectively.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Hydromorphone hydrochloride had high bioavailability and rapid elimination after IM administration, with rapid plasma clearance and a large volume of distribution after IV administration in orange-winged Amazon parrots. Drug elimination half-lives were short. Further pharmacokinetic studies of hydromorphone and its metabolites, including investigation of multiple doses, different routes of administration, and sustained-release formulations, are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.81.11.894DOI Listing
November 2020

Aspirin non-response in pregnant women at increased risk of pre-eclampsia.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2020 Nov 23;254:292-297. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Newcastle upon Tyne NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; Population Health Sciences Institute, Newcastle University, UK.

Objectives: Low dose aspirin (LDA) is recommended for women at increased risk of preeclampsia (PE), however it is not always effective. The study sought to determine the prevalence of non-response to LDA and to ascertain the effect of increasing aspirin dose in non-responders.

Study Design: Single centre, cohort study of 166 women at increased risk of PE was conducted in a large maternity unit in the UK between 2013 and 2016. All women were prescribed 75 mg of aspirin and invited to attend study visits at 18-24 weeks' and 32-36 weeks' gestation. Non-response was defined as a serum thromboxane B2 (TXB) ≤10 ng/mL. Aspirin dose was increased to 150 mg if a bedside VerifyNow test suggested non-response (test value ≥ 550 arachidonic acid reactive units [ARU]) at 18-24 weeks. Adherence was assessed by self-report.

Results: Based on serum TXB, response rates were 85.3 % at 18-24 weeks and 79.3 % at 32-36 weeks' gestation. Compared to serum TXB, the VerifyNow test demonstrated moderate test performance (AUC 0.79 95 % CI 0.71-0.88, p < 0.0001) to detect non-response. High prevalence of non-adherence (6/10) was evident in persistent non-response group. Dose change from 75 to 150 mg of aspirin in adherent participants improved response (VerifyNow: 598 [95 % CI 550-665] ARU at 18-24 weeks on 75 mg aspirin, 509 [95 % CI 350-667] at 32-36 weeks on 150 mg of aspirin, [p < 0.0001]).

Conclusions: Non-response to LDA is common in pregnancy but appears to be largely attributable to non-adherence. Dose change could be useful to improve response to LDA in this cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.09.036DOI Listing
November 2020

Objective and Subjective Evaluation of Clinical Performance of Scleral Lens with Varying Limbal Clearance in Keratoconus.

Optom Vis Sci 2020 09;97(9):703-710

University of Waterloo School of Optometry and Vision Science, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Significance: This study evaluates how limbal clearance (LC) may impact the clinical performance of scleral lenses based on subjective response on comfort and ocular responses. Limbal zone designs in scleral lenses might affect the integrity of the limbal epithelial tissue as a result of a combined hypoxic and compression-related etiology.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the clinical performance and ocular and subjective responses to the wear of scleral lenses having varying LC.

Methods: Lenses with varying LC with a difference of 50 μm were fitted on and compared among keratoconic participants. The lenses were worn during a 2-week period. Visual analog scales concerning subjective comfort were completed. Ocular surface findings including hyperemia, limbal staining, and corneal swelling were compared.

Results: Participants reported greater comfort achieved with high LC. No difference in limbal and bulbar hyperemia was found (P > .05). Corneal response to scleral lens wear with both low and high LCs seems to result in similar perilimbal staining and negative corneal staining. An increase in corneal pachymetric values was noted at the central and peripheral cornea, with no difference between low- and high-LC lenses (all, P < .05). Quadrant-specific analysis indicated that all meridians at both 6 and 8 mm were increased for the low-LC lenses (all, P < .05) and only the temporal region for the high-LC lenses (P = .02).

Conclusions: Limbal clearance may play an important role in subjective performance in scleral lenses but does not impact the degree of hyperemia in either the limbal or bulbar region. Although low LC might result in more compression-related changes to ocular surface, high LC is associated with greater comfort and greater edematous changes. Limbal zone designs in scleral lenses might affect the integrity of the limbal epithelial tissue as a result of a combined hypoxic and compression-related etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OPX.0000000000001561DOI Listing
September 2020

Evaluation of the thermal antinociceptive effects of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intramuscular administration to orange-winged Amazon parrots ().

Am J Vet Res 2020 Oct;81(10):775-782

Objective: To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects of hydromorphone hydrochloride after IM administration to orange-winged Amazon parrots ().

Animals: 8 healthy adult parrots (4 males and 4 females).

Procedures: In a randomized crossover study, each bird received hydromorphone (0.1, 1, and 2 mg/kg) and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL/kg; control) IM, with a 7-day interval between treatments. Each bird was assigned an agitation-sedation score, and the thermal foot withdrawal threshold (TFWT) was measured at predetermined times before and after treatment administration. Adverse effects were also monitored. The TFWT, agitation-sedation score, and proportion of birds that developed adverse effects were compared among treatments over time.

Results: Compared with the mean TFWT for the control treatment, the mean TFWT was significantly increased at 0.5, 1.5, and 3 hours and 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after administration of the 1- and 2-mg/kg hydromorphone doses, respectively. Significant agitation was observed at 0.5, 1.5, and 3 hours after administration of the 1 - and 2-mg/kg hydromorphone doses. Other adverse effects observed after administration of the 1- and 2-mg/kg doses included miosis, ataxia, and nausea-like behavior (opening the beak and moving the tongue back and forth).

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Although the 1- and 2-mg/kg hydromorphone doses appeared to have antinociceptive effects, they also caused agitation, signs of nausea, and ataxia. Further research is necessary to evaluate administration of lower doses of hydromorphone and other types of stimulation to better elucidate the analgesic and adverse effects of the drug in psittacine species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.81.10.775DOI Listing
October 2020

Microcavity array supported lipid bilayer models of ganglioside - influenza hemagglutinin binding.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Sep;56(76):11251-11254

School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.

The binding of influenza receptor (HA1) to membranes containing different glycosphingolipid receptors was investigated at Microcavity Supported Lipid Bilayers (MSLBs). We observed that HA1 preferentially binds to GD1a but the diffusion coefficient of the associated complex at lipid bilayer is approximately double that of the complexes formed by HA1 GM1 or GM3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc04276eDOI Listing
September 2020

Functional 3D architecture in an intrinsically disordered E3 ligase domain facilitates ubiquitin transfer.

Nat Commun 2020 07 30;11(1):3807. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, DD1 5EH, Dundee, UK.

The human genome contains an estimated 600 ubiquitin E3 ligases, many of which are single-subunit E3s (ssE3s) that can bind to both substrate and ubiquitin-loaded E2 (E2~Ub). Within ssE3s structural disorder tends to be located in substrate binding and domain linking regions. RNF4 is a ssE3 ligase with a C-terminal RING domain and disordered N-terminal region containing SUMO Interactions Motifs (SIMs) required to bind SUMO modified substrates. Here we show that, although the N-terminal region of RNF4 bears no secondary structure, it maintains a compact global architecture primed for SUMO interaction. Segregated charged regions within the RNF4 N-terminus promote compaction, juxtaposing RING domain and SIMs to facilitate substrate ubiquitination. Mutations that induce a more extended shape reduce ubiquitination activity. Our result offer insight into a key step in substrate ubiquitination by a member of the largest ubiquitin ligase subtype and reveal how a defined architecture within a disordered region contributes to E3 ligase function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17647-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393505PMC
July 2020

Pilot Study: Correlation of the Surface Skin Temperature Between the Leg and Foot Using Thermographic Imaging in Captive Hawks.

J Avian Med Surg 2020 Jul;34(2):164-171

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Epidemiology, University of California at Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the thermal image temperatures of the tibiotarsal scaled region of the raptor leg and the plantar surface of ipsilateral foot while perching were correlated. The correlation between leg and foot temperature was sought to determine whether remote imaging of the legs can be used as a reliable predictor of foot temperature. The right and left tarsometatarsal region (Leg) and metatarsal pad (Foot) of 10 captive hawks, including 8 red-tailed hawks (), 1 Harris's hawk (), and 1 Swainson's hawk () were imaged once daily over 3 consecutive days. To account for conditions of the metatarsal pad that might affect the thermal image, 3 groups were identified: Normal, Active when mild hyperemia was present, and Suspect when abrasions were noted. A significant correlation was evident when thermography readings of the tarsometatarsal region (R.Leg and L.Leg) of the unrestrained bird were compared with readings from the plantar surface of the ipsilateral metatarsal pad when restrained (R.Foot and L.Foot). The correlations for R.Leg versus R.Foot ( = 0.81) and L.Leg versus L.Foot ( = 0.74) suggest that temperatures of the tarsometatarsal region of perching hawks measured by infrared thermography may be useful to screen and monitor for the presence of thermal changes associated with inflammation of the metatarsal pad in captive hawk species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1647/1082-6742-34.2.164DOI Listing
July 2020
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