Publications by authors named "Paul M Cavallaro"

17 Publications

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Perioperative considerations in the management of cold agglutinin disease in laparoscopic surgery.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 12;14(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

An 80-year-old man with idiopathic cold agglutinin disease presented with acute cholecystitis. We describe operating room and anaesthetic considerations for patients with cold agglutinin disease and measures that can be taken to prevent disease exacerbation in this case report. Multidisciplinary collaboration and planning between the operative room staff, anaesthesia team and surgical team are needed to ensure safe surgery and optimal patient outcomes.
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May 2021

Preliminary Report from the Pelvic Floor Disorders Consortium: Large Scale Data Collection through Quality Improvement Initiatives to Provide Data on Functional Outcomes Following Rectal Prolapse Repair.

Dis Colon Rectum 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Pelvic Floor Disorders Center, Section of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA Department of Colorectal Surgery, Digestive Disease Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL Department of Surgery, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY Pelvic Floor Disorders Center, Section of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA Division of Colorectal Surgery, University of Massachusetts-Baystate, Springfield, MA Department of General Surgery, Division of Colorectal Surgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA Pelvic Floor Disorders Center, Section of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Background: The surgical management of rectal prolapse is constantly evolving, yet numerous clinical trials and meta-analyses studying operative approaches have failed to make meaningful conclusions.

Objective: To report on preliminary data captured during a large-scale quality improvement initiative to measure and improve function in patients undergoing rectal prolapse repair.

Design: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected surgical quality improvement data. Settings: This study was conducted at 14 tertiary centers specializing in pelvic floor disorders from 2017 to 2019.

Patients: A total of 181 consecutive patients undergoing external rectal prolapse repair.

Main Outcome Measures: Preoperative and three-month postoperative Wexner Incontinence Score and Altomare Obstructed Defecation Score.

Results: The cohort included 112 patients undergoing abdominal surgery 71 suture rectopexy /56% MIS, 41 ventral rectopexy/93% MIS). Those offered perineal approaches (N=68) were older (median age 75 vs 62, p<0.01) and had more comorbidities (ASA3-4: 51% vs. 24%, p<0.01), but also reported higher pre-intervention rates of fecal incontinence (Wexner 11.4 ± 6.4 vs. 8.6+/-5.8, p<0.01). Patients undergoing perineal procedures had similar incremental improvements in function after surgery as patients undergoing abdominal repair (change in Wexner -2.6 ± 6.4 vs. -3.1 ± 5.6, p= 0.6; change in Altomare -2.9 ± 4.6 vs. -2.7 ± 4.9, p=0.8). Similarly, posterior suture rectopexy and ventral mesh rectopexy patients had similar incremental improvements in overall scores; however, ventral mesh rectopexy patients had a higher decrease in the need to use pads after surgery.

Limitations: Retrospective data analysis and three-month follow up.

Conclusions: Functional outcomes improved in all patients undergoing prolapse surgery. Larger cohorts are necessary to show superiority amongst surgical procedures. Quality improvement methods may allow for systematic, yet practical acquisition of information and data analysis. We call for the creation of a robust database to benefit this patient population. See Video Abstract at .
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April 2021

Is Microsatellite Status Associated With Prognosis in Stage II Colon Cancer With High-Risk Features?

Dis Colon Rectum 2021 May;64(5):545-554

Section of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: The influence of microsatellite instability on prognosis in high-risk stage II colon cancer is unknown.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between microsatellite instability and overall survival in high-risk stage II colon cancer.

Design: This is a retrospective review of the National Cancer Database from 2010 to 2016.

Settings: This study included national cancer epidemiology data from the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer.

Patients: Included were 16,788 patients with stage II colon adenocarcinoma and known microsatellite status (1709 microsatellite unstable).

Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measured was overall survival.

Results: Microsatellite unstable cancers with high-risk features had significantly better overall survival than microsatellite stable cancers with high-risk features (5-year survival 80% vs 72%, p = 0.01), and had survival equivalent to microsatellite stable cancers with low-risk features (5-year survival, 80%). When stratified by specific high-risk features, patients with lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, or high-grade histology had overall survival similar to patients without these features, only in microsatellite unstable cancers. However, patients with high-risk features of T4 stage, positive margins, and <12 lymph nodes saw no survival benefit based on microsatellite status. This was confirmed on multivariable Cox regression modeling. A subgroup analysis of patients who did not receive chemotherapy similarly demonstrated that microsatellite unstable cancers with lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, or high-grade histology had overall survival similar to microsatellite unstable cancers without those features.

Limitations: The study is limited by the lack of specific clinical data and potential treatment bias.

Conclusions: In microsatellite unstable cancers, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and high-grade histology are not associated with worse overall survival, even when deferring adjuvant chemotherapy. These data support National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommendations to forego chemotherapy in stage II cancers with microsatellite instability and these features. In contrast, some high-risk features were associated with worse survival despite microsatellite unstable biology, and therapies to improve survival need to be explored. See Video Abstract at ¿EL ESTADO MICROSATÉLITE ESTÁ ASOCIADO CON EL PRONÓSTICO EN EL CÁNCER DE COLON EN ESTADIO II CON CARACTERÍSTICAS DE ALTO RIESGO: Se desconoce la influencia de la inestabilidad microsatélite en el pronóstico del cáncer de colon en estadio II de alto riesgo.Investigar la relación entre la inestabilidad microsatélite y la supervivencia general en el cáncer de colon en estadio II de alto riesgo.Revisión retrospectiva de la base de datos nacional del cáncer de 2010 a 2016.Este estudio incluyó datos nacionales de epidemiología del cáncer de la Comisión de Cáncer del Colegio Americano de Cirujanos.16,788 pacientes con adenocarcinoma de colon en estadio II y estado microsatélite conocido (1,709 microsatélite inestables).Supervivencia global.Los cánceres microsatélite inestables con características de alto riesgo tuvieron una supervivencia general significativamente mejor que los cánceres microsatélite estables con características de alto riesgo (supervivencia a 5 años 80% vs 72%, p = 0.01), y tuvieron una supervivencia equivalente a los cánceres microsatélite estables con características de bajo riesgo (supervivencia a 5 años 80%). Al estratificar por características específicas de alto riesgo, los pacientes con invasión linfovascular, invasión perineural o histología de alto grado tuvieron una supervivencia general similar a la de los pacientes sin estas características, solo en cánceres microsatélite inestables. Sin embargo, los pacientes con características de alto riesgo en estadio T4, márgenes positivos y <12 ganglios linfáticos no tuvieron ningún beneficio de supervivencia basado en el estado de microsatélites. Esto se confirmó en un modelo de regresión de Cox multivariable. Un análisis de subgrupos de pacientes que no recibieron quimioterapia demostró de manera similar que los cánceres microsatélite inestables con invasión linfovascular, invasión perineural o histología de alto grado tenían una supervivencia general similar a los cánceres microsatélite inestables sin esas características.El estudio está limitado por la falta de datos clínicos específicos y el posible sesgo de tratamiento.En los cánceres microsatélite inestables, la invasión linfovascular, la invasión perineural y la histología de alto grado no se asocian con una peor sobrevida general, incluso cuando se aplaza la quimioterapia adyuvante. Estos datos respaldan las recomendaciones de la National Comprehensive Cancer Network de omitir la quimioterapia en los cánceres en estadio II con inestabilidad microsatélite y estas características. Por el contrario, algunas características de alto riesgo se asociaron con una peor supervivencia a pesar de la biología microsatélite inestable, y es necesario considerar las terapias para mejorar la supervivencia.Consulte Video Resumen en (Traducción-Dr. Jorge Silva Velazco).
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May 2021

Patients Undergoing Ileoanal Pouch Surgery Experience a Constellation of Symptoms and Consequences Representing a Unique Syndrome: A Report from the Patient-Reported Outcomes After Pouch Surgery (PROPS) Delphi Consensus Study.

Dis Colon Rectum 2021 07;64(7):861-870

Massachusetts General Hospital Colorectal Surgery and Crohn's Colitis Centers, Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery and Surgical Oncology, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Functional outcomes after ileoanal pouch creation have been studied; however, there is great variability in how relevant outcomes are defined and reported. More importantly, the perspective of patients has not been represented in deciding which outcomes should be the focus of research.

Objective: The primary aim was to create a patient-centered definition of core symptoms that should be included in future studies of pouch function.

Design: This was a Delphi consensus study.

Setting: Three rounds of surveys were used to select high-priority items. Survey voting was followed by a series of online patient consultation meetings used to clarify voting trends. A final online consensus meeting with representation from all 3 expert panels was held to finalize a consensus statement.

Patients: Expert stakeholders were chosen to correlate with the clinical scenario of the multidisciplinary team that cares for pouch patients, including patients, colorectal surgeons, and gastroenterologists or other clinicians.

Main Outcome Measures: A consensus statement was the main outcome.

Results: patients, 62 colorectal surgeons, and 48 gastroenterologists or nurse specialists completed all 3 Delphi rounds. Fifty-three patients participated in online focus groups. One hundred sixty-one stakeholders participated in the final consensus meeting. On conclusion of the consensus meeting, 7 bowel symptoms and 7 consequences of undergoing ileoanal pouch surgery were included in the final consensus statement.

Limitations: The study was limited by online recruitment bias.

Conclusions: This study is the first to identify key functional outcomes after pouch surgery with direct input from a large panel of ileoanal pouch patients. The inclusion of patients in all stages of the consensus process allowed for a true patient-centered approach in defining the core domains that should be focused on in future studies of pouch function. See Video Abstract at

Los Pacientes Sometidos A Ciruga De Reservorio Ileoanal Experimentan Una Constelacin De Sntomas Y Consecuencias Que Representan Un Sndrome Unico: Un Informe de los Resultados Reportados por los Pacientes Posterior a la Cirugía de Reservorio (PROPS) Estudio de Consenso DelphiANTECEDENTES:Los resultados funcionales después de la creación del reservorio ileoanal han sido estudiados; sin embargo, existe una gran variabilidad en la forma en que se definen y reportan los resultados relevantes. Más importante aún, la perspectiva de los pacientes no se ha representado a la hora de decidir qué resultados deberían ser el foco de investigación.OBJETIVO:El objetivo principal era crear en el paciente una definición centrada de los síntomas principales que debería incluirse en los estudios futuros de la función del reservorio.DISEÑO:Estudio de consenso Delphi.ENTORNO CLINICO:Se emplearon tres rondas de encuestas para seleccionar elementos de alta prioridad. La votación de la encuesta fue seguida por una serie de reuniones de consulta de pacientes en línea que se utilizan para aclarar las tendencias de votación. Se realizo una reunión de consenso final en línea con representación de los tres paneles de expertos para finalizar una declaración de consenso.PACIENTES:Se eligieron partes interesadas expertas para correlacionar con el escenario clínico del equipo multidisciplinario que atiende a los pacientes con reservorio: pacientes, cirujanos colorrectales, gastroenterólogos / otros médicos.PRINCIPALES MEDIDAS DE VALORACION:Declaración de consenso.RESULTADOS:Ciento noventa y cinco pacientes, 62 cirujanos colorrectales y 48 gastroenterólogos / enfermeras especialistas completaron las tres rondas Delphi. 53 pacientes participaron en grupos focales en línea. 161 interesados participaron en la reunión de consenso final. Al concluir la reunión de consenso, siete síntomas intestinales y siete consecuencias de someterse a una cirugía de reservorio ileoanal se incluyeron en la declaración de consenso final.LIMITACIONES:Sesgo de reclutamiento en línea.CONCLUSIONES:Este estudio es el primero en identificar resultados funcionales claves después de la cirugía de reservorio con información directa de un gran panel de pacientes con reservorio ileoanal. La inclusión de pacientes en todas las etapas del proceso de consenso permitió un verdadero enfoque centrado en el paciente para definir los dominios principales en los que debería centrarse los estudios futuros de la función del reservorio. Consulte Video Resumen en
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July 2021

Metrics Used to Quantify Fecal Incontinence and Constipation.

Clin Colon Rectal Surg 2021 Jan 28;34(1):5-14. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

While fecal incontinence and constipation can be measured through physiological testing, the subjective experience of severity and impact on health-related quality of life lead to both being most effectively captured through patient-reported measures. Patient-reported measures of severity and impact help to determine baseline symptoms, guide clinical decision making, and compare various treatments. Here, we take pause to review the psychometric qualities that make effective instruments, and discuss some of the most commonly used instruments along with the reasons behind their use. In addition, we highlight the benefits of a standardized instrument designed to evaluate the major symptoms of patients presenting with pelvic floor disorders (including fecal incontinence and constipation). Ultimately, we aim to provide guidance in choosing appropriate instruments for clinical and research use.
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January 2021

A role for intestinal alkaline phosphatase in preventing liver fibrosis.

Theranostics 2021 1;11(1):14-26. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, US.

Liver fibrosis is frequently associated with gut barrier dysfunction, and the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) -TLR4 pathway is common to the development of both. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) has the ability to detoxify LPS, as well as maintain intestinal tight junction proteins and gut barrier integrity. Therefore, we hypothesized that IAP may function as a novel therapy to prevent liver fibrosis. Stool IAP activity from cirrhotic patients were determined. Common bile duct ligation (CBDL) and Carbon Tetrachloride-4 (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis models were used in WT, IAP knockout (KO), and TLR4 KO mice supplemented with or without exogenous IAP in their drinking water. The gut barrier function and liver fibrosis markers were tested. Human stool IAP activity was decreased in the setting of liver cirrhosis. In mice, IAP activity and genes expression decreased after CBDL and CCl4 exposure. Intestinal tight junction related genes and gut barrier function were impaired in both models of liver fibrosis. Oral IAP supplementation attenuated the decrease in small intestine tight junction protein gene expression and gut barrier function. Liver fibrosis markers were significantly higher in IAP KO compared to WT mice in both models, while oral IAP rescued liver fibrosis in both WT and IAP KO mice. In contrast, IAP supplementation did not attenuate fibrosis in TLR4 KO mice in either model. Endogenous IAP is decreased during liver fibrosis, perhaps contributing to the gut barrier dysfunction and worsening fibrosis. Oral IAP protects the gut barrier and further prevents the development of liver fibrosis via a TLR4-mediated mechanism.
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January 2021

Relationship Between Diverticular Disease and Incisional Hernia After Elective Colectomy: a Population-Based Study.

J Gastrointest Surg 2021 05 3;25(5):1297-1306. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, GRB-425, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Background: Recent genetic studies identified common mutations between diverticular disease and connective tissue disorders, some of which are associated with abdominal wall hernias. Scarce data exists, however, shedding light on the potential clinical implications of this shared etiology, particularly in the era of laparoscopic surgery.

Methods: The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database was used to identify adult patients undergoing elective sigmoid and left hemicolectomy (open or laparoscopic) from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2016, for diverticulitis or descending/sigmoid colon cancer. The incidences of incisional hernia diagnosis and repair were compared using competing risks regression models, clustered by surgeon and adjusted for a host of demographic/clinical variables. Subsequent abdominal surgery and death were considered competing risks.

Results: Among 8279 patients included in the study cohort, 6811 (82.2%) underwent colectomy for diverticulitis and 1468 (17.8%) for colon cancer. The overall 5-year risk of incisional hernia was 3.5% among patients with colon cancer, regardless of colectomy route, which was significantly lower than that among diverticulitis patients after both open (10.7%; p < 0.001) and laparoscopic (7.2%; p = 0.007) colectomies. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that patients with diverticulitis experienced a two-fold increase in the risk for hernia diagnosis (aHR 1.8; p < 0.001) and repair (aHR 2.1; p < 0.001), and these findings persisted after stratification by colectomy route.

Conclusions: Patients undergoing elective colectomy for diverticulitis, including via laparoscopic approach, experience higher rates of incisional hernia compared with patients undergoing similar resections for colon cancer. When performing resections for diverticulitis, surgeons should strongly consider adherence to evidence-based guidelines for fascial closure to prevent this important complication.
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May 2021

A multi-center analysis of cumulative inpatient opioid use in colorectal surgery patients.

Am J Surg 2020 11 2;220(5):1160-1166. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Colorectal Surgery Center, Department of General and Gastrointestinal Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, USA. Electronic address:

Background: There are little data on risk factors for increased inpatient opioid use and its relationship with persistent opioid use after colorectal surgery.

Methods: We identified colorectal surgery patients across five collaborating institutions. Patient comorbidities, surgery data, and outcomes were captured in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. We recorded preoperative opioid exposure, inpatient opioid use, and persistent use 90-180 days after surgery.

Results: 1646 patients were analyzed. Patients receiving ≥250 MMEs (top quartile) were included in the high use group. On multivariable analysis, age <65, emergent surgery, inflammatory bowel disease, and postoperative complications, but not prior opioid exposure, were predictive of high opioid use. Patients in the top quartile of use had an increased risk of persistent opioid use (19.8% vs. 9.7%, p < 0.001), which persisted on multivariable analysis (OR 1.48; p = 0.037).

Conclusions: We identified risk factors for high inpatient use that can be used to identify patients that may benefit from opioid sparing strategies. Furthermore, high postoperative inpatient use was associated with an increased risk of persistent opioid use.
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November 2020

Intestinal alkaline phosphatase targets the gut barrier to prevent aging.

JCI Insight 2020 03 26;5(6). Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Gut barrier dysfunction and gut-derived chronic inflammation play crucial roles in human aging. The gut brush border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) functions to inhibit inflammatory mediators and also appears to be an important positive regulator of gut barrier function and microbial homeostasis. We hypothesized that this enzyme could play a critical role in regulating the aging process. We tested the role of several IAP functions for prevention of age-dependent alterations in intestinal homeostasis by employing different loss-of-function and supplementation approaches. In mice, there is an age-related increase in gut permeability that is accompanied by increases in gut-derived portal venous and systemic inflammation. All these phenotypes were significantly more pronounced in IAP-deficient animals. Oral IAP supplementation significantly decreased age-related gut permeability and gut-derived systemic inflammation, resulted in less frailty, and extended lifespan. Furthermore, IAP supplementation was associated with preserving the homeostasis of gut microbiota during aging. These effects of IAP were also evident in a second model system, Drosophilae melanogaster. IAP appears to preserve intestinal homeostasis in aging by targeting crucial intestinal alterations, including gut barrier dysfunction, dysbiosis, and endotoxemia. Oral IAP supplementation may represent a novel therapy to counteract the chronic inflammatory state leading to frailty and age-related diseases in humans.
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March 2020

Can We Predict Surgically Complex Diverticulitis in Elective Cases?

Dis Colon Rectum 2020 05;63(5):646-654

Colorectal Surgery Center, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Diverticulitis is separated into complicated and uncomplicated, based on the patient's presentation at the time of his or her initial attack of acute diverticulitis.

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for persistent complex diverticulitis, defined as an abscess, fistula, or stricture, at the time of elective surgery, and to characterize outcomes in this patient population.

Design: This was a retrospective review of 2010 to 2016 in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database.

Settings: Individuals diagnosed with diverticulitis who underwent elective surgery were included.

Patients: A total of 1502 patients underwent elective surgery for diverticulitis, of which 559 (37%) patients had a surgical indication of persistent complex diverticulitis.

Interventions: We performed logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors for complex diverticulitis and evaluated a new prediction model.

Main Outcome Measures: The predictive factors of persistent complex diverticulitis for elective colon resection were measured.

Results: The patients with complex diverticulitis were older (p < 0.001), had worse functional status (p < 0.001), more comorbidities (diabetes mellitus and hypertension), and a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (2.7 vs 1.6, p < 0.001). They were more likely to have a history of tobacco or alcohol use (p < 0.001) and to be malnourished. Interestingly, patients found to have persistent complex diverticulitis did not have more episodes than patients with uncomplicated cases did (p = 0.67). Surgical time was longer in complex diverticulitis, and the patients were more likely to require diverting stomas and concurrent resections of adjacent structures. The area under the curve from the test set was (0.75; 95% CI, 0.72-0.78), sensitivity and specificity were 0.890 (95% CI, 0.870-0.891) and 0.450 (95% CI, 0.410-0.490).

Limitations: The study was limited by its retrospective review and observational bias.

Conclusions: Patients undergoing elective surgery for complex diverticulitis did not have more episodes. Instead, complex diverticulitis may be a reflection of a complicated patient, suggesting that complicated patients should have a different algorithm of care at the time of their initial presentation with diverticulitis to prevent the development of complex disease. See Video Abstract at ¿PODEMOS PREDECIR DIVERTICULITIS QUIRÚRGICAMENTE COMPLEJA EN CASOS ELECTIVOS?: La diverticulitis se divide en complicada y sin complicaciones, según la presentación del paciente en el momento de su ataque inicial de diverticulitis aguda.El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar los factores de riesgo para la diverticulitis compleja persistente, definida como un absceso, fístula o estenosis, en el momento de la cirugía electiva, y caracterizar los resultados en esta población de pacientes.Esta fue una revisión retrospectiva del 2010-2016 en la base de datos del Proyecto de Mejora de la Calidad Quirúrgica Nacional del Colegio Estadounidense de Cirujanos.Se incluyeron individuos diagnosticados con diverticulitis que se sometieron a cirugía electiva.1502 pacientes fueron sometidos a cirugía electiva por diverticulitis, de los cuales 559 (37%) pacientes tenían una indicación quirúrgica de diverticulitis compleja persistente.Realizamos un análisis de regresión logística para identificar los factores de riesgo de diverticulitis compleja y evaluamos un nuevo modelo de predicción.Se midieron los factores predictivos de diverticulitis compleja persistente para la resección de colon electiva.Los pacientes con diverticulitis compleja eran mayores (p <0,001), tenían un peor estado funcional (p <0,001), más comorbilidades (diabetes e hipertensión) y un índice de comorbilidad de Charlson más alto (2,7 frente a 1,6, p <0,001). Tenían más probabilidades de tener antecedentes de consumo de tabaco o alcohol (p <0.001) y estar desnutridos. Curiosamente, los pacientes con diverticulitis compleja persistente no tuvieron más episodios que los pacientes sin complicaciones (p = 0,67). El tiempo quirúrgico fue más largo en la diverticulitis compleja y era más probable que requirieran estomas para desvio y resecciones concurrentes de estructuras adyacentes. El área bajo la curva de prueba fue (0.75, intervalo de confianza del 95% 0.72-0.78), la sensibilidad y la especificidad fueron 0.890 (intervalo de confianza del 95%; 0.870-0.891) y 0.450 (intervalo de confianza del 95%; 0.410-0.490), respectivamente.El estudio estuvo limitado por su revisión retrospectiva y sesgo observacional.Los pacientes sometidos a cirugía electiva por diverticulitis compleja no tuvieron más episodios. En cambio, la diverticulitis compleja puede ser un reflejo de un paciente complicado, lo que sugiere que los pacientes complicados deben tener un algoritmo de atención diferente al momento de su presentación inicial con diverticulitis para prevenir el desarrollo de una enfermedad compleja. Consulte Video Resumen en (Traducción-Dr. Yesenia Rojas-Kahlil).
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May 2020

Bowel Function After J-Pouch May Be More Complex Than Previously Appreciated: A Comprehensive Analysis to Highlight Existing Knowledge Gaps.

Dis Colon Rectum 2020 02;63(2):207-216

Section of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Functional outcomes following J-pouch for ulcerative colitis have been studied, but lack standardization in which symptoms are reported. Furthermore, the selection of symptoms studied has not been patient centered.

Objective: This study aimed to utilize a validated bowel function survey to determine which symptoms are present after J-pouch creation, and whether patients display a functional profile similar to low anterior resection syndrome.

Design: This study is a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained single-center database.

Settings: This study was conducted at the colorectal surgery center of a tertiary care academic hospital PATIENTS:: Included were 159 patients with J-pouch, ≥6 months after ileostomy reversal.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcomes were individual answers to the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Bowel Function Instrument. The original Bowel Function Instrument validation cohort was used as an historical comparison (n = 127).

Results: The mean total Bowel Function Instrument score for the J-pouch cohort was 59.9 ± 9.7 compared with a reported average score of 63.7 ± 11.6 for patients with low anterior resection in the validation cohort (p < 0.001), indicating worse bowel function in patients with J-pouch. When evaluating the Bowel Function Instrument subscales, patients with J-pouch reported frequency subscale scores of 18.2 ± 3.8, diet scores of 12.2 ± 3.8, and urgency scores of 15.9 ± 3.7, compared with 21.7 ± 4.5 (p < 0.001), 14.1 ± 3.7 (p < 0.001), and 15.0 ± 3.9 (p = 0.04) for patients undergoing rectal resection. Furthermore, 90.4% of patients with J-pouch state that they are sometimes, rarely, or never able to wait 15 minutes to get to the toilet. In addition, 56.4% of patients report having another bowel movement within 15 minutes of the last bowel movement, sometimes, always, or most of the time, and 50.6% of patients say that they sometimes, rarely, or never feel like their bowels have been totally emptied after a bowel movement.

Limitations: This study is limited because it took place at a single center and the Bowel Function Instrument was only validated for patients undergoing rectal resection.

Conclusions: Patients that undergo J-pouch surgery exhibit a constellation of bowel function symptoms that is more complex than fecal incontinence and frequency alone, despite the focus on these functional outcomes in the literature. See Video Abstract at LA FUNCIÓN INTESTINAL DESPUÉS DE LA BOLSA EN J PUEDE SER MÁS COMPLEJA DE LO QUE SE APRECIABA ANTERIORMENTE: UN ANÁLISIS EXHAUSTIVO PARA RESALTAR LAS BRECHAS DE CONOCIMIENTO EXISTENTES: Se han estudiado los resultados funcionales después de la bolsa en J para la colitis ulcerosa, pero carecen de estandarización en la que se informen los síntomas. Además, la selección de los síntomas estudiados no se ha centrado en el paciente.Utilizar una encuesta validada de la función intestinal para determinar qué síntomas están presentes después de la bolsa en J y si los pacientes muestran un perfil funcional similar al síndrome de resección anterior baja.Análisis retrospectivo de una base de datos de un solo centro mantenida prospectivamente.Centro de cirugía colorrectal de un hospital académico de atención terciaria.159 pacientes con bolsa en J, ≥6 meses después de la reversión de ileostomía.Instrumento para la función intestinal del "Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center"; cohorte de validación original de instrumentos de función intestinal utilizada como comparación histórica (n = 127).La puntuación media total del instrumento de función intestinal para la cohorte de bolsa J fue 59.9 ± 9.7 en comparación con un puntaje promedio reportado de 63.7 ± 11.6 para pacientes con resección anterior baja en la cohorte de validación (p < 0.001), lo que indica peor función intestinal en pacientes con bolsa en J. Al evaluar las subescalas del instrumento de función intestinal, los pacientes con bolsa en J informaron puntuaciones de subescala de frecuencia de 18.2 ± 3.8, puntuaciones de dieta de 12.2 ± 3.8 y puntuaciones de urgencia de 15.9 ± 3.7, en comparación con 21.7 ± 4.5 (p < 0.001), 14.1 ± 3.7 (p < 0.001) y 15.0 ± 3.9 (p = 0.04) respectivamente para pacientes con resección rectal. Además, el 90.4% de los pacientes con bolsa en J afirman que a veces, rara vez o nunca pueden esperar 15 minutos para llegar al baño. Además, el 56.4% de los pacientes reportan haber tenido otra evacuación intestinal dentro de los 15 minutos posteriores a la última evacuación intestinal, a veces, siempre o la mayor parte del tiempo, y el 50.6% de los pacientes dicen que a veces, rara vez o nunca sienten que sus intestinos han sido vaciados totalmente después de una evacuación intestinal.Estudio en un solo centro, instrumento de función intestinal validado solo para pacientes con resección rectalLos pacientes que se someten a una bolsa en J exhiben una constelación de síntomas de la función intestinal que es más compleja que la incontinencia fecal y la frecuencia sola, a pesar del enfoque en estos resultados funcionales en la literatura.Consulte Video Resumen en (Traducción-Dr. Gonzalo Federico Hagerman).
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February 2020

Implementation of liposomal bupivacaine transversus abdominis plane blocks into the colorectal enhanced recovery after surgery protocol: a natural experiment.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2020 Jan 4;35(1):133-138. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs are now standard of care for colorectal surgery. Efforts have been aimed at decreasing postoperative opioid consumption. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of liposomal bupivacaine transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks on opioid use and its downstream effect on rates of ileus and hospital length of stay (LOS).

Methods: We performed a retrospective pre- and postintervention time-trend analysis (2016-2018) of ERAS patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery at two academic medical centers within the same hospital system. The intervention was liposomal bupivacaine TAP blocks versus standard local infiltration with bupivacaine with a primary outcome of total morphine milligram equivalents (MME) administered within 72 h of surgery. Secondary outcomes included hospital LOS and rate of postoperative ileus.

Results: There were 556 patients included at the control hospital, and 384 patients were included at the treatment hospital. Patients at both hospitals were similar with regard to age, body mass index, comorbidities, and surgical indication. In an adjusted time-trend analysis, the treatment hospital was associated with a significant decrease in MME administered (- 15.9 mg, p = 0.04) and hospital LOS (- 0.8 days, p < 0.001). There was no significant decrease in the rate of ileus at the treatment hospital (- 6.9%, p = 0.08).

Conclusions: In a time-trend analysis, the addition of liposomal bupivacaine TAP blocks into the ERAS protocol resulted in significantly reduced opioid use and shorter hospital LOS for patients undergoing surgery at the treatment hospital. Liposomal bupivacaine TAP blocks should be considered for inclusion in the standard ERAS protocol.
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January 2020

Predictors of Prolonged Opioid Use Following Colectomy.

Dis Colon Rectum 2019 09;62(9):1117-1123

Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: The United States is in the middle of an opioid epidemic. Gastrointestinal surgery has been ranked in the top 3 surgical subspecialties for highest opioid prescribing.

Objective: The goal of this study is to determine the rate of and risk factors for prolonged opioid use following colectomy.

Design: This study utilized data (2015-2017) from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from 5 institutions.

Settings: This study was conducted at 2 academic and 3 community hospitals.

Patients: Included were 1243 patients who underwent colectomy.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was rate of prolonged opioid use defined as a new opioid prescription 90 to 180 days postoperatively.

Results: A total of 132 (10.6%) patients were prolonged opioid users. In univariate analysis, patients who were prolonged opioid users were significantly more likely to have had more than one opioid prescription in the prior year, to have a higher ASA classification, to undergo an open procedure, to have an ostomy created, and to be discharged with a high quantity of opioids (all p < 0.05). Prolonged opioid users were significantly more likely to have a complication (p = 0.007) or readmission (p = 0.003) within 30 days of the index procedure. In multivariable analysis, prior opioid use (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.6-4.2; p < 0.001), ostomy creation (OR, 2.1; 95% CI,1.2-3.7; p = 0.01), higher quantity of opioid prescription at discharge (OR, 1.9; 95% CI,1.1-3.3; p = 0.03), higher ASA classification (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6; p = 0.02), and hospital readmission (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.4; p = 0.01) were independent predictors of prolonged opioid use.

Limitations: This study is a retrospective review, and all variables related to prolonged opioid use are not collected in the data.

Conclusions: A significant proportion of patients undergoing colectomy become prolonged opioid users. We have identified risk factors for prolonged postoperative opioid use, which may allow for improved patient education and targets for intervention preoperatively, as well as implementation of programs for monitoring and cessation of opioid use in the postoperative period. See Video Abstract at PREDICTORES DEL USO PROLONGADO DE OPIOIDES DESPUÉS DE LA COLECTOMÍA: Los Estados Unidos se encuentran en medio de una epidemia de opioides. La cirugía gastrointestinal ha sido clasificada entre las tres subespecialidades quirúrgicas principales para la prescripción más alta de opioides.

Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la tasa y los factores de riesgo para el uso prolongado de opioides después de la colectomía. DISEÑO:: Este estudio utilizó datos (2015-2017) del Programa Nacional de Mejoramiento de la Calidad Quirúrgica del Colegio Americano de Cirujanos de cinco instituciones.

Marco: Dos hospitales académicos y tres comunitarios.

Pacientes: 1,243 pacientes sometidos a una colectomía.

Medidas De Resultado Principales: El resultado primario fue la tasa de uso prolongado de opioides, definida como una nueva receta de opioides entre 90 y 180 días después de la operación.

Resultados: Un total de 132 (10.6%) pacientes fueron usuarios de opioides por tiempo prolongado. En el análisis univariado, los pacientes que eran usuarios prolongados de opioides tenían una probabilidad significativamente mayor de haber tenido más de una receta de opioides en el año anterior, tenían una clasificación más alta de la Asociación Americana de Anestesiólogos, se sometieron a un procedimiento abierto, se les creó una ostomía y se les dio de alta con una cantidad grande de opioides (todos p < 0.05). Los usuarios de opioides prolongados fueron significativamente más propensos a tener una complicación (p = 0.007) o readmisión (p = 0.003) dentro de los 30 días del procedimiento índice. En el análisis multivariado, el uso previo de opioides (OR, 2.6; IC 95%, 1.6-4.2; p < 0.001), creación de ostomía (OR, 2.1; IC 95%, 1.2-3.7; p = 0.01), mayor cantidad de prescripción de opioides al dar de alta (OR, 1.9; IC 95%, 1.1-3.3; p = 0.03), clasificación más alta de la Asociación Americana de Anestesiólogos (OR, 1.7; IC 95%, 1.1-2.6; p = 0.02) y reingreso hospitalario (OR, 2.0; IC del 95%, 1.2-3.4, p = 0.01) fueron predictores independientes del uso prolongado de opioides.

Limitaciones: Este estudio es una revisión retrospectiva y todos los variables relacionadas con el uso prolongado de opioides no se colectaron en los datos.

Conclusiones: Una proporción significativa de pacientes con colectomía se convierten en usuarios prolongados de opioides. Hemos identificado factores de riesgo para el uso prolongado de opioides postoperatorios, que pueden permitir una mejor educación del paciente y objetivos para la intervención preoperatoria, así como la implementación de programas para la supervisión y cese del uso de opioides en el período postoperatorio. Vea el Video de Resumen en
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September 2019

The Authors Reply.

Dis Colon Rectum 2019 06;62(6):e34-e35

Colorectal Surgery Center, Department of General and Gastrointestinal Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

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June 2019

Colorectal Surgical Site Infection Prevention Kits Prior to Elective Colectomy Improve Outcomes.

Ann Surg 2020 06;271(6):1110-1115

Colorectal Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston MA.

Introduction: Patient compliance with preoperative mechanical and antibiotic bowel preparation, skin washes, carbohydrate loading, and avoidance of fasting are key components of successful colorectal ERAS and surgical site infection (SSI)-reduction programs. In July 2016, we began a quality improvement project distributing a free SSI Prevention Kit (SSIPK) containing patient instructions, mechanical and oral bowel preparation, chlorhexidine washes, and carbohydrate drink to all patients scheduled for elective colectomy, with the goal of improving patient compliance and rates of SSI.

Methods: This was a prospective data audit of our first 221 SSIPK+ patients, who were compared to historical controls (SSIPK-) of 1760 patients undergoing elective colectomy from January 2013 to March 2017. A 1:1 propensity score system accounted for nonrandom treatment assignment. Matched patients' complications, particularly postoperative infection and ileus, were compared.

Results: SSIPK+ (n = 219) and SSIPK- (n = 219) matched patients were statistically identical on demographics, comorbidities, BMI, surgical indication, and procedure. SSIPK+ patients had higher compliance with mechanical (95% vs 71%, P < 0.001) and oral antibiotic (94% vs 27%, P < 0.001) bowel preparation. This translated into lower overall SSI rates (5.9% vs 11.4%, P = 0.04). SSIPK+ patients also had lower rates of anastomotic leak (2.7% vs 6.8%, P = 0.04), prolonged postoperative ileus (5.9% vs 14.2%, P < 0.01), and unplanned intubation (0% vs 2.3%, P = 0.02). Furthermore, SSIPK+ patients had shorter mean hospital length of stay (3.1 vs 5.4 d, P < 0.01) and had fewer unplanned readmissions (5.9% vs 14.6%, P < 0.001). There were no differences in rates of postoperative pneumonia, urinary tract infection, Clostridium difficile colitis, sepsis, or death.

Conclusion: Provision of a free-of-charge SSIPK is associated with higher patient compliance with preoperative instructions and significantly lower rates of surgical site infections, lower rates of prolonged postoperative ileus, and shorter hospital stays with fewer readmissions. Widespread utilization of such a bundle could therefore lead to significantly improved outcomes.
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June 2020

The Contributions of Internal Intussusception, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and Pelvic Floor Dyssynergia to Obstructed Defecation Syndrome.

Dis Colon Rectum 2019 01;62(1):56-62

Colorectal Surgery Center, Department of General and Gastrointestinal Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Recently, there has been a trend toward surgical management of internal intussusception despite an unclear correlation with constipation symptoms.

Objective: This study characterizes constipation in patients with obstructed defecation syndrome and identifies whether internal intussusception or other diagnoses such as irritable bowel syndrome may be contributing to symptoms.

Design: Patients evaluated for obstructed defecation at a pelvic floor disorder center were studied from a prospectively maintained database. With the use of defecography, patients were classified by Oxford Rectal Prolapse Grade. Coexisting disorders such as enterocele, rectocele, and dyssynergia were also identified. The presence of irritable bowel syndrome was defined using Rome IV criteria, and constipation severity was quantified with the Varma constipation severity instrument.

Settings: This study was conducted at a tertiary care university medical center (Massachusetts General Hospital).

Patients: The study included 317 consecutive patients with defecography imaging and a completed constipation severity instrument survey from May 2007 to July 2016.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measures were the Varma Constipation Severity Instrument overall score and obstructed defecation subscale score.

Results: Of 317 patients evaluated, 95 (30.0%) had no internal intussusception, 126 (39.7%) had intra-rectal intussusception, and 96 (30.3%) had intra-anal intussusception. There was no association between rising grade of internal intussusception and either overall constipation score or obstructed defecation subscale score. Irritable bowel syndrome was associated with an increase in overall constipation score and obstructed defecation subscale score (40.5 ± 13.6 vs 36.0 ± 15.1, p = 0.007, and 22.3 ± 5.8 vs 20.0 ± 6.6, p < 0.001). Multivariate regression found irritable bowel syndrome and dyssynergia to be associated with a significant increase in obstructed defecation subscale scores.

Limitations: The study was limited because it was an observational study from a single center.

Conclusions: Patients referred for surgical management of obstructive defecation syndrome should be screened and treated for irritable bowel syndrome and dyssynergia before considering surgical intervention. See Video Abstract at
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January 2019

Addition of a scripted pre-operative patient education module to an existing ERAS pathway further reduces length of stay.

Am J Surg 2018 10 19;216(4):652-657. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Colorectal Surgery Center, Department of General and Gastrointestinal Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, United States.

Background: While enhanced recovery pathways (ERAS) appear to be beneficial for post-operative outcomes, there have been no studies evaluating the specific role of patient education within an ERAS pathway.

Methods: We identified all colectomies performed at our institution since initiation of an ERAS protocol, excluding for mortality and length of stay >30 days. Patients who received preoperative education by a nurse practitioner via a scripted telephone call were compared to patients who did not receive education using the NSQIP database. We then evaluated differences in surgical complications and length of stay among these cohorts.

Results: Patients who received scripted education phone calls had a significantly shorter mean length of stay when compared to patients that receiving usual care (3.0 ± 2.2 vs 3.7 ± 3.2 days; p = 0.005). Subgroup analysis demonstrates strongest benefit in patients undergoing left colectomy and laparoscopic surgery.

Conclusions: Scripted patient education modules may shorten length of stays and postoperative complications, even when added to an already existing ERAS bundle, which may translate into significant hospital cost savings.
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October 2018