Publications by authors named "Paul H Smith"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Contemporary management of small renal masses: does practice environment matter?

Can J Urol 2012 Oct;19(5):6438-42

Division of Urology, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA.

Introduction: Population based studies imply underutilization of renal preservation for managing small renal mass (SRMs). Limited information is available regarding the impact of practice environment on SRM treatment. We evaluated practice patterns for SRMs in the context of a urologist's practice environment.

Materials And Methods: Survey instrument querying practice type (private versus academic/academic affiliation) was distributed to urologists of the Mid-Atlantic section of the American Urological Association. Physicians were presented three case scenarios (exophytic 2.5 cm SRM in a healthy 55-year-old, healthy 75-year-old, and comorbid 75-year-old patient) and were queried on management.

Results: Of the 281 respondents who manage kidney cancer, 92 practiced in an academic environment, and 189 were private practitioners. Thirty-four percent had completed residency training within 10 years, 25% between 11-20 years, and 41% over 20 years. For SRMs in a healthy 55-year-old, over 95% of practicing nephrologists advocated nephron-sparing treatments. Nonetheless, private practitioners were more likely to perform a radical nephrectomy (6% versus 0%, p = 0.03) and less likely perform a partial nephrectomy (79% versus 91%, p = 0.01) than academic counterparts. We observed an increase in the percentage of urologists offering thermal ablation (38% versus 12%, p < 0.0001) and observation (29% versus 1%, p < 0.0001) with a corresponding decline in the use of partial nephrectomy (32% versus 83%, p < 0.0001) in the 75-year-old versus 55-year-old patient. When considering management of a SRM in 75-year-old patients (healthy or comorbid), private practitioners were more likely to offer a thermal ablative procedure when compared to academic urologists (41% versus 32%, p = 0.05).

Conclusions: Over 95% of urologists espouse renal preservation strategies for a SRM in a healthy, young patient. Private practitioners are more likely to perform a radical (and less likely a partial) nephrectomy in this cohort. While surveillance is increasingly utilized for SRMs in the elderly patient, private practitioners are more likely to recommend active treatment via thermal ablation when compared to academic counterparts.
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October 2012

Alternative splicing of the Anopheles gambiae Dscam gene in diverse Plasmodium falciparum infections.

Malar J 2011 Jun 8;10:156. Epub 2011 Jun 8.

Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, EH93JT Edinburgh, UK.

Background: In insects, including Anopheles mosquitoes, Dscam (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule) appears to be involved in phagocytosis of pathogens, and shows pathogen-specific splice-form expression between divergent pathogen (or parasite) types (e.g. between bacteria and Plasmodium or between Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum). Here, data are presented from the first study of Dscam expression in response to genetic diversity within a parasite species.

Methods: In independent field and laboratory studies, a measure of Dscam splice-form diversity was compared between mosquitoes fed on blood that was free of P. falciparum to mosquitoes exposed to either single or mixed genotype infections of P. falciparum.

Results: Significant increases in Anopheles gambiae Dscam (AgDscam) receptor diversity were observed in parasite-exposed mosquitoes, but only weak evidence that AgDscam diversity rises further upon exposure to mixed genotype parasite infections was found. Finally, a cluster of AgDscam exon 4 variants that become especially common during Plasmodium invasion was identified.

Conclusions: While the data clearly indicate that AgDscam diversity increases with P. falciparum exposure, they do not suggest that AgDscam diversity rises further in response to increased parasite diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-10-156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3118162PMC
June 2011

Are urology residents adequately exposed to conservative therapies for managing small renal masses?

J Endourol 2011 Jan;25(1):129-33

Division of Urology, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA.

Purpose: Increasing diagnosis of small renal masses (SRMs) necessitates trainees to be familiar with available therapies. We hypothesized that involvement in conservative treatments (ablation and/or active surveillance) occurs infrequently. Therefore, we evaluated resident exposure and participation in treatments as well as proposed management for SRMs.

Methods: A survey was distributed to residents of the American Urologic Association and queried exposure to ablation and surveillance for SRMs. Three case scenarios (SRM in a healthy 55-year-old, healthy 75-year-old, and comorbid 75-year-old patient) were presented for management.

Results: Two hundred fifty-seven residents responded to the survey. Two hundred thirty-four (91%) reported ablation was offered at their institution, although only 140 (54%) ever participated in this procedure. Of these, 80 (57%) were involved in fewer than five procedures. Experience with ablation did not increase at higher levels of training (U3-61%, U4-66%, and U5-63%). Two hundred twenty-four (87%) residents noted exposure to surveillance for managing SRMs, increasing from 70% in U1 to 94% in U5. When considering case scenarios, management strategy shifted significantly from extirpation to ablation or surveillance as patient age and comorbidity profile increased. In particular, almost 50% of respondents advocated ablation for SRMs in a comorbid 75-year-old patient.

Conclusions: Although most residents are adequately exposed to surveillance strategies for SRMs, only 54% participated in an ablative procedure. Nonetheless, almost 50% of residents recommended ablation to manage SRMs in the aging, comorbid patient. This suggests a disconnect between training and future practice pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2010.0450DOI Listing
January 2011

Expression of cutaneous fatty acid-binding protein (C-FABP) in prostate cancer: potential prognostic marker and target for tumourigenicity-suppression.

Int J Oncol 2008 Apr;32(4):767-75

Molecular Pathology Laboratory, School of Cancer Studies, Faculty of Medicine, the University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA, UK.

C-FABP or E-FABP is a metastasis inducing gene over expressed in human prostate carcinomas. To study its prognostic significance, an archival set of prostate tissues was analysed immunohistochemically. Levels of both nuclear and cytoplasmic C-FABP expression in carcinoma cells were significantly higher than those in normal and BPH tissues and the increased C-FABP was significantly associated with a reduced patient survival time. To test the therapeutic potential of targeting C-FABP, a clone (Si-clone-2) of cells was established by interfering C-FABP expression in highly malignant PC-3M cells. Suppression of C-FABP in cancer cells significantly inhibited their proliferation and tumourigenicity in vitro. When Si-clone-2 cells were orthotopically implanted into the prostate gland of mouse, 2/13 mice produced primary tumours with an average size of 23+/-5 mg, and no metastasis was produced in any of the 13 animals. Whereas in the control group, all 14 mice produced primary tumours with an average size of 1450+/-370 mg and 9/14 (64.3%) produced metastasis. When inoculated subcutaneously, all 5 mice inoculated with control cells developed tumours from day 4, with an average size of 1471+/-544 mm(3) at 5 weeks after the inoculation; whereas Si-clone-2 cells produced no tumours in any of the 5 animals at any time-point, indicating the suppression occurred at the initiation stage. Our results suggest that C-FABP may be used as a potential prognostic marker to predict patient outcome and the increased C-FABP expression is a possible target to inhibit the malignant progression of prostate cancer cells.
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April 2008

Increased Id-1 expression is significantly associated with poor survival of patients with prostate cancer.

Hum Pathol 2007 Sep 28;38(9):1321-9. Epub 2007 Jun 28.

Molecular Pathology Laboratory, School of Cancer Studies, Faculty of Medicine, University of Liverpool, L69 3GA Liverpool, United Kingdom.

The levels of Id-1 (inhibitor of DNA binding or inhibitor of cell differentiation) expression in a series of prostate cell lines and in an archival set of prostate tissues were examined. Western blot analysis showed that the level of Id-1 expressed in the androgen sensitive cell line LNCaP was 1.2 +/- 0.2 times that detected in the benign cell line PNT-2. The level of Id-1 increased further to 1.8 +/- 0.2 and 2.9 +/- 0.3 in the androgen-insensitive cell lines Du-145 and PC-3, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining with Id-1 antibody performed on 113 cases of prostate tissues showed that among the 7 normal cases, 6 (86%) stained either negative or weakly positive whereas only 1 (14%) stained moderately positive. Among the 36 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) samples, 34 (94%) stained either negative or weakly positive; only 1 (3%) stained moderately and 1 (3%) stained strongly. Of the 70 carcinomas, 8 (11.5%) stained weakly, 34 (48.5%) stained moderately, and 28 (40%) stained strongly positive. The intensity of Id-1 staining in carcinomas was significantly stronger than that detected in the normal prostate and BPH (chi(2) test, P < .001) and it was significantly increased as the increasing malignancy of carcinomas measured by Gleason score (chi(2) test, P < .001). The intensity of Id-1 staining was partially associated with the levels of prostate-specific antigen, but not related to the level of androgen receptor. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed that, similar to Gleason scores, overexpression of Id-1 was significantly associated with the reduced length of patient survival (log-rank test, P = .01). These results suggest that Id-1 is a useful prognostic marker to predict the outcomes of patients with prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2007.02.011DOI Listing
September 2007

Risk ranking of LANL nuclear material storage containers for repackaging prioritization.

Health Phys 2007 May;92(5 Suppl):S87-97

Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87544, USA.

Safe handling and storage of nuclear material at U.S. Department of Energy facilities relies on the use of robust containers to prevent container breaches and subsequent worker contamination and uptake. The U.S. Department of Energy has no uniform requirements for packaging and storage of nuclear materials other than those declared excess and packaged to DOE-STD-3013-2000. This report describes a methodology for prioritizing a large inventory of nuclear material containers so that the highest risk containers are repackaged first. The methodology utilizes expert judgment to assign respirable fractions and reactivity factors to accountable levels of nuclear material at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A relative risk factor is assigned to each nuclear material container based on a calculated dose to a worker due to a failed container barrier and a calculated probability of container failure based on material reactivity and container age. This risk-based methodology is being applied at LANL to repackage the highest risk materials first and, thus, accelerate the reduction of risk to nuclear material handlers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.HP.0000255657.85681.82DOI Listing
May 2007

Prognostic significance of osteopontin expression in human prostate cancer.

Int J Cancer 2006 May;118(9):2255-61

Molecular Pathology Laboratory, School of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GA, United Kingdom.

To test the hypothesis that expression of osteopontin (OPN), an integrin-binding glycoprotein, can independently predict the potential aggressiveness of prostate cancer, the status of OPN expression in benign and malignant prostate cancer cell lines and tissues was analysed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Amongst the four prostate cell lines analysed, the level of OPN expressed in the benign PNT-2 cells was set at 1, the relative level of OPN expressed in the weakly malignant cell line LNCaP was increased to 1.5. In the highly malignant cell lines Du-145 and PC-3, the level of OPN expression was further increased to 2.9 and 4.4, respectively. An increased expression of OPN was also observed in the prostate tissue samples. When the level of OPN in normal tissue was set at 1, its level in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) was similar at 0.99 +/- 0.2, whereas the OPN level in the highly malignant carcinoma tissue was greatly increased by nearly 6-fold to 5.9 +/- 0.3. Amongst the 116 cases examined immunocytochemically, of the 10 normal cases, 3 (30%) were unstained and 7 (70%) stained weakly positive (+). Amongst the 36 BPH samples, 32 (89%) stained weakly positive (+) and 4 (11%) were unstained (-). For the 70 carcinomas analysed, 31 (44%) stained strongly positive (+++), 20 (29%) stained moderately positive (++) and 19 (27%) stained weakly positive (+). These results showed that the level of OPN expressed between the normal and the BPH samples was not significantly different (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.16). However, in comparison to that in the BPH samples, the expression of OPN in the carcinoma tissues was significantly increased (Chi-square test, p < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the increased level of OPN expression was significantly (n = 70, p = 0.03) associated with reduced survival time of the patients. The OPN expression was increased with the increasing Gleason scores of the carcinomas (Chi-square test, p < 0.001). The results in our study support our hypothesis and suggest that the increased OPN level may be involved in the malignant transformation of prostate epithelial cells and OPN expression level is an important determinant for patient survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.21619DOI Listing
May 2006

Amplification and overexpression of E2F3 in human bladder cancer.

Oncogene 2004 Feb;23(8):1627-30

Section of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Male Urological Cancer Research, Centre, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG, UK.

We demonstrate that, in human bladder cancer, amplification of the E2F3 gene, located at 6p22, is associated with overexpression of its encoded mRNA transcripts and high levels of expression of E2F3 protein. Immunohistochemical analyses of E2F3 protein levels have established that around one-third (33/101) of primary transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder overexpress nuclear E2F3 protein, with the proportion of tumours containing overexpressed nuclear E2F3 increasing with tumour stage and grade. When considered together with the established role of E2F3 in cell cycle progression, these results suggest that the E2F3 gene represents a candidate bladder cancer oncogene that is activated by DNA amplification and overexpression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1207274DOI Listing
February 2004

Declining estrogen receptor-beta expression defines malignant progression of human breast neoplasia.

Am J Surg Pathol 2003 Dec;27(12):1502-12

Department of Cellular and Molecular Pathology, University of Liverpool, UK.

It has been shown that the risk of breast cancer developing in certain morphologically identifiable benign breast lesions correlates with expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha). Although ER-alpha and ER-beta genes share a large degree of homology, it is generally thought that their distribution and functions are substantially different in many tissues. Recent development of reliable antibodies to ER-beta has provided this first opportunity to test the hypothesis that the likelihood of malignant transformation in morphologically benign breast lesions can be accurately defined by the distribution and level of ER-beta expression relative to that of ER-alpha. Using a monoclonal antibody, ER-beta protein expression has been analyzed in 53 normal breasts and compared with a cohort of histologically distinct breast lesions of different prognostic risk (54 hyperplasia of usual type, 35 ductal carcinoma in situ, and 141 invasive cancers). All of these tissues were also assessed for ER-alpha. Expression of ER-beta protein was also analyzed in an additional spectrum of benign breast lesions with low or negligible risk of progression to malignancy. The median proportion of cells expressing ER-beta was highest in normal breast lobules (median 94.33%, interquartile range 78.25-99.00) but declined significantly through usual ductal hyperplasia (median 76.67, interquartile range 49.17-95.00, P = 0.002) and ductal carcinoma in situ (median 70.00, interquartile range 59.00-85.00, P = 0.009) to invasive cancer (median 60.00, interquartile range 50.00-80.00, P < 0.001). An appreciable proportion (33.81%) of ER-alpha-negative invasive cancers expressed ER-beta. A high but variable level of ER-beta expression occurred in the benign lesions. The data from the intact histologic tissues were evaluated with respect to the relative expression of ER-alpha and ER-beta in five mammary cell lines of different behavioral phenotype (MCF7, ZR-75, T47D, MDAMB231, HUMA121). The highly significant differences in expression and distinct tissue distributions of ER-alpha and ER-beta within the histologic lesions of defined risk, together with the data from the cell lines, support the original hypothesis that the tissue concentration, relative occurrence, and/or interaction of these two types of estrogen receptor may play an important role in modulating mammary tumorigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000478-200312000-00002DOI Listing
December 2003

High-level expression of cutaneous fatty acid-binding protein in prostatic carcinomas and its effect on tumorigenicity.

Oncogene 2003 May;22(18):2739-49

Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK.

The expression of cutaneous fatty acid-binding protein (C-FABP) in prostate tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry. Among the 76 cases, all seven (100%) normal tissues were unstained. Of the 35 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 25 (71.4%) specimens were unstained and 10 (28.6%) were stained positively. For the 34 prostatic carcinomas, the C-FABP expression was remarkably increased: 25 (73.5%) samples stained positively, and only nine (26.5%) were unstained. Transfection of a vector expressing an antisense C-FABP transcript into the PC-3M prostatic cancer cells yielded two transfectant lines: PC-3M-CFABP-1 and PC-3M-CFABP-3, producing, respectively, a 3.8- and a 6.9-fold reduction in C-FABP levels. Comparing with the control transfectants, the in vitro invasiveness of both PC-3M-CFABP-1 and PC-3M-CFABP-3 was significantly reduced. When tested in nude mouse, the average size of tumours produced by PC-3M-CFABP-1 and by PC-3M-CFABP-3 was reduced by 2.9- and 4.2-fold respectively, in comparison with that of tumours produced by the control transfectants. Analysis showed that the decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and microvessel densities in the tumours were associated with the reduced C-FABP. These data show that C-FABP is increased in prostatic carcinoma cells and suppression of its expression can significantly inhibit the tumorigenicity, probably by reducing the expression of VEGF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1206341DOI Listing
May 2003
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