Publications by authors named "Paul G Richardson"

435 Publications

Dynamic transcriptional reprogramming leads to immunotherapeutic vulnerabilities in myeloma.

Nat Cell Biol 2021 Oct 21. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Department of Medical Oncology, Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

While there is extensive evidence for genetic variation as a basis for treatment resistance, other sources of variation result from cellular plasticity. Using multiple myeloma as an example of an incurable lymphoid malignancy, we show how cancer cells modulate lineage restriction, adapt their enhancer usage and employ cell-intrinsic diversity for survival and treatment escape. By using single-cell transcriptome and chromatin accessibility profiling, we show that distinct transcriptional states co-exist in individual cancer cells and that differential transcriptional regulon usage and enhancer rewiring underlie these alternative transcriptional states. We demonstrate that exposure to standard treatment further promotes transcriptional reprogramming and differential enhancer recruitment while simultaneously reducing developmental potential. Importantly, treatment generates a distinct complement of actionable immunotherapy targets, such as CXCR4, which can be exploited to overcome treatment resistance. Our studies therefore delineate how to transform the cellular plasticity that underlies drug resistance into immuno-oncologic therapeutic opportunities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41556-021-00766-yDOI Listing
October 2021

Patient-reported outcomes in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma treated with melflufen plus dexamethasone: analyses from the Phase II HORIZON study.

Br J Haematol 2021 Oct 21. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) is known to have a high burden of disease and complications associated with refractoriness to prior lines of therapy. Severe pain and fatigue symptoms and impairments in physical and emotional functioning have been strongly linked to reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with RRMM. Assessment of patient reported-outcome measures from the pivotal, Phase II HORIZON study (OP-106; NCT02963493) in patients with RRMM (n = 64) demonstrated that melphalan flufenamide (melflufen) plus dexamethasone treatment preserved HRQoL. Patients had clinically meaningful improvements, even after eight treatment cycles, in relevant scales such as global health status/QoL, physical functioning, emotional functioning, pain, and fatigue. Patients with triple-class-refractory disease (n = 50) displayed similar improvements. Patient-reported outcome deterioration was delayed for a substantial amount of time in patients who experienced a response to melflufen plus dexamethasone treatment relative to patients who did not experience a response. These findings support the notion that treatment with melflufen plus dexamethasone may sustain or improve HRQoL over time in patients with RRMM, including in patients with triple-class-refractory disease for whom outcomes are generally worse. The clinical benefits observed in patients from the HORIZON trial are encouraging and supportive of translation into real-world practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17887DOI Listing
October 2021

Defibrotide: Real World Management of Veno-Occlusive Disease/ Sinusoidal Obstructive Syndrome after Stem Cell Transplant.

Blood Adv 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease or sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (VOD/ SOS) is a life-threatening complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Defibrotide is the only FDA-approved medication for the management of severe VOD/ SOS after HSCT. We report our center's experience with commercially available defibrotide as treatment for patients with VOD/SOS. We retrospectively identified 28 cases of VOD/ SOS, based on the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation criteria, from March 2016 through June 2019. The median day of VOD/ SOS onset was 25 days (range, 8 to 69) and defibrotide was initiated on day of diagnosis in 71% of patients. Complete resolution of VOD/ SOS occurred in 75% of patients. Day +100 survival was 64% for all HSCT patients and 53% for those with very severe VOD/ SOS. Response rates and survival were similar in patients with VOD/SOS after myeloablative or reduced intensity chemotherapy HSCT. Therapy related adverse events were mild and included hematuria (43%), epistaxis (18%) and hypotension (11%). Severe hemorrhagic adverse events occurred in 2 patients (pulmonary and upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage; 7%) and both in the setting of progressive VOD/SOS. Early diagnosis, prompt initiation of defibrotide, and minimizing dosing interruptions may be key to successful treatment of VOD/ SOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005410DOI Listing
October 2021

Reply to G. R. Mohyuddin et al and A. Garfall et al.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Oct 15:JCO2102081. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Paul G. Richardson, MD, Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA; and Philippe Moreau, MD, University Hospital Hotel Dieu, Nantes, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.02081DOI Listing
October 2021

The importance of endothelial protection: the emerging role of defibrotide in reversing endothelial injury and its sequelae.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Barcelona Endothelium Team, Josep Carreras Leukaemia Research Institute, Hospital Clinic/University of Barcelona Campus, Barcelona, Spain.

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS), a potentially life-threatening complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), results from prolonged sinusoidal endothelial cell activation and profound endothelial cell damage, with sequelae. Defibrotide, the only drug approved in the United States and Europe for treating VOD/SOS post-HCT, has European Commission orphan drug designation for preventing graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), associated with endothelial dysfunction. This endothelial cell protector and stabilizing agent restores thrombo-fibrinolytic balance and preserves endothelial homeostasis through antithrombotic, fibrinolytic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-adhesive activity. Defibrotide also preserves endothelial cell structure by inhibiting heparanase activity. Evidence suggests that downregulating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) is key to defibrotide's endothelial protective effects; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/AKT) potentially links defibrotide interaction with the endothelial cell membrane and downstream effects. Despite defibrotide's being most extensively studied in VOD/SOS, emerging preclinical and clinical data support defibrotide for treating or preventing other conditions driven by endothelial cell activation, dysfunction, and/or damage, such as GvHD, transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy, or chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy-associated neurotoxicity, underpinned by cytokine release syndrome and endotheliitis. Further preclinical and clinical studies will explore defibrotide's potential utility in a broader range of disorders resulting from endothelial cell activation and dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01383-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8477726PMC
September 2021

Bortezomib induces anti-multiple myeloma immune response mediated by cGAS/STING pathway activation.

Blood Cancer Discov 2021 Sep 23;2(5):468-483. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induces apoptosis in multiple myeloma (MM) cells, and has transformed patient outcome. Using as well as immunodeficient and immunocompetent murine MM models, we here show that bortezomib also triggers immunogenic cell death (ICD) characterized by exposure of calreticulin on dying MM cells, phagocytosis of tumor cells by dendritic cells, and induction of MM specific immunity. We identify a bortezomib-triggered specific ICD-gene signature associated with better outcome in two independent MM patient cohorts. Importantly, bortezomib stimulates MM cells immunogenicity activation of cGAS/STING pathway and production of type-I interferons; and STING agonists significantly potentiate bortezomib-induced ICD. Our studies therefore delineate mechanisms whereby bortezomib exerts immunotherapeutic activity, and provide the framework for clinical trials of STING agonists with bortezomib to induce potent tumor-specific immunity and improve patient outcome in MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2643-3230.bcd-21-0047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8462183PMC
September 2021

A phase I/II study of ixazomib, pomalidomide, and dexamethasone for lenalidomide and proteasome inhibitor refractory multiple myeloma (Alliance A061202).

Am J Hematol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Division of Hematology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Preclinical studies have demonstrated activity of the oral proteasome inhibitor (PI) ixazomib (IXA) in bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma (MM) and synergy with immunomodulatory drugs. We therefore conducted a phase I/II study to establish the safety and preliminary efficacy of IXA with pomalidomide (POM) and dexamethasone (DEX) in lenalidomide (LEN)/PI-refractory MM. Dose escalation established a 4 mg dose of POM and IXA and 20/40 mg dose of DEX as the maximum tolerated dose. The phase II portion of the trial was redesigned and started anew after six patients had been randomized to IXA-POM-DEX due to a rapidly changing treatment landscape. Among the 29 evaluable LEN/PI-refractory patients treated with IXA-POM-DEX in phase I/II, the overall response rate (partial response or better) was 51.7% with a median duration of response of 16.8 months (range 56 days to 4.1 years), median progression-free survival of 4.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.0-18.4), and median overall survival of 34.3 months (95% CI: 19.2 to not reached). Hematologic, gastrointestinal, and constitutional adverse events were common and consistent with the side-effect profiles of the individual agents. Our results support further evaluation of this all-oral regimen in relapsed/refractory MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26361DOI Listing
September 2021

Isatuximab for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: review of key subgroup analyses from the Phase III ICARIA-MM study.

Future Oncol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Clinical Therapeutics, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens 157 72, Greece.

In the Phase III ICARIA-MM study (NCT02990338), the addition of the anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody isatuximab to pomalidomide and dexamethasone led to increased progression-free survival and improved response rates in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. There is an unmet treatment need, particularly among patients with poor prognoses, including those with high-risk cytogenetics, those who have renal impairment, those who are elderly and those who are refractory to prior lines of treatment. In this review, the subgroup analyses from the ICARIA-MM study, representing subpopulations with poor prognostic factors, are discussed. Overall, the addition of isatuximab to pomalidomide and dexamethasone improved progression-free survival and disease response rates across different subgroups, regardless of prognostic factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2021-0568DOI Listing
September 2021

Endothelial dysfunction and its critical role in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy: Defibrotide as an endothelium-protective, targeted therapy.

EJHaem 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Medicine Hematopoietic Transplant and Cellular Therapy Unit IMIB-Arrixaca Virgen de la Arrixaca University Hospital University of Murcia Murcia Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jha2.198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8426874PMC
June 2021

Single-Cell Profiling Reveals Metabolic Reprogramming as a Resistance Mechanism in -Mutated Multiple Myeloma.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Purpose: Although remarkably effective in some patients, precision medicine typically induces only transient responses despite initial absence of resistance-conferring mutations. Using -mutated myeloma as a model for resistance to precision medicine we investigated if mutated cancer cells have the ability to ensure their survival by rapidly adapting to BRAF inhibitor treatment.

Experimental Design: Full-length single-cell RNA (scRNA) sequencing (scRNA-seq) was conducted on 3 patients with -mutated myeloma and 1 healthy donor. We sequenced 1,495 cells before, after 1 week, and at clinical relapse to BRAF/MEK inhibitor treatment. We developed an model of dabrafenib resistance using genetically homogeneous single-cell clones from two cell lines with established mutations (U266, DP6). Transcriptional and epigenetic adaptation in resistant cells were defined by RNA-seq and H3K27ac chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq). Mitochondrial metabolism was characterized by metabolic flux analysis.

Results: Profiling by scRNA-seq revealed rapid cellular state changes in response to BRAF/MEK inhibition in patients with myeloma and cell lines. Transcriptional adaptation preceded detectable outgrowth of genetically discernible drug-resistant clones and was associated with widespread enhancer remodeling. As a dominant vulnerability, dependency on oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) was induced. In treated individuals, OxPhos was activated at the time of relapse and showed inverse correlation to MAPK activation. Metabolic flux analysis confirmed OxPhos as a preferential energetic resource of drug-persistent myeloma cells.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that cancer cells have the ability to rapidly adapt to precision treatments through transcriptional state changes, epigenetic adaptation, and metabolic rewiring, thus facilitating the development of refractory disease while simultaneously exposing novel vulnerabilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-2040DOI Listing
September 2021

Pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone at first relapse in lenalidomide-pretreated myeloma: A subanalysis of OPTIMISMM by clinical characteristics.

Eur J Haematol 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Objective: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (PVd) vs bortezomib and dexamethasone (Vd) by age, renal function, and high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities in lenalidomide-pretreated patients with multiple myeloma at first relapse.

Methods: OPTIMISMM was a phase 3, multicenter, open-label, randomized study (NCT01734928; N = 559). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS).

Results: Overall, 226 patients had received one prior line of therapy. PVd significantly prolonged PFS vs Vd in patients aged ≤65 years (median, 22.0 vs 13.1 months; P = .0258) and >65 years (median, 17.6 vs 9.9 months; P = .0369). Median PFS in patients with renal impairment (RI; creatinine clearance <60 mL/min) was 15.1 months with PVd vs 9.5 months with Vd (hazard ratio [HR], 0.67 [95% CI, 0.34-1.34]). In patients without RI, median PFS was 22.0 vs 13.1 months (HR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.27-0.76]). In patients with high-risk cytogenetics, median PFS was 14.7 vs 9.9 months (HR, 0.39 [95% CI, 0.13-1.17]). PVd significantly improved overall response rate vs Vd in all subgroups. The safety profile of PVd was consistent with previous reports.

Conclusions: These findings confirmed the benefits of PVd at first relapse, including in patients with poor prognostic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13706DOI Listing
September 2021

Panobinostat From Bench to Bedside: Rethinking the Treatment Paradigm for Multiple Myeloma.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Tisch Cancer Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) presents a therapeutic challenge due to the development of drug resistance. Panobinostat is an oral histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) that affects multiple cellular pathways and has demonstrated the ability to resensitize refractory-multiple myeloma cells in preclinical studies, as well as in patients with RRMM in clinical trials. Synergy of panobinostat with a number of different classes of antimyeloma drugs (proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies) has also been shown. Panobinostat is a promising HDACi for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Here, we present a comprehensive review of preclinical and clinical studies of panobinostat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.06.020DOI Listing
June 2021

Targeting LAG3/GAL-3 to overcome immunosuppression and enhance anti-tumor immune responses in multiple myeloma.

Leukemia 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Immune profiling in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), and multiple myeloma (MM) provides the framework for developing novel immunotherapeutic strategies. Here, we demonstrate decreased CD4 Th cells, increased Treg and G-type MDSC, and upregulation of immune checkpoints on effector/regulatory and CD138 cells in MM patients, compared MGUS/SMM patients or healthy individuals. Among the checkpoints profiled, LAG3 was most highly expressed on proliferating CD4 Th and CD8 Tc cells in MM patients BMMC and PBMC. Treatment with antibody targeting LAG3 significantly enhanced T cells proliferation and activities against MM. XBP1/CD138/CS1-specific CTL generated in vitro displayed anti-MM activity, which was further enhanced following anti-LAG3 treatment, within the antigen-specific memory T cells. Treg and G-type MDSC weakly express LAG3 and were minimally impacted by anti-LAG3. CD138 MM cells express GAL-3, a ligand for LAG3, and anti-GAL-3 treatment increased MM-specific responses, as observed for anti-LAG3. Finally, we demonstrate checkpoint inhibitor treatment evokes non-targeted checkpoints as a cause of resistance and propose combination therapeutic strategies to overcome this resistance. These studies identify and validate blockade of LAG3/GAL-3, alone or in combination with immune strategies including XBP1/CD138/CS1 multipeptide vaccination, to enhance anti-tumor responses and improve patient outcome in MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01301-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Distinctive Biomarker Features in The Endotheliopathy of COVID-19 and Septic Syndromes.

Shock 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Medical Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain Hematopathology, Pathology Department, CDB, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain Barcelona Endothelium Team, Barcelona, Spain IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain Josep Carreras Leukaemia Research Institute, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain School of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Frank H. Netter M.D. School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University, North Haven, Connecticut Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut Hematopoietic Transplant and Cellular Therapy Unit, Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria IMIB-Arrixaca, Virgen de la Arrixaca University Hospital, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain Department of Oncology and Hematology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-IRCCS, Rozzano-Milano, Italy Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Rozzano-Milano, Italy Division of Hematologic Malignancy, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Endotheliopathy is a key element in COVID-19 pathophysiology, contributing to both morbidity and mortality. Biomarkers distinguishing different COVID-19 phenotypes from sepsis syndrome remain poorly understood.

Objective: To characterize circulating biomarkers of endothelial damage in different COVID-19 clinical disease stages compared with sepsis syndrome and normal volunteers.

Methods: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (n = 49) were classified into moderate, severe, or critical (life-threatening) disease. Plasma samples were collected within 48 to 72 h of hospitalization to analyze endothelial activation markers, including sVCAM-1, von Willebrand Factor (VWF), ADAMTS-13 activity, thrombomodulin (TM), and soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFRI); heparan sulfate (HS) for endothelial glycocalyx degradation; C5b9 deposits on endothelial cells in culture and soluble C5b9 for complement activation; circulating dsDNA for neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) presence, and α2-antiplasmin and PAI-1 as parameters of fibrinolysis. We compared the level of each biomarker in all three COVID-19 groups and healthy donors as controls (n = 45). Results in critically ill COVID-19 patients were compared with other intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock (SS, n = 14), sepsis (S, n = 7), and noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (NI-SIRS, n = 7).

Results: All analyzed biomarkers were increased in COVID-19 patients versus controls (P < 0.001), except for ADAMTS-13 activity that was normal in both groups. The increased expression of sVCAM-1, VWF, sTNFRI, and HS was related to COVID-19 disease severity (P < 0.05). Several differences in these parameters were found between ICU groups: SS patients showed significantly higher levels of VWF, TM, sTNFRI, and NETS compared with critical COVID-19 patients and ADAMTS-13 activity was significantly lover in SS, S, and NI-SIRS versus critical COVID-19 (P < 0.001). Furthermore, α2-antiplasmin activity was higher in critical COVID-19 versus NI-SIRS (P < 0.01) and SS (P < 0.001), whereas PAI-1 levels were significantly lower in COVID-19 patients compared with NI-SIRS, S, and SS patients (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: COVID-19 patients present with increased circulating endothelial stress products, complement activation, and fibrinolytic dysregulation, associated with disease severity. COVID-19 endotheliopathy differs from SS, in which endothelial damage is also a critical feature of pathobiology. These biomarkers could help to stratify the severity of COVID-19 disease and may also provide information to guide specific therapeutic strategies to mitigate endotheliopathy progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001823DOI Listing
June 2021

Defibrotide: potential for treating endothelial dysfunction related to viral and post-infectious syndromes.

Expert Opin Ther Targets 2021 06 25;25(6):423-433. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Medicine, Stem Cell Transplant and Cell Therapy Unit, IMIB-Arrixaca, Virgen De La Arrixaca University Hospital, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.

Introduction: Defibrotide (DF) is a polyribonucleotide with antithrombotic, pro-fibrinolytic, and anti-inflammatory effects on endothelium. These effects and the established safety of DF present DF as a strong candidate to treat viral and post-infectious syndromes involving endothelial dysfunction.

Areas Covered: We discuss DF and other therapeutic agents that have the potential to target endothelial components of pathogenesis in viral and post-infectious syndromes. We introduce defibrotide (DF), describe its mechanisms of action, and explore its established pleiotropic effects on the endothelium. We describe the established pathophysiology of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and highlight the processes specific to COVID-19 potentially modulated by DF. We also present influenza A and viral hemorrhagic fevers, especially those caused by hantavirus, Ebola virus, and dengue virus, as viral syndromes in which DF might serve therapeutic benefit. Finally, we offer our opinion on novel treatment strategies targeting endothelial dysfunction in viral infections and their severe manifestations.

Expert Opinion: Given the critical role of endothelial dysfunction in numerous infectious syndromes, in particular COVID-19, therapeutic pharmacology for these conditions should increasingly prioritize endothelial stabilization. Several agents with endothelial protective properties should be further studied as treatments for severe viral infections and vasculitides, especially where other therapeutic modalities have failed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14728222.2021.1944101DOI Listing
June 2021

Final Overall Survival Analysis of the TOURMALINE-MM1 Phase III Trial of Ixazomib, Lenalidomide, and Dexamethasone in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Aug 11;39(22):2430-2442. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University Hospital Hôtel Dieu, Nantes, France.

Purpose: The double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III TOURMALINE-MM1 study demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival with ixazomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone (ixazomib-Rd) versus placebo-Rd in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. We report the final analyses for overall survival (OS).

Patients And Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to ixazomib-Rd (n = 360) or placebo-Rd (n = 362), stratified by number of prior therapies (1 2 or 3), previous proteasome inhibitor (PI) exposure (yes no), and International Staging System disease stage (I or II III). OS (intent-to-treat population) was a key secondary end point.

Results: With a median follow-up of 85 months, median OS with ixazomib-Rd versus placebo-Rd was 53.6 versus 51.6 months (hazard ratio, 0.939; = .495). Lower hazard ratios, indicating larger magnitude of OS benefit with ixazomib-Rd versus placebo-Rd, were seen in predefined subgroups: refractory to any (0.794) or last (0.742) treatment line; age > 65-75 years (0.757); International Staging System stage III (0.779); 2/3 prior therapies (0.845); high-risk cytogenetics (0.870); and high-risk cytogenetics and/or 1q21 amplification (0.862). Following ixazomib-Rd versus placebo-Rd, 71.7% versus 69.9% of patients received ≥ 1 anticancer therapy, of whom 24.7% versus 33.9% received daratumumab and 71.8% versus 76.9% received PIs (next-line therapy: 47.5% 55.8%). Rates of new primary malignancies were similar with ixazomib-Rd (10.3%) and placebo-Rd (11.9%). There were no new or additional safety concerns.

Conclusion: Median OS values in both arms were the longest reported in phase III studies of Rd-based triplets in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma at the time of this analysis; progression-free survival benefit with ixazomib-Rd versus placebo-Rd did not translate into a statistically significant OS benefit on intent-to-treat analysis. OS benefit was greater in subgroups with adverse prognostic factors. OS interpretation was confounded by imbalances in subsequent therapies received, especially PIs and daratumumab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00972DOI Listing
August 2021

Is the Endothelium the Missing Link in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of COVID-19 Complications?

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Patients with COVID-19 present a wide spectrum of disease severity, from asymptomatic cases in the majority to serious disease leading to critical care and even death. Clinically, four different scenarios occur within the typical disease timeline: first, an incubation and asymptomatic period; second, a stage with mild symptoms due mainly to the virus itself; third, in up to 20% of the patients, a stage with severe symptoms where a hyperinflammatory response with a cytokine storm driven by host immunity induces acute respiratory distress syndrome; and finally, a post-acute sequelae (PASC) phase, which present symptoms that can range from mild or annoying to actually quite incapacitating. Although the most common manifestation is acute respiratory failure of the lungs, other organs are also frequently involved. The clinical manifestations of the COVID-19 infection support a key role for endothelial dysfunction in the pathobiology of this condition. The virus enters into the organism via its interaction with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-receptor that is present prominently in the alveoli, but also in endothelial cells, which can be directly infected by the virus. Cytokine release syndrome can also drive endothelial damage independently. Consequently, a distinctive feature of SARS-CoV-2 infection is vascular harm, with severe endothelial injury, widespread thrombosis, microangiopathy, and neo-angiogenesis in response to endothelial damage. Therefore, endothelial dysfunction seems to be the pathophysiological substrate for severe COVID-19 complications. Biomarkers of endothelial injury could constitute strong indicators of disease progression and severity. In addition, the endothelium could represent a very attractive target to both prevent and treat these complications. To establish an adequate therapy, the underlying pathophysiology and corresponding clinical stage should be clearly identified. In this review, the clinical features of COVID-19, the central role of the endothelium in COVID-19 and in other pathologies, and the potential of specific therapies aimed at protecting the endothelium in COVID-19 patients are addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10557-021-07207-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8181544PMC
June 2021

Selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone versus bortezomib and dexamethasone in previously treated multiple myeloma: Outcomes by cytogenetic risk.

Am J Hematol 2021 09 5;96(9):1120-1130. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc., Newton, Massachusetts, USA.

In the phase 3 BOSTON study, patients with multiple myeloma (MM) after 1-3 prior regimens were randomized to once-weekly selinexor (an oral inhibitor of exportin 1 [XPO1]) plus bortezomib-dexamethasone (XVd) or twice-weekly bortezomib-dexamethasone (Vd). Compared with Vd, XVd was associated with significant improvements in median progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), and lower rates of peripheral neuropathy, with trends in overall survival (OS) favoring XVd. In BOSTON, 141 (35.1%) patients had MM with high-risk (presence of del[17p], t[4;14], t[14;16], or ≥4 copies of amp1q21) cytogenetics (XVd, n = 70; Vd, n = 71), and 261 (64.9%) exhibited standard-risk cytogenetics (XVd, n = 125; Vd, n = 136). Among patients with high-risk MM, median PFS was 12.91 months for XVd and 8.61 months for Vd (HR, 0.73 [95% CI, (0.4673, 1.1406)], p = 0.082), and ORRs were 78.6% and 57.7%, respectively (OR 2.68; p = 0.004). In the standard-risk subgroup, median PFS was 16.62 months for XVd and 9.46 months for Vd (HR 0.61; p = 0.004), and ORRs were 75.2% and 64.7%, respectively (OR 1.65; p = 0.033). The safety profiles of XVd and Vd in both subgroups were consistent with the overall population. These data suggest that selinexor can confer benefits to patients with MM regardless of cytogenetic risk. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03110562.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457116PMC
September 2021

Final results of a phase 1b study of isatuximab short-duration fixed-volume infusion combination therapy for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.

Leukemia 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Part B of this phase 1b study (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02283775) evaluated safety and efficacy of a fixed-volume infusion of isatuximab, an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody, in combination with pomalidomide and dexamethasone (Pd) in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma patients. Isatuximab (10 mg/kg weekly for 4 weeks, then every other week) was administered as a fixed-volume infusion of 250 mL (mL/h infusion rate) with standard doses of Pd on 28-day cycles. Patients (N = 47) had a median of three prior treatment lines (range, 1-8). Median duration of exposure was 36.9 weeks and median duration of first, second, and 3+ infusions were 3.7, 1.8, and 1.2 h, respectively. The most common non-hematologic treatment-emergent adverse events were fatigue (63.8%), infusion reactions (IRs), cough, and upper respiratory tract infection (40.4% each). IRs were all grade 2 and occurred only during the first infusion. The overall response rate was 53.2% in all patients (55.5% in response-evaluable population, 60.0% in daratumumab-naïve patients). Efficacy and safety findings were consistent with data from the isatuximab plus Pd infusion schedule in Part A of this study and also from the phase 3 ICARIA-MM study, and these new data confirm the safety, efficacy, and feasibility of fixed-volume infusion of isatuximab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01262-wDOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of prior treatments on selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone in previously treated multiple myeloma.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 04 13;14(1):59. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc, Newton, MA, USA.

Therapeutic regimens for previously treated multiple myeloma (MM) may not provide prolonged disease control and are often complicated by significant adverse events, including peripheral neuropathy. In patients with previously treated MM in the Phase 3 BOSTON study, once weekly selinexor, once weekly bortezomib, and 40 mg dexamethasone (XVd) demonstrated a significantly longer median progression-free survival (PFS), higher response rates, deeper responses, a trend to improved survival, and reduced incidence and severity of bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy when compared with standard twice weekly bortezomib and 80 mg dexamethasone (Vd). The pre-specified analyses described here evaluated the influence of the number of prior lines of therapy, prior treatment with lenalidomide, prior proteasome inhibitor (PI) therapy, prior immunomodulatory drug therapy, and prior autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) on the efficacy and safety of XVd compared with Vd. In this 1:1 randomized study, enrolled patients were assigned to receive once weekly oral selinexor (100 mg) with once weekly subcutaneous bortezomib (1.3 mg/m) and 40 mg per week dexamethasone (XVd) versus standard twice weekly bortezomib and 80 mg per week dexamethasone (Vd). XVd significantly improved PFS, overall response rate, time-to-next-treatment, and showed reduced all grade and grade ≥ 2 peripheral neuropathy compared with Vd regardless of prior treatments, but the benefits of XVd over Vd were more pronounced in patients treated earlier in their disease course who had either received only one prior therapy, had never been treated with a PI, or had prior ASCT. Treatment with XVd improved outcomes as compared to Vd regardless of prior therapies as well as manageable and generally reversible adverse events. XVd was associated with clinical benefit and reduced peripheral neuropathy compared to standard Vd in previously treated MM. These results suggest that the once weekly XVd regimen may be optimally administered to patients earlier in their course of disease, as their first bortezomib-containing regimen, and in those relapsing after ASCT.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03110562). Registered 12 April 2017. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03110562 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01071-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045319PMC
April 2021

Isatuximab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma according to prior lines of treatment and refractory status: ICARIA-MM subgroup analysis.

Leuk Res 2021 05 29;104:106576. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) experience several relapses, and become refractory to successive therapies. In the ICARIA-MM trial (NCT02990338), isatuximab plus pomalidomide-dexamethasone prolonged median progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with RRMM. This subgroup analysis of ICARIA-MM assessed the treatment benefit of isatuximab by prior lines of therapy and refractory status. A total of 307 patients were randomized to isatuximab-pomalidomide-dexamethasone (n = 154) or pomalidomide-dexamethasone (n = 153). Isatuximab (10 mg/kg intravenously) was given weekly in the first 28-day cycle, then every other week. Standard pomalidomide-dexamethasone doses were given. PFS was assessed by prior lines and refractory status. Overall, 102 (66 %) patients receiving isatuximab-pomalidomide-dexamethasone and 101 (66 %) patients receiving pomalidomide-dexamethasone had received 2-3 prior lines; 52 (34 %) and 52 (34 %) had received >3 prior lines, respectively. Median PFS was higher with isatuximab-pomalidomide-dexamethasone versus pomalidomide-dexamethasone for patients who received 2-3 prior lines of therapy (12.3 vs. 7.8 months) and >3 prior lines of therapy (9.4 vs. 4.3 months). Median PFS was higher with isatuximab-pomalidomide-dexamethasone versus pomalidomide-dexamethasone for patients who were lenalidomide-refractory (11.4 vs. 5.6 months), lenalidomide-refractory at last line (11.6 vs. 5.7 months), refractory to a proteasome inhibitor (PI) (11.4 vs. 5.6 months), and double-refractory (11.2 vs. 4.8 months). Overall response rate (ORR) in patients receiving isatuximab-pomalidomide-dexamethasone versus pomalidomide-dexamethasone was 59.0 % versus 31.4 % in lenalidomide-refractory; 60.2 % versus 32.2 % in PI-refractory; and 58.6 % versus 29.9 % in double-refractory patients. Isatuximab-pomalidomide-dexamethasone improved PFS and ORR regardless of prior lines of therapy or refractory status, consistent with the benefit in the overall population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2021.106576DOI Listing
May 2021

Oral ixazomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone for transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

Blood 2021 Jul;137(26):3616-3628

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; and.

Continuous lenalidomide-dexamethasone (Rd)-based regimens are among the standards of care in transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients. The oral proteasome inhibitor ixazomib is suitable for continuous dosing, with predictable, manageable toxicities. In the double-blind, placebo-controlled TOURMALINE-MM2 trial, transplant-ineligible NDMM patients were randomized to ixazomib 4 mg (n = 351) or placebo (n = 354) plus Rd. After 18 cycles, dexamethasone was discontinued and treatment was continued using reduced-dose ixazomib (3 mg) and lenalidomide (10 mg) until progression/toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Median PFS was 35.3 vs 21.8 months with ixazomib-Rd vs placebo-Rd, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.830; 95% confidence interval, 0.676-1.018; P = .073; median follow-up, 53.3 and 55.8 months). Complete (26% vs 14%; odds ratio [OR], 2.10; P < .001) and ≥ very good partial response (63% vs 48%; OR, 1.87; P < .001) rates were higher with ixazomib-Rd vs placebo-Rd. In a prespecified high-risk cytogenetics subgroup, median PFS was 23.8 vs 18.0 months (HR, 0.690; P = .019). Overall, treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were mostly grade 1/2. With ixazomib-Rd vs placebo-Rd, 88% vs 81% of patients experienced grade ≥3 TEAEs, 66% vs 62% serious TEAEs, and 35% vs 27% TEAEs resulting in regimen discontinuation; 8% vs 6% died on study. Addition of ixazomib to Rd was tolerable with no new safety signals and led to a clinically meaningful PFS benefit of 13.5 months. Ixazomib-Rd is a feasible option for certain patients who can benefit from an all-oral triplet combination. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01850524.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020008787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8462404PMC
July 2021

Effect of age and frailty on the efficacy and tolerability of once-weekly selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone in previously treated multiple myeloma.

Am J Hematol 2021 06 3;96(6):708-718. Epub 2021 May 3.

Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc., Newton, Massachusetts, USA.

Elderly and frail patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are more vulnerable to the toxicity of combination therapies, often resulting in treatment modifications and suboptimal outcomes. The phase 3 BOSTON study showed that once-weekly selinexor and bortezomib with low-dose dexamethasone (XVd) improved PFS and ORR compared with standard twice-weekly bortezomib and moderate-dose dexamethasone (Vd) in patients with previously treated MM. This is a retrospective subgroup analysis of the multicenter, prospective, randomized BOSTON trial. Post hoc analyses were performed to compare XVd versus Vd safety and efficacy according to age and frailty status (<65 and ≥65 years, nonfrail and frail). Patients ≥65 years with XVd had higher ORR (OR 1.77, p = .024), ≥VGPR (OR, 1.68, p = .027), PFS (HR 0.55, p = .002), and improved OS (HR 0.63, p = .030), compared with Vd. In frail patients, XVd was associated with a trend towards better PFS (HR 0.69, p = .08) and OS (HR 0.62, p = .062). Significant improvements were also observed in patients <65 (ORR and TTNT) and nonfrail patients (PFS, ORR, ≥VGPR, and TTNT). Patients treated with XVd had a lower incidence of grade ≥ 2 peripheral neuropathy in ≥65 year-old (22% vs. 37%; p = .0060) and frail patients (15% vs. 44%; p = .0002). Grade ≥3 TEAEs were not observed more often in older compared to younger patients, nor in frail compared to nonfrail patients. XVd is safe and effective in patients <65 and ≥65 and in nonfrail and frail patients with previously treated MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26172DOI Listing
June 2021

The initial management of multiple myeloma in the era of novel agents: 2021 and beyond.

Br J Haematol 2021 04 21;193(2):213-215. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center, Division of Hematologic Malignancies, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MD, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17407DOI Listing
April 2021

Expert review on soft-tissue plasmacytomas in multiple myeloma: definition, disease assessment and treatment considerations.

Br J Haematol 2021 Aug 16;194(3):496-507. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Berlín, Germany.

In this review, two types of soft-tissue involvement in multiple myeloma are defined: (i) extramedullary (EMD) with haematogenous spread involving only soft tissues and (ii) paraskeletal (PS) with tumour masses arising from skeletal lesions. The incidence of EMD and PS plasmacytomas at diagnosis ranges from 1·7% to 4·5% and 7% to 34·4% respectively. EMD disease is often associated with high-risk cytogenetics, resistance to therapy and worse prognosis than in PS involvement. In patients with PS involvement a proteasome inhibitor-based regimen may be the best option followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in transplant eligible patients. In patients with EMD disease who are not eligible for ASCT, a proteasome inhibitor-based regimen such as lenalidomide-bortezomib-dexamethasone (RVD) may be the best option, while for those eligible for high-dose therapy a myeloma/lymphoma-like regimen such as bortezomib, thalidomide and dexamethasone (VTD)-RVD/cisplatin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and etoposide (PACE) followed by SCT should be considered. In both EMD and PS disease at relapse many strategies have been tried, but this remains a high-unmet need population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17338DOI Listing
August 2021
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