Publications by authors named "Paul Dorinsky"

62 Publications

Budesonide/Glycopyrrolate/Formoterol Fumarate Metered Dose Inhaler Improves Exacerbation Outcomes in Patients with COPD without a Recent Exacerbation History: A Subgroup Analysis of KRONOS.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021 28;16:179-189. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

AstraZeneca, Morristown, NJ, USA.

Purpose: In the Phase III, 24-week KRONOS study (NCT02497001), triple therapy with budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI) reduced exacerbation rates versus glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate (GFF) MDI in patients with moderate-to-very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and no requirement for a history of exacerbations. We report a post hoc analysis investigating whether the benefits observed were driven by patients with ≥1 exacerbation in the 12 months prior to the study.

Patients And Methods: Patients received BGF MDI 320/18/9.6 µg, GFF MDI 18/9.6 µg, budesonide/formoterol fumarate (BFF) MDI 320/9.6 µg, or budesonide/formoterol fumarate dry powder inhaler (BUD/FORM DPI) 400/12 µg twice-daily. Post hoc analyses were conducted on exacerbation and lung function results from patients with and without a documented exacerbation in the 12 months prior to the study.

Results: Overall, 74% (1411/1896) of the modified-intent-to-treat (mITT) population had no moderate/severe exacerbations in the 12 months prior to the study. BGF MDI reduced exacerbation rates versus GFF MDI in the prior (58%; unadjusted =0.0003) and no prior (48%; unadjusted =0.0001) exacerbations subgroups. The magnitude of reduction in exacerbation rates was generally similar within subgroups for BGF MDI versus BFF MDI and BUD/FORM DPI. In the prior exacerbations subgroup, risk during treatment for time to first exacerbation was lower with BGF MDI versus GFF MDI (=0.0022) and BFF MDI (=0.0110); excluding the first 30 days of data yielded similar results. The magnitude of reduction in exacerbation rates for BGF MDI compared with GFF MDI increased with eosinophil count.

Conclusion: In patients with or without a history of exacerbations in the 12 months prior to the study, BGF MDI reduced exacerbation rates versus GFF MDI, suggesting results observed in the overall population were not driven by the small subgroup with a prior history of exacerbations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S286087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7851632PMC
January 2021

Reply to López-Campos and to Rogliani and Calzetta.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 04;203(7):927-928

AstraZeneca Durham, North Carolina.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202012-4484LEDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017589PMC
April 2021

Reduced All-Cause Mortality in the ETHOS Trial of Budesonide/Glycopyrrolate/Formoterol for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter, Parallel-Group Study.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 03;203(5):553-564

AstraZeneca, Durham, North Carolina.

In the phase III, 52-week ETHOS (Efficacy and Safety of Triple Therapy in Obstructive Lung Disease) trial in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (NCT02465567), triple therapy with budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate (BGF) significantly reduced all-cause mortality compared with glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate (GFF). However, 384 of 8,509 patients were missing vital status at Week 52 in the original analyses. To assess the robustness of the ETHOS mortality findings after additional data retrieval for patients missing Week 52 vital status in the original analyses. Patients with moderate to very severe COPD and prior history of exacerbation received twice-daily dosing with 320/18/9.6 μg of BGF (BGF 320), 160/18/9.6 μg of BGF (BGF 160), 18/9.6 μg of GFF, or 320/9.6 μg of budesonide/formoterol fumarate (BFF) (all delivered via a single metered-dose Aerosphere inhaler). Time to death (all-cause) was a prespecified secondary endpoint. In the final retrieved dataset, which included Week 52 vital status for 99.6% of the intent-to-treat population, risk of death with BGF 320 was significantly lower than GFF (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.80; unadjusted  = 0.0035). There were no significant differences in mortality when comparing BGF 320 with BFF (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-1.16;  = 0.1721), nor were significant differences observed when comparing BGF 160 against either dual comparator. Results were similar when the first 30, 60, or 90 days of treatment were excluded from the analysis. Deaths from cardiovascular causes occurred in 0.5%, 0.8%, 1.4%, and 0.5% of patients in the BGF 320, BGF 160, GFF, and BFF groups, respectively. Using final retrieved vital status data, triple therapy with BGF 320 reduced the risk of death compared with GFF, but was not shown to significantly reduce the risk of death compared with BFF, in patients with COPD. Triple therapy containing a lower dose of inhaled corticosteroid (BGF 160) was not shown to significantly reduce the risk of death compared with the dual therapy comparators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202006-2618OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7924571PMC
March 2021

Ethnic pharmacokinetic comparison of budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI) between Asian and Western healthy subjects.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2020 10 2;64:101976. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

AstraZeneca, One MedImmune Way, Gaithersburg, MD, 20878, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The Phase III KRONOS study (NCT02497001) found the fixed-dose combination triple therapy budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI) to be efficacious and well tolerated versus corresponding dual therapies in patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD from North America, China and Japan. However, pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of other drugs have shown that ethnic factors (e.g. genetic factors affecting drug metabolism) can affect the bioavailability of drugs which may impact upon efficacy and safety outcomes.

Methods: This was a post-hoc analysis of data from four randomised, double-blind Phase I studies of BGF MDI 320/18/9.6 μg and 160/18/9.6 μg in Chinese (NCT03075267), Japanese (NCT02197975) and Western (NCT01980615, NCT02189304) healthy subjects. PK properties (area under the plasma concentration-time curve 0-12 h post-dose [AUC] and maximum plasma concentration, [C]) were recorded following single and repeated dosing of BGF MDI 320/18/9.6 μg or 160/18/9.6 μg. Potential ethnic differences in the PK properties of budesonide, glycopyrrolate and formoterol in Chinese, Japanese and Western healthy subjects were derived by non-compartmental analysis, and ethnic insensitivity factors evaluated based on criteria from the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Guideline E5 Ethnic Factors in the Acceptability of Foreign Clinical Data.

Results: The analyses included data from 64 Chinese, 31 Japanese and 169 Western subjects. Overall, PK properties following single or repeated dosing of BGF MDI were similar across Chinese, Japanese and Western subjects. After single dosing at either dose level, AUC and C for budesonide, glycopyrrolate and formoterol appeared generally similar for Asian (Chinese and Japanese) versus Western subjects, with most geometric least squares mean ratios within the range of 0.92-1.22. The exception was that C for glycopyrrolate was slightly lower in Asian versus Western subjects (0.6-0.7). Of the 10 ethnic insensitivity factors evaluated, six were met for budesonide, nine for glycopyrrolate and nine for formoterol, suggesting that BGF MDI can be classified as an ethnically insensitive drug.

Conclusions: Overall, these analyses suggest no appreciable ethnic differences in the PK of BGF MDI across Chinese, Japanese and Western healthy subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2020.101976DOI Listing
October 2020

Triple Inhaled Therapy in COPD. Reply.

N Engl J Med 2020 10;383(14):1394-1395

AstraZeneca, Durham, NC.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2026881DOI Listing
October 2020

The Long-Term Burden of COPD Exacerbations During Maintenance Therapy and Lung Function Decline.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2020 6;15:1909-1918. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Observational & Pragmatic Research Institute Pte Ltd, Singapore, Singapore.

Introduction: Early identification of preventable risk factors of COPD progression is important. Whether exacerbations have a negative impact on disease progression is largely unknown. We investigated whether the long-term occurrence of exacerbations is associated with lung function decline at early stages of COPD.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with mild/moderate COPD (obstruction and FEV% predicted 50-90%), aged ≥35 years, and a smoking history, who had ≥6 years of UK electronic medical records after initiation of maintenance therapy were studied. Multilevel mixed-effect linear regression was performed to determine the association between the count of any year in which the patient had ≥1 exacerbation over a 6-year period and FEV decline, adjusted for sex, age, anthropometrics and smoking habits. Exacerbations were defined as any prescription for an acute oral corticosteroid course and/or lower respiratory-related antibiotics and/or any COPD-related emergency or inpatient hospitalization.

Results: Of 11,337 patients included (mean age 65 years; 49% female) 31.6%, 23.3%, 16.6%, 11.6%, 8.1%, 5.3% and 3.4% had 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 years with ≥1 exacerbation. The mean annual FEV decline accelerated by 1.50 mL/year (95% Confidence Interval 1.02; 1.98) with every additional year with ≥1 exacerbation from 31.0 mL/year in subjects without any exacerbation to 40.0 mL/year in patients experiencing ≥1 exacerbation every year. Patients with more years with ≥1 exacerbation had a lower mean FEV at first diagnosis: 14.7 mL (11.7; 17.8) lower with every additional year with exacerbations. When counting years with ≥2 exacerbations, greater effects were observed (2.19 [1.50; 2.88]  mL/year excess decline per year with ≥2 exacerbations; 16.5 mL [12.1; 20.8] lower FEV at diagnosis).

Conclusion: Patients who experienced a greater exacerbation burden after initiation of maintenance therapy had worse lung function at diagnosis and a more rapid lung function decline thereafter, which emphasizes the need for better treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S253812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7418151PMC
August 2020

Pulmonary deposition of budesonide/glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate dihydrate metered dose inhaler formulated using co-suspension delivery technology in healthy male subjects.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2020 Oct 16;153:105472. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

National Heart and Lung Institute (NHLI), Imperial College London & Royal Brompton Hospital, Guy Scadding Building, Dovehouse St, Chelsea, London SW3 6LY, UK.

This gamma scintigraphy imaging study assessed pulmonary, extrathoracic and regional lung deposition patterns of a radiolabelled inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting muscarinic antagonist/long-acting β-agonist triple fixed-dose combination budesonide/glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate dihydrate (BGF 320/14.4/10 μg), delivered by pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) using innovative co-suspension delivery technology (Aerosphere™). In this Phase I, randomised, single-centre, single-dose, two-period, crossover study (NCT03740373), 10 healthy male adults received two actuations of BGF MDI (160/7.2/4.8 μg per actuation) radiolabelled with Tc, not exceeding 5 MBq per actuation. Immediately following each inhalation, subjects performed a 10- or 3-second breath-hold, then exhaled into an exhalation filter. The primary objective was to assess the pulmonary deposition of BGF MDI following the 10-second breath-hold. The secondary objectives were to assess deposition after the 3-second breath-hold and lung regional and extrathoracic deposition after each breath-hold length. Imaging of the lungs, stomach, head and neck was recorded by gamma scintigraphy immediately after exhalation. The mean BGF MDI emitted dose deposited in the lungs was 37.7% for the 10-second breath-hold and 34.5% for the 3-second breath-hold. Emitted dose detected in the exhalation filter was ≤0.4% for both breath-hold lengths. The mean normalised peripheral/central ratio was 0.65 and 0.75 for the 10- and 3-second breath-holds, respectively, while the standardised central/peripheral ratios were 1.79 and 1.40, respectively. There were no new or unexpected safety findings. In conclusion, BGF MDI was efficiently deposited in the central and the peripheral regions of the lungs, with similar regional deposition patterns following a 10- and 3-second breath-hold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2020.105472DOI Listing
October 2020

Triple Inhaled Therapy at Two Glucocorticoid Doses in Moderate-to-Very-Severe COPD.

N Engl J Med 2020 07 24;383(1):35-48. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

From LungenClinic Grosshansdorf and Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, Airway Research Center North, German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Grosshansdorf, Germany (K.F.R.); the Joan and Sanford I. Weill Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York (F.J.M.); the Pulmonary Research Institute of Southeast Michigan, Farmington Hills (G.T.F.); the National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (C.W.); the Medicines Evaluation Unit, University of Manchester, Manchester University NHS Foundation Hospitals Trust, Manchester (D.S.), and the National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London (J.A.W.) - both in the United Kingdom; AstraZeneca, Durham, NC (R.T., P. Dorinsky); AstraZeneca, Morristown, NJ (E.S.R., S.B., P. Darken, C.R.); AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD (J.M.); and AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden (M.A.).

Background: Triple fixed-dose regimens of an inhaled glucocorticoid, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), and a long-acting β-agonist (LABA) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been studied at single dose levels of inhaled glucocorticoid, but studies at two dose levels are lacking.

Methods: In a 52-week, phase 3, randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of triple therapy at two dose levels of inhaled glucocorticoid in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD and at least one exacerbation in the past year, we assigned patients in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive twice-daily inhaled doses of triple therapy (inhaled glucocorticoid [320 μg or 160 μg of budesonide], a LAMA [18 μg of glycopyrrolate], and a LABA [9.6 μg of formoterol]) or one of two dual therapies (18 μg of glycopyrrolate plus 9.6 μg of formoterol or 320 μg of budesonide plus 9.6 μg of formoterol). The primary end point was the annual rate (the estimated mean number per patient per year) of moderate or severe COPD exacerbations, as analyzed in the modified intention-to-treat population with the use of on-treatment data only.

Results: The modified intention-to-treat population comprised 8509 patients. The annual rates of moderate or severe exacerbations were 1.08 in the 320-μg-budesonide triple-therapy group (2137 patients), 1.07 in the 160-μg-budesonide triple-therapy group (2121 patients), 1.42 in the glycopyrrolate-formoterol group (2120 patients), and 1.24 in the budesonide-formoterol group (2131 patients). The rate was significantly lower with 320-μg-budesonide triple therapy than with glycopyrrolate-formoterol (24% lower: rate ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 0.83; P<0.001) or budesonide-formoterol (13% lower: rate ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79 to 0.95; P = 0.003). Similarly, the rate was significantly lower with 160-μg-budesonide triple therapy than with glycopyrrolate-formoterol (25% lower: rate ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.83; P<0.001) or budesonide-formoterol (14% lower: rate ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79 to 0.95; P = 0.002). The incidence of any adverse event was similar across the treatment groups (range, 61.7 to 64.5%); the incidence of confirmed pneumonia ranged from 3.5 to 4.5% in the groups that included inhaled glucocorticoid use and was 2.3% in the glycopyrrolate-formoterol group.

Conclusions: Triple therapy with twice-daily budesonide (at either the 160-μg or 320-μg dose), glycopyrrolate, and formoterol resulted in a lower rate of moderate or severe COPD exacerbations than glycopyrrolate-formoterol or budesonide-formoterol. (Funded by AstraZeneca, ETHOS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02465567.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1916046DOI Listing
July 2020

Association between COPD exacerbations and lung function decline during maintenance therapy.

Thorax 2020 09 12;75(9):744-753. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Observational and Pragmatic Research Institute, Singapore

Background: Little is known about the impact of exacerbations on COPD progression or whether inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use and blood eosinophil count (BEC) affect progression. We aimed to assess this in a prospective observational study.

Methods: The study population included patients with mild to moderate COPD, aged ≥35 years, with a smoking history, who were followed up for ≥3 years from first to last spirometry recording using two large UK electronic medical record databases: Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Optimum Patient Care Research Database (OPCRD). Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used to determine the relationship between annual exacerbation rate following initiation of therapy (ICS vs non-ICS) and FEV decline. Effect modification by blood eosinophils was studied through interaction terms.

Results: Of 12178 patients included (mean age 66 years; 48% female), 8981 (74%) received ICS. In patients with BEC ≥350 cells/µL not on ICS, each exacerbation was associated with subsequent acceleration of FEV decline of 19.4 mL/year (95% CI 12.0 to 26.7, p<0.0001). This excess decline was reduced by 15.1 mL/year (6.6 to 23.6) to 4.3 mL/year (1.9 to 6.7, p<0.0001) in those with BEC ≥350 cells/µL treated with ICS.

Conclusion: Exacerbations are associated with a more rapid loss of lung function among COPD patients with elevated blood eosinophils, defined as ≥350 cells/µL, not treated with ICS. More aggressive prevention of exacerbations using ICS in such patients may prevent excess loss of lung function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2019-214457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7476283PMC
September 2020

Efficacy and safety of two doses of budesonide/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler in COPD.

ERJ Open Res 2020 Apr 27;6(2). Epub 2020 Apr 27.

AstraZeneca, Durham, NC, USA.

Inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β-agonist combination therapy is a recommended treatment option for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and increased exacerbation risk, particularly those with elevated blood eosinophil levels. SOPHOS (NCT02727660) evaluated the efficacy and safety of two doses of budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate metered dose inhaler (BFF MDI) formoterol fumarate dihydrate (FF) MDI, each delivered using co-suspension delivery technology, in patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD and a history of exacerbations. In this phase 3, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, 12-52-week, variable length study, patients received twice-daily BFF MDI 320/10 µg or 160/10 µg, or FF MDI 10 µg. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in morning pre-dose trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) at week 12. Secondary and other endpoints included assessments of moderate/severe COPD exacerbations and safety. The primary analysis (modified intent-to-treat) population included 1843 patients (BFF MDI 320/10 µg, n=619; BFF MDI 160/10 µg, n=617; and FF MDI, n=607). BFF MDI 320/10 µg and 160/10 µg improved morning pre-dose trough FEV at week 12 FF MDI (least squares mean differences 34 mL [p=0.0081] and 32 mL [p=0.0134], respectively), increased time to first exacerbation (hazard ratios 0.827 [p=0.0441] and 0.803 [p=0.0198], respectively) and reduced exacerbation rate (rate ratios 0.67 [p=0.0001] and 0.71 [p=0.0010], respectively). Lung function and exacerbation benefits were driven by patients with blood eosinophil counts ≥150 cells·mm. The incidence of adverse events was similar, and pneumonia rates were low (≤2.4%) across treatments. SOPHOS demonstrated the efficacy and tolerability of BFF MDI 320/10 µg and 160/10 µg in patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD at increased risk of exacerbations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/23120541.00187-2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7184113PMC
April 2020

Relative Bioavailability of Budesonide/Glycopyrrolate/Formoterol Fumarate Metered Dose Inhaler Administered With and Without a Spacer: Results of a Phase I, Randomized, Crossover Trial in Healthy Adults.

Clin Ther 2020 04 3;42(4):634-648. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

Purpose: The triple combination therapy budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate in a metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI), formulated by using innovative co-suspension delivery technology, is a new inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting muscarinic antagonist/long-acting β-agonist fixed-dose combination for the maintenance treatment of COPD. For some patients, the use of an MDI may be optimized with a spacer. This Phase I study assessed the effect of a spacer on lung exposure, total systemic exposure, and safety of BGF MDI 320/36/9.6 μg in healthy subjects.

Methods: This randomized, open-label, crossover study assessed the pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of BGF MDI in healthy adult subjects who received a single dose of BGF MDI 320/36/9.6 μg (administered as 2 inhalations with 160/18/4.8 μg per actuation) in 4 regimens: without spacer and no charcoal; with spacer and no charcoal; without spacer and with charcoal; and with spacer and with charcoal. Primary objectives were to assess total systemic exposure (without charcoal) and lung exposure (with charcoal) of budesonide, glycopyrronium, and formoterol administered as BGF MDI with and without a spacer. Safety was also assessed.

Findings: In total, 56 subjects were randomized (mean age, 29.9 years; 60.7% male, 17.9% former smokers). For systemic exposure (without charcoal), the spacer/without spacer ratio, expressed as a percentage (intrasubject %CV) of C and AUC, respectively, was 152.0 (47.5) and 132.8 (43.6) for budesonide, 240.6 (80.2) and 154.7 (73.4) for glycopyrronium, and 165.6 (50.7) and 98.6 (53.8) for formoterol. For lung exposure (with charcoal), the spacer/without spacer ratio percentage (%CV) of C and AUC, respectively, was 183.6 (65.9) and 198.4 (71.5) for budesonide, 262.0 (91.8) and 373.9 (120.7) for glycopyrronium, and 222.9 (56.3) and 385.2 (147.0) for formoterol. Subjects who were judged to have suboptimal inhalation technique without a spacer (those in the lowest drug exposure quartile based on AUC) had the greatest increase in both total systemic and lung exposure when a spacer was used versus no spacer. Subjects in the highest quartile had a minimal change in both total systemic and lung exposure when the spacer was used. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) (all mild/moderate) reported by >1 subject per regimen were headache, cough, and dizziness. One subject withdrew because of TEAEs of headache and presyncope (neither considered treatment-related).

Implications: Drug delivery can be improved for subjects with suboptimal MDI inhalation technique when using a spacer device with BGF MDI triple therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03311373.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2020.02.012DOI Listing
April 2020

Efficacy and Safety of Budesonide/Glycopyrrolate/Formoterol Fumarate Metered Dose Inhaler in Chinese Patients with COPD: A Subgroup Analysis of KRONOS.

Adv Ther 2020 04 6;37(4):1591-1607. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

AstraZeneca, Durham, NC, USA.

Introduction: This pre-specified subgroup analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI) triple therapy versus corresponding dual therapies in the China subgroup of the phase III, double-blind KRONOS study in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Methods: Patients were randomized 2:2:1:1 to BGF MDI 320/18/9.6 μg, glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate (GFF) MDI 18/9.6 μg, budesonide/formoterol fumarate (BFF) MDI 320/9.6 μg, or budesonide/formoterol fumarate dry powder inhaler (BUD/FORM DPI) 400/12 μg twice daily for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in morning pre-dose trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) over weeks 12-24. Secondary endpoints included symptoms, health-related quality of life, and safety. Rate of moderate/severe COPD exacerbations was an additional efficacy endpoint.

Results: In the China subgroup (n = 432; 22.7% of the KRONOS population), BGF MDI demonstrated nominally significant improvements in the primary endpoint versus BFF MDI (least squares mean (LSM) difference 68 mL; P = 0.0035) and BUD/FORM DPI (LSM difference 78 mL; P = 0.0010) but not GFF MDI (LSM difference - 4 mL; P = 0.8316). BGF MDI demonstrated at least numerical improvements versus comparators in secondary lung function and symptom endpoints. BGF MDI reduced the rate of moderate/severe COPD exacerbations versus GFF MDI (rate ratio 0.41; P = 0.0030), with numerical benefits versus BFF MDI and BUD/FORM DPI. All treatments were well tolerated.

Conclusions: Results demonstrated that BGF MDI showed benefits on lung function (vs inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β-agonist), as well as symptoms and exacerbations relative to dual therapies. Findings support BGF MDI use in Chinese patients with moderate to very severe COPD.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02497001.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-020-01266-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7140742PMC
April 2020

Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Budesonide/Glycopyrrolate/Formoterol Fumarate Metered Dose Inhaler Formulated Using Co-Suspension Delivery Technology in Japanese Patients with COPD.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2019 23;14:2993-3002. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

AstraZeneca, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI) is a triple fixed-dose combination for COPD. The long-term safety of triple therapy for COPD has not been investigated in Japanese patients. In this 28-week extension study (NCT03262012), we investigated the long-term safety and tolerability of BGF MDI in Japanese patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD who completed the 24-week Phase III randomized, double-blind, multicenter KRONOS study (NCT02497001).

Materials And Methods: Patients randomized to BGF MDI 320/18/9.6 μg, glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate (GFF) MDI 18/9.6 μg, budesonide/formoterol fumarate (BFF) MDI 320/9.6 μg, or budesonide/formoterol fumarate dry powder inhaler (BUD/FORM DPI) 400/12 μg twice-daily in KRONOS continued treatment for up to 28 additional weeks. Safety was evaluated over 52 weeks via adverse event (AE) monitoring, electrocardiograms, clinical laboratory testing, and vital sign measurements.

Results: The safety population included 416 patients who received BGF MDI (n=139), GFF MDI (n=138), BFF MDI (n=70), or BUD/FORM DPI (n=69). Treatment-emergent AE (TEAE) rates were similar across treatment groups (range: 82.6-82.9%). The most frequent TEAEs overall were nasopharyngitis (32.2%) and bronchitis (9.9%). The incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events was low across groups (range: 0.0-2.9%). Over 52 weeks, the incidence of confirmed pneumonia was 9.4% (BGF MDI), 3.6% (GFF MDI), 5.7% (BFF MDI), and 2.9% (BUD/FORM DPI); in the 28-week extension period, rates were comparable across groups (range: 2.9-5.7%). Six deaths were reported (0.7-2.2% per group); none were considered treatment-related. No clinically meaningful trends were observed in electrocardiograms, laboratory parameters, or vital signs over time in any of the treatment groups.

Conclusion: All treatments were well tolerated over 52 weeks, and the safety profile of BGF MDI was generally comparable to dual long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)/long-acting β-agonist (LABA) and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/LABA therapies. These findings support the long-term tolerability of BGF MDI in Japanese patients with COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S220861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934178PMC
July 2020

Efficacy and Safety of Budesonide/Glycopyrrolate/Formoterol Fumarate Metered Dose Inhaler Formulated Using Co-Suspension Delivery Technology in Japanese Patients with COPD: A Subgroup Analysis of the KRONOS Study.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2019 23;14:2979-2991. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

AstraZeneca, Morristown, NJ, USA.

Background: KRONOS, a Phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study (NCT02497001) conducted in Canada, China, Japan, and the USA, assessed the efficacy and safety of budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI), a triple fixed-dose combination therapy, relative to dual therapies in patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD. Here we present findings from the Japanese subgroup of KRONOS.

Methods: Patients received BGF MDI 320/18/9.6μg, glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate (GFF) MDI 18/9.6μg, budesonide/formoterol fumarate (BFF) MDI 320/9.6μg, or budesonide/formoterol fumarate dry powder inhaler (BUD/FORM DPI) 400/12μg twice-daily for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in morning pre-dose trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) over Weeks 12-24. Symptoms, quality of life, exacerbations, and safety were also assessed.

Results: In total, 416 Japanese patients (21.9% of the global KRONOS population) were randomized and treated with BGF MDI (n=139), GFF MDI (n=138), BFF MDI (n=70), or BUD/FORM DPI (n=69). Nominally significant improvements in the change from baseline in morning pre-dose trough FEV over Weeks 12-24 were observed for BGF MDI vs GFF MDI (least squares mean [LSM] difference 37 mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3, 72; =0.0337) and BFF MDI (67 mL; 95% CI 25, 109; =0.0020). Treatment with BGF MDI led to a nominally significant reduction in the rate of moderate/severe exacerbations vs GFF MDI (rate ratio 0.40, 95% CI 0.19, 0.83; =0.0142). Compared with dual therapies, numerical improvements were observed with BGF MDI for Transition Dyspnea Index focal score and the change from baseline in Evaluating Respiratory Symptoms in COPD total score (≤0.3899). All treatments were generally well tolerated.

Conclusion: BGF MDI nominally significantly improved lung function and numerically improved symptoms vs GFF MDI and BFF MDI. BGF MDI nominally significantly reduced exacerbations vs GFF MDI in Japanese patients with COPD. Efficacy and safety findings were generally comparable to those in the global KRONOS population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S220850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6939402PMC
July 2020

Pharmacokinetics of budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler formulated using co-suspension delivery technology after single and chronic dosing in patients with COPD.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2020 02 10;60:101873. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

AstraZeneca, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI), formulated using co-suspension delivery technology, is a triple fixed-dose combination in late-stage clinical development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Methods: We conducted two studies to characterize the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of BGF MDI in patients with COPD: (i) a phase I, open-label, single and chronic (7-day) dosing study (NCT03250182) with one treatment arm (BGF MDI 320/18/9.6 μg); and (ii) a PK sub-study of KRONOS (NCT02497001), a phase III, randomized, double-blind study in which patients received 24 weeks' treatment with BGF MDI 320/18/9.6 μg, glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate (GFF) MDI 18/9.6 μg, budesonide/formoterol fumarate (BFF) MDI 320/9.6 μg, or budesonide/formoterol fumarate dry powder inhaler (BUD/FORM DPI) 320/9 μg. PK parameters in both studies included maximum observed plasma concentration (C) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 12h (AUC).

Results: In the phase I PK study (30 patients), budesonide and glycopyrronium C were comparable after single and chronic dosing of BGF MDI (accumulation ratio [R] 95% and 107%, respectively) whereas C for formoterol was slightly higher after chronic dosing (R 116%). AUC for budesonide, glycopyrronium, and formoterol were higher following chronic versus single dosing, with an R of 126%, 179%, and 143%, respectively. After 7 days' dosing, AUC and C for all three components of BGF MDI were similar to those in the KRONOS PK sub-study (202 patients) at Week 24. In the latter sub-study, C and AUC at Week 24 were generally comparable across treatments for budesonide (geometric mean ratios [GMR] of 96%-109% for BGF MDI vs BFF MDI or BUD/FORM DPI), glycopyrronium (GMR of 88%-100% for BGF MDI vs GFF MDI), and formoterol (GMR of 80%-113% for BGF MDI vs GFF MDI or BFF MDI).

Conclusions: Steady-state PK parameters of budesonide, glycopyrronium, and formoterol were similar after 7 days' dosing in the phase I PK study and after 24 weeks in the KRONOS PK sub-study. Systemic exposure to budesonide, glycopyrronium, and formoterol was generally comparable across treatments in the KRONOS PK sub-study, suggesting no meaningful drug-drug or within-formulation PK interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2019.101873DOI Listing
February 2020

A phase III study of triple therapy with budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler 320/18/9.6 μg and 160/18/9.6 μg using co-suspension delivery technology in moderate-to-very severe COPD: The ETHOS study protocol.

Respir Med 2019 Oct - Nov;158:59-66. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

AstraZeneca, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Single inhaler triple therapies providing an inhaled corticosteroid, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, and a long-acting β-agonist (ICS/LAMA/LABAs) are an emerging treatment option for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Nevertheless, questions remain regarding the optimal patient population for triple therapy as well as the benefit:risk ratio of ICS treatment.

Methods: ETHOS is an ongoing, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group, 52-week study in symptomatic patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD and a history of exacerbation(s) in the previous year. Two doses of single inhaler triple therapy with budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI 320/18/9.6 μg and 160/18/9.6 μg) will be compared to glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate (GFF) MDI 18/9.6 μg and budesonide/formoterol fumarate (BFF) MDI 320/9.6 μg, all formulated using co-suspension delivery technology. Outcomes include the rate of moderate/severe (primary endpoint) and severe COPD exacerbations, symptoms, quality of life, and all-cause mortality. Sub-studies will assess lung function and cardiovascular safety.

Study Population: From June 2015-July 2018, 16,044 patients were screened and 8572 were randomized. Preliminary baseline demographics show that 55.9% of patients had experienced ≥2 moderate/severe exacerbations in the previous year, 79.1% were receiving an ICS-containing treatment at study entry, and 59.9% had blood eosinophil counts ≥150 cells/mm.

Conclusions: ETHOS will provide data on exacerbations, patient-reported outcomes, mortality, and safety in 8572 patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD receiving triple and dual fixed-dose combinations. For the first time, ICS/LAMA/LABA triple therapy with two different doses of ICS will be compared to dual ICS/LABA and LAMA/LABA therapies.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT02465567.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2019.08.010DOI Listing
August 2020

Bone and ocular safety of budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler in COPD: a 52-week randomized study.

Respir Res 2019 Jul 29;20(1):167. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

AstraZeneca, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) has been associated with increased risk of bone and ocular comorbidities. We evaluated the effects of the triple fixed-dose combination budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI), formulated using co-suspension delivery technology, on bone mineral density (BMD) and ocular safety in patients with moderate-to-very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Methods: In this extension study, a subset of patients from the 24-week, phase III, randomized, double-blind KRONOS study (NCT02497001) continued treatment (BGF MDI 320/18/9.6 μg, budesonide/formoterol fumarate [BFF] MDI 320/9.6 μg or glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate [GFF] MDI 18/9.6 μg, as a non-steroidal comparator) for an additional 28 weeks. Primary endpoints were percentage change from baseline in lumbar spine BMD and change from baseline in lens opacities classification system III posterior subcapsular cataract (P) score, both at Week 52. Adverse events were also assessed.

Results: In total, 456 patients were included in the safety population (53.1% male, mean age 62.8 years). Changes from baseline in lumbar spine BMD (least squares mean [LSM] range - 0.12 to 0.38%) and P score (LSM range 0.02-0.15) were small for all treatments. Both BGF MDI and BFF MDI were non-inferior to GFF MDI using margins of -2% (BMD) and 0.5 units (P score). The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs)  was generally similar among groups. Rates of confirmed pneumonia were low overall (2.4%) and highest in the GFF MDI group (3.4%), followed by BGF MDI (2.1%) and BFF MDI (1.1%). There were no cumulative adverse effects of treatment over time as the incidence and types of TEAEs, were generally similar in the first 24 weeks of the study and after Week 24.

Conclusions: In patients with COPD, both ICS-containing therapies were non-inferior to GFF MDI for the primary BMD and ophthalmological endpoints. Changes from baseline in all three treatment groups over 52 weeks were small and not clinically meaningful. All treatments were well tolerated with no new or unexpected safety findings.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02536508. Registered 27 August 2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-019-1126-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6664772PMC
July 2019

Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Budesonide/Glycopyrronium/Formoterol Fumarate Dihydrate and Glycopyrronium/Formoterol Fumarate Dihydrate Metered Dose Inhalers in Healthy Chinese Adults: A Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel-group Study.

Clin Ther 2019 05 11;41(5):897-909.e1. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

AstraZeneca, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety profiles of 2 fixed-dose combinations in development for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): budesonide/glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate dihydrate metered-dose inhaler (BGF MDI; triple combination) and glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate dihydrate (GFF MDI; dual combination). The PK and safety profiles of BGF MDI and GFF MDI were assessed for the first time in healthy Chinese adults after single and repeated (7-day) dosing.

Methods: This Phase I, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study was conducted at a single site in Shanghai, China. Male or female Chinese subjects, 18-45 years of age and in good general health, were randomized 1:1:1 to receive BGF MDI 320/14.4/10 μg, BGF MDI 160/14.4/10 μg, or GFF MDI 14.4/10 μg. PK parameters were assessed after a single dose (day 1) and at steady state (day 8), and included AUC, C, and T. Tolerability was assessed using physical examination findings, adverse events reporting, 12-lead ECG, vital signs, and clinical laboratory values.

Findings: Ninety-six subjects (mean age, 25.6 years; 83.3% male) were randomized and received treatment. All randomized subjects were included in the safety and PK populations. After single and repeated dosing, budesonide AUC and C were increased dose proportionally from BGF MDI 160/14.4/10 μg to BGF MDI 320/14.4/10 μg, respectively (single dose: AUC, 811.8 vs 1748 h · pg/mL; C, 224.3 vs 459.3 pg/mL; repeated dosing: AUC, 1250 vs 2510 h · pg/mL; C, 315.4 vs 626.4 pg/mL). After single and repeated dosing, glycopyrronium AUC and C were similar across all treatments (single dose: AUC, 27.20-29.40 h · pg/mL; C, 4.884-5.674 pg/mL; repeated dosing: AUC, 69.49-77.08 h · pg/mL; C, 11.30-13.12 pg/mL) and formoterol (single dose: AUC, 46.49-53.58 h · pg/mL; C 9.651-10.62 pg/mL; repeated dosing: AUC, 81.94-85.32 h · pg/mL; C 16.13-17.71 pg/mL), suggesting that the addition of budesonide did not appreciably alter the PK properties of GFF MDI. All treatment-emergent adverse events were mild in severity and rates were similar across groups (range, 50.0%-56.3%). There were no new or unexpected findings on tolerability.

Implications: Overall, all treatments were well tolerated and PK parameters were generally comparable to those previously reported in Western and Japanese healthy subjects, suggesting that the doses of BGF MDI and GFF MDI in development globally for COPD are also appropriate for Chinese patients with COPD. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03075267.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2019.03.007DOI Listing
May 2019

Physiological predictors Of peak inspiRatory flow using Observed lung function resultS (POROS): evaluation at discharge among patients hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2018;13:3937-3946. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Pearl - a member of the AstraZeneca Group, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Peak inspiratory flow (PIF) as generated through the resistance of a dry powder inhaler (DPI) device is a critical patient-dependent maneuver impacting the success of DPI medication delivery. Despite its importance, it is not routinely measured in clinical practice. Little is currently known about the relationship, if any, between PIF through DPI devices, routine spirometry and disease outcomes.

Aim: The aim of this study was to identify potential predictors of PIF for different DPIs from spirometric parameters and patient characteristics and explore the association between PIF and follow-up events.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective observational study at discharge among patients hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation at Attikon hospital, Athens, Greece. Spirometry was performed using an Easy on-PC™ spirometer. PIF was measured through four DPI resistances using the In-Check™ DIAL. Regression analyses were used to investigate the association between PIF through resistances and spirometric parameters obtained at discharge, comorbidities and demographic parameters.

Results: Forty-seven COPD patients (mean [±SD], age 71 [±9] years, 72% males, 51% current smokers) were included in this study. Overall, 85% and 15% were classified as GOLD (2017) groups D and C, respectively. Most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension (70%) and cardiovascular disease (53%). In the final regression model, higher PIF was significantly associated with the following: higher FEV and % predicted peak expiratory flow (PEF) for Turbohaler (-squared value 0.374); higher FEV and diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) for Aerolizer (-squared value 0.209) and higher FEV, younger age and diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) for Diskus (-squared value 0.350). However, -squared values for all three devices were weak (<0.4).

Conclusion: The study did not provide evidence to support the use of surrogate measurements for PIF through device resistance, which could assist in determining the appropriateness of inhaler device type. Although PIF measurement is feasible in patients at discharge and could be a valuable addition to the standard of care in COPD management, it needs to be measured directly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S174371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296178PMC
July 2019

Triple therapy with budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate with co-suspension delivery technology versus dual therapies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (KRONOS): a double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre, phase 3 randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Respir Med 2018 10 16;6(10):747-758. Epub 2018 Sep 16.

Pearl-a member of the AstraZeneca Group, Morristown, NJ, USA; AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

Background: Inhaled corticosteroids have been used in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the potential benefits of their use in triple therapy are not well known. We aimed to compare the efficacy of a triple therapy with corresponding dual therapies in symptomatic patients with moderate to very severe COPD, without a requirement for a history of exacerbations.

Methods: In this double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre phase 3 randomised controlled trial, we recruited patients from hospitals and care centres in Canada, China, Japan, and the USA. Eligible patients were 40-80 years of age, were current or former smokers (with a smoking history of ≥10 pack-years), had an established clinical history of COPD, and were symptomatic for COPD, despite receiving two or more inhaled maintenance therapies for at least 6 weeks before screening. We randomly assigned patients (2:2:1:1) using an interactive web response system to receive budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate metered-dose inhaler 320/18/9·6 μg (BGF MDI), glycopyrrolate/ formoterol fumarate metered-dose inhaler 18/9·6 μg (GFF MDI), budesonide/formoterol fumarate metered-dose inhaler 320/9·6 μg (BFF MDI), or open-label budesonide/formoterol fumarate dry-powder inhaler 400/12 μg (BUD/ FORM DPI). Primary endpoints for the Europe/Canada statistical analysis approach were FEV area under the curve from 0-4 h (AUC) for BGF MDI versus BFF MDI and BGF MDI versus BUD/FORM DPI over 24 weeks; and change from baseline in morning pre-dose trough FEV for BGF MDI versus GFF MDI and non-inferiority of BFF MDI versus BUD/FORM DPI (margin of -50 mL from lower bound of 95% CI) over 24 weeks. Comparisons with BUD/FORM DPI were made for the Europe/Canada statistical analysis approach only. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02497001.

Findings: Between Aug 20, 2015, and Jan 5, 2018, 3047 patients were screened from 215 sites, and 1902 were randomly assigned to receive BGF MDI (n=640), GFF MDI (n=627), BFF MDI (n=316), or BUD/FORM DPI (n=319). Over 24 weeks, BGF MDI significantly improved FEV AUC versus BFF MDI (least squares mean difference 104 mL, 95% CI 77 to 131; p<0·0001) and BUD/FORM DPI (91 mL, 64 to 117; p<0·0001). BGF MDI also significantly improved pre-dose trough FEV versus GFF MDI (22 mL, 4 to 39; p=0·0139) and was non-inferior to BUD/FORM DPI (-10 mL, -36 to 16; p=0·4390). At week 24, patients in the BGF MDI group had a significantly improved FEV AUC compared with patients receiving BFF MDI (116 mL, 95% CI 80 to 152; p<0·0001); there was a non-significant improvement in the change from baseline in morning pre-dose trough FEV at week 24 versus GFF MDI (13 mL, -9 to 36 mL; p=0·2375). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were nasopharyngitis (n=49 [8%] in the BGF MDI group; n=41 [7%] in the GFF MDI group; n=26 [8%] in the BFF MDI group; and n=30 [9%] in the BUD/FORM DPI group) and upper respiratory tract infection (n=65 [10%]; n=38 [6%]; n=18 [6%]; and n=22 [7%]). Pneumonia incidence was low (<2%) and similar across treatments. There were two treatment-related deaths, both in the GFF MDI group.

Interpretation: BGF MDI was efficacious, well tolerated, and could be a more appropriate treatment than the corresponding dual therapies for symptomatic patients with moderate to very severe COPD, irrespective of exacerbation history.

Funding: Pearl-a member of the AstraZeneca Group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30327-8DOI Listing
October 2018

Budesonide/formoterol MDI with co-suspension delivery technology in COPD: the TELOS study.

Eur Respir J 2018 09 16;52(3). Epub 2018 Sep 16.

Pearl - a member of the AstraZeneca Group, Durham, NC, USA.

TELOS compared budesonide (BD)/formoterol fumarate dihydrate (FF) metered dose inhaler (BFF MDI), formulated using innovative co-suspension delivery technology that enables consistent aerosol performance, with its monocomponents and budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate dry powder inhaler (DPI) in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), without a requirement for an exacerbation history.In this phase III, double-blind, parallel-group, 24-week study (NCT02766608), patients were randomised to BFF MDI 320/10 µg (n=664), BFF MDI 160/10 µg (n=649), FF MDI 10 µg (n=648), BD MDI 320 µg (n=209) or open-label budesonide/formoterol DPI 400/12 µg (n=219). Primary end-points were change from baseline in morning pre-dose trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) and FEV area under the curve from 0-4 h (AUC). Time to first and rate of moderate/severe exacerbations were assessed.BFF MDI 320/10 µg improved pre-dose trough FEV FF MDI (least squares mean (LSM) 39 mL; p=0.0018), and BFF MDI 320/10 µg and 160/10 µg improved FEV AUC BD MDI (LSM 173 mL and 157 mL, respectively; both p<0.0001) at week 24. BFF MDI 320/10 µg and 160/10 µg improved time to first and rate of moderate/severe exacerbations FF MDI. Treatments were well tolerated, with pneumonia incidence ranging from 0.5-1.4%.BFF MDI improved lung function monocomponents and exacerbations FF MDI in patients with moderate to very severe COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.01334-2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6383599PMC
September 2018

Randomized dose-ranging study of a budesonide metered-dose inhaler by using co-suspension delivery technology in asthma.

Allergy Asthma Proc 2018 Sep 23;39(5):350-358. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Pearl - a member of the AstraZeneca Group, Morristown, New Jersey.

Background: This is the first study of the inhaled corticosteroid, budesonide, delivered by metered-dose inhaler (BD MDI) using innovative co-suspension delivery technology in adults with asthma.

Objective: To characterize the effects of BD delivered by MDI on lung function and safety.

Methods: Randomized, double-blind, 4-week cross-over, placebo-controlled, phase IIb study of adults (18-65 years of age) with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma. The subjects received twice-daily BD MDI 320 μg, 160 μg, and placebo MDI, and either BD MDI 80 μg or 40 μg. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in morning trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at the end of the treatment period (EOT). Secondary endpoints included change from baseline in morning and evening predose peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), rescue medication use, and Asthma Control Questionnaire 5-question version (ACQ-5) score. Safety was also assessed.

Results: A total of 147 subjects were randomized. All doses of BD MDI improved morning trough FEV1 at EOT, and morning and evening predose PEFR in the last treatment week versus placebo (all p < 0.01), with improvements in trough FEV1 exceeding 100 mL for BD MDI 320 μg, and 160 μg only. Compared with placebo, all BD MDI doses reduced rescue medication use in the last week of treatment (p < 0.01) and improved ACQ-5 scores at EOT (all p < 0.01). All treatments were well tolerated.

Conclusion: Analysis of the data demonstrated greater efficacy improvements for the higher doses of BD MDI (320 μg and 160 μg), with similar adverse event profiles compared with the lower doses. Hence, BD MDI 320 μg and 160 μg warrant further evaluation in subjects with persistent asthma.Clinical trial NCT02105012, www.clinicaltrials.gov.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2500/aap.2018.39.4155DOI Listing
September 2018

Pharmacokinetics of Co-Suspension Delivery Technology Budesonide/Glycopyrronium/Formoterol Fumarate Dihydrate (BGF MDI) and Budesonide/Formoterol Fumarate Dihydrate (BFF MDI) Fixed-Dose Combinations Compared With an Active Control: A Phase 1, Randomized, Single-Dose, Crossover Study in Healthy Adults.

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2019 02 14;8(2):223-233. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Pearl - a member of the AstraZeneca group, Durham, NC, USA.

This randomized, phase 1, single-dose, crossover study (NCT02189304) compared the 12-hour pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety profiles of budesonide/glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate dihydrate metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI) 320/14.4/10 μg and budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate (BFF) MDI 320/10 μg (both formulated using innovative co-suspension delivery technology) to an active comparator (budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate dry powder inhaler [BUD/FORM DPI] 320/9-μg delivered dose) in healthy adults. The potential for PK interaction between glycopyrronium and budesonide/formoterol within BGF MDI was assessed. Of 72 subjects randomized, 59 completed treatment. Systemic budesonide exposure (primary objective) based on area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve 0-12 hours (AUC ; % coefficient of variation) was 1598.38 (49.7), 1657.09 (50.4), and 1276.75 (70.4) pg·h/mL for BGF MDI, BFF MDI, and BUD/FORM DPI, respectively; and formoterol exposure (AUC [% coefficient of variation]) was 39.16 (45.9), 39.53 (40.5), and 23.24 (59.2) pg·h/mL, respectively. BGF MDI and BFF MDI were bioequivalent for budesonide and formoterol. All treatments were well tolerated. While systemic exposure to budesonide and formoterol was higher for BGF MDI and BFF MDI than for BUD/FORM DPI, there were no appreciable differences in the incidence of pharmacologically predictable adverse events. This, coupled with the absence of PK interactions, suggests the BGF MDI safety profile will be comparable to BUD/FORM DPI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpdd.585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6585691PMC
February 2019

Efficacy, safety, and dose response of glycopyrronium administered by metered dose inhaler using co-suspension delivery technology in subjects with intermittent or mild-to-moderate persistent asthma: A randomized controlled trial.

Respir Med 2018 06 19;139:39-47. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Pearl - a member of the AstraZeneca Group, Durham, NC, USA.

Objectives: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, Phase II dose-ranging study investigated the efficacy and safety of GP MDI (glycopyrronium administered by metered dose inhaler formulated using co-suspension delivery technology) compared with an open-label active comparator, salmeterol dry powder inhaler (SAL DPI), in subjects with intermittent or mild-to-moderate persistent asthma.

Methods: Subjects were randomized to receive five of seven treatments (GP MDI 28.8, 14.4, 7.2, 3.6, and 1.9 μg, placebo MDI, and SAL DPI 50 μg), each for a 14-day period. The primary endpoint was peak change from baseline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) on Day 15. Secondary endpoints included additional lung function parameters and symptoms (Asthma Control Questionnaire-5). Safety was monitored throughout.

Results: Of 248 subjects randomized, 211 completed the study. All doses of GP MDI resulted in significant improvements in the primary endpoint compared with placebo MDI in a dose-ordered fashion (range 85-155 mL, p < .0001), without appreciable differences between the two highest doses of GP MDI (28.8 and 14.4 μg) and SAL DPI 50 μg. Improvements in secondary lung function endpoints and symptoms were generally dose-ordered, with GP MDI 28.8 μg showing the greatest improvements. Similar results were observed when endpoints were analyzed based on subjects' background use of inhaled corticosteroids (yes/no). All GP MDI doses were well tolerated with no evidence of a dose-related effect on adverse events.

Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that GP MDI could offer an important treatment option for maintenance therapy of asthma, and warrants further investigation in Phase III clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2018.04.013DOI Listing
June 2018

Safety and pharmacokinetics of budesonide/glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate dihydrate metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI) in healthy adult subjects of Japanese descent.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2018 08 12;51:18-25. Epub 2018 May 12.

AstraZeneca, One MedImmune Way, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA; Pearl - a Member of the AstraZeneca Group, 280 Headquarters Plaza, East Tower, 2nd Floor, Morristown, NJ 07960, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: BGF MDI, a budesonide, glycopyrronium, and formoterol fumarate dihydrate triple fixed-dose combination metered dose inhaler formulated using co-suspension delivery technology, is currently in Phase III global development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Methods: This was a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending-dose, crossover study to assess the safety and pharmacokinetic profiles of two doses of BGF MDI in healthy adult subjects of Japanese descent (NCT02197975). Safety assessments included monitoring for adverse events (AEs). Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed following a single dose and 7-days chronic dosing with BGF MDI 160/14.4/10 μg and BGF MDI 320/14.4/10 μg.

Results: Twenty subjects were randomized and included in the safety and pharmacokinetic populations; mean age 29.7 years; 65% male; and mean body mass index of 21.9 kg/m. The incidences of treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs) were similar between treatments. All the TEAEs were mild to moderate in severity. Budesonide area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h (AUC) and maximum observed plasma concentration (C) values were approximately double for the higher dose of BGF MDI compared with the lower dose on Day 1 and also following chronic dosing on Day 8. Glycopyrronium and formoterol AUC and C values on Day 8 were comparable between the two doses of BGF MDI.

Discussion: Both doses of BGF MDI were well tolerated in healthy subjects of Japanese descent and the systemic exposure to budesonide was dose proportional for BGF MDI 160/14.4/10 μg and BGF MDI 320/14.4/10 μg. The safety and pharmacokinetics for BGF MDI 160/14.4/10 μg and BGF MDI 320/14.4/10 μg in Japanese subjects were comparable to data from previous studies in Western populations, which suggests that the safety and efficacy profile of BGF MDI should be similar in Western and Japanese subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2018.05.001DOI Listing
August 2018

The pharmacokinetics of three doses of budesonide/glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate dihydrate metered dose inhaler compared with active controls: A Phase I randomized, single-dose, crossover study in healthy adults.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2018 06 13;50:11-18. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Pearl - A Member of the AstraZeneca Group, 4222 Emperor Boulevard, Suite 560, Durham, NC 27703, USA. Electronic address:

The budesonide/glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate dihydrate metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI) is an inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting muscarinic antagonist/long-acting β-agonist fixed-dose combination formulated with innovative co-suspension delivery technology that is in clinical development for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This randomized, Phase I, single-dose, six-treatment, four-period, crossover study (NCT01980615) examined the pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety profile of three doses of BGF MDI (320/14.4/10 μg [equivalent to budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate 320/18/9.6 μg], 160/14.4/10 μg and 80/14.4/10 μg), two doses of a budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate fixed-dose combination (BUD/FORM MDI 320/9 μg and 160/9 μg; not using co-suspension delivery technology) and a glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate dihydrate co-suspension delivery technology MDI (GFF MDI 14.4/10 μg) in healthy volunteers (18-45 years of age). PK parameters included area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h (AUC), AUC up to the last measurable concentration (AUC), maximum plasma concentration (C) and time to maximum plasma concentration (t). Safety was monitored throughout the study. Of 84 subjects randomized, 76 completed the study. BGF MDI 320/14.4/10 μg was bioequivalent to BUD/FORM MDI 320/9 μg for budesonide for C, AUC and AUC (primary objective). Dose proportionality was observed for the budesonide component between BGF MDI 80/14.4/10 μg and BGF MDI 160/14.4/10 μg, and between BGF MDI 160/14.4/10 μg and BGF MDI 320/14.4/10 μg. Systemic exposure to glycopyrronium and formoterol after BGF MDI 320/14.4/10 μg treatment was similar to GFF MDI 14.4/10 μg. The rate of adverse events was 3.7-17.9% across treatments without any serious adverse events. In conclusion, BGF MDI 320/14.4/10 μg had a similar budesonide PK profile to BUD/FORM MDI 320/9 μg. No PK drug-drug interactions were observed when budesonide was added to glycopyrronium and formoterol fumarate dihydrate. These data support the use of budesonide 320 μg and 160 μg in future clinical trials of BGF MDI in COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2018.03.001DOI Listing
June 2018

Increased Dose of Inhaled Corticosteroid versus Add-On Long-acting β-Agonist for Step-Up Therapy in Asthma.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2015 Jun;12(6):798-806

10 Research in Real-Life, Ltd, Cambridge, and.

Rationale: Guidelines advocate adding long-acting β-agonist (LABA) to inhaled corticosteroid as the preferred step-up therapy to increasing inhaled corticosteroid dose for patients with uncontrolled asthma on inhaled corticosteroid monotherapy. However, less than 5% of patients with asthma qualify for the randomized controlled trials on which guidelines are based. Thus, real-world data are needed to complement the results of randomized trials with narrow entry criteria.

Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of stepping up asthma therapy with an increased dose of various types of inhaled corticosteroid as compared with add-on LABA.

Methods: We performed a historical matched cohort study using large primary care databases to compare asthma step-up therapy with small- and standard size-particle inhaled corticosteroid versus added LABA for patients 12-80 years old. As outcomes, we examined a composite of asthma control and rates of severe exacerbations.

Measurements And Main Results: The odds of asthma control and rates of severe exacerbations over one outcome year were comparable with increased inhaled corticosteroid dose versus added LABA. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for achieving asthma control with increased inhaled corticosteroid dose versus inhaled corticosteroid/LABA were 0.99 (0.88-1.12) for small-particle inhaled corticosteroid (n = 3,036 per cohort) and 0.85 (0.67-1.07) for standard size-particle inhaled corticosteroid (n = 809 per cohort). The adjusted rate ratios (95% confidence interval) for severe exacerbations, compared with inhaled corticosteroid/LABA combination inhaler, were 1.04 (0.91-1.20) and 1.18 (0.92-1.54), respectively. The results were not affected by smoking status.

Conclusions: When applied to a broad primary care population, antiinflammatory therapy using increased doses of small- or standard size-particle inhaled corticosteroid is as effective as adding LABA, as measured by outcomes important to both patients and providers. Real-world populations and outcomes need to be taken into consideration when formulating treatment recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201412-580OCDOI Listing
June 2015

Impact of exhaled nitric oxide measurements on treatment decisions in an asthma specialty clinic.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2014 Dec 22;113(6):619-23. Epub 2014 Jul 22.

Aerocrine, Inc, Morrisville, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Background: Asthma management in an outpatient setting is best accomplished by clinical evaluation coupled with spirometry and symptom evaluation, but these assessments do not provide information about airway inflammation. Exhaled nitric oxide (fraction of exhaled nitric oxide [FeNO]) measures T-helper cell type 2-mediated airway inflammation and may be a useful adjunct in asthma management.

Objective: To determine whether the use of FeNO in the specialist management of asthma results in more effective and cost-effective treatment decisions.

Methods: Fifty subjects 7 to 60 years old with established asthma participated in this observational study. Subjects were evaluated by clinical examination, spirometry, and symptom assessment using the Asthma Control Test, and clinicians estimated airway inflammation and made treatment decisions based on these assessments. Then, FeNO was measured, and changes in therapy based on FeNO levels were documented. The estimated cost impact of using FeNO was calculated presuming ongoing FeNO use in patient management.

Results: Without FeNO, the clinician's assessment of airway inflammation was incorrectly classified in 50% of subjects. FeNO results substantially altered treatment decisions in more than one third of subjects, notably medication augmentation in 10 (20%) and medication decreases in 8 (16%). Use of FeNO in addition to standard of care was estimated to save $629 per subject per year.

Conclusion: Measurement of FeNO augments routine clinical assessment of asthma by measuring airway inflammation. Knowledge of FeNO affects medication treatment decisions to augment or decrease pharmacotherapy, which has important long-term asthma management implications, most notably the potential to lower the costs and morbidity associated with asthma exacerbation.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01729247.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2014.06.013DOI Listing
December 2014

EGF-induced bronchial epithelial cells drive neutrophil chemotactic and anti-apoptotic activity in asthma.

PLoS One 2013 11;8(9):e72502. Epub 2013 Sep 11.

Academic Unit of Clinical and Experimental Sciences and the NIHR Southampton Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, Southampton University Faculty of Medicine, Sir Henry Wellcome Laboratories, Southampton University Hospital, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Chronic damage and repair of the bronchial epithelium are features of asthma. We have previously reported that ex vivo stimulation of normal bronchial epithelial cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF), a key factor of epithelial repair, enhances the mechanisms of neutrophil accumulation, thereby promoting neutrophil defences during acute injury but potentially enhancing inflammation in chronic airway diseases. We have now sought to (i) determine whether this EGF-dependent pro-neutrophil activity is increased in asthma, where EGF and its epithelial receptor are over-expressed, and (ii) elucidate some of the mechanisms underlying this asthmatic epithelial-neutrophil interaction. Primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) from healthy subjects, mild asthmatics and moderate-to-severe asthmatics (Mod/Sev) were stimulated with EGF, a model that mimics a repairing epithelium. Conditioned culture media (EGF-CM) were assessed for neutrophil chemotactic and anti-apoptotic activities and inflammatory mediator production. EGF induced the epithelium to produce soluble mediators with neutrophil chemotactic (p<0.001) and pro-survival (p = 0.021) activities which were related to the clinical severity of asthma (trend p = 0.010 and p = 0.009, respectively). This was associated with enhanced IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF and TNF-α release, and cytokine-neutralising experiments using EGF-CM from Mod/Sev asthmatics demonstrated a role for GM-CSF in neutrophil survival (p<0.001). Pre-treatment of neutrophils with specific inhibitors of the myeloid-restricted class I phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) isoforms showed that the EGF-CM from Mod/Sev asthmatics depended on the γ (p<0.021) but not δ isoforms, while neutrophil survival required multiple class I PI(3)Ks. The EGF-induced chemotactic, but not pro-survival activity, involved RhoA signaling in neutrophils (p = 0.012). EGF whose activity is upregulated in asthma induces ex vivo the epithelium from asthmatic patients to produce pro-neutrophil activities; these are related to asthma severity and, in moderate-to-severe asthmatics, involves class IB PI(3)Kγ signaling, providing a potential therapeutic target for neutrophilic forms of asthma.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0072502PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3770689PMC
June 2014

Asthma outcomes and costs of therapy with extrafine beclomethasone and fluticasone.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2013 Jul 13;132(1):45-54. Epub 2013 Apr 13.

Washington Hospital Center and George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: Characteristics of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) differ, but data comparing the real-life effectiveness of various ICSs for asthma are lacking.

Objective: We sought to compare real-life asthma outcomes and costs of extrafine hydrofluoroalkane (HFA)-beclomethasone and fluticasone administered through a pressurized metered-dose inhaler.

Methods: This retrospective matched cohort study examined database markers of asthma control from a large US longitudinal health care claims database over 1 baseline and 1 outcome year for 10,312 patients with asthma aged 12 to 80 years receiving their first ICS as HFA-beclomethasone or fluticasone and matched on baseline demographic characteristics and asthma severity.

Results: Patients started on HFA-beclomethasone had significantly higher odds (adjusted odds ratio, 1.19; 95% CI; 1.08-1.31) of achieving overall control (risk and impairment), which was defined as no hospital attendance for asthma, oral corticosteroids, or antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infection and less than 2 puffs per day of short-acting β-agonist; they also experienced a lower rate of respiratory-related hospitalizations or referrals (adjusted rate ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.73-0.93) than patients started on fluticasone. Other database outcome measures were similar in the 2 cohorts. Prescribed HFA-beclomethasone doses were lower (P < .001) than fluticasone doses (median, 320 μg/d [interquartile range, 160-320 μg/d] vs 440 μg/d [interquartile range, 176-440 μg/d]). Adjusted respiratory-related health care costs were significantly lower for HFA-beclomethasone than fluticasone (mean, $1869 [95% CI, $1727-$2032] vs $2259 [95% CI, $2111-$2404]), representing a mean annual savings of $390 (95% CI, $165-$620) per patient prescribed HFA-beclomethasone rather than fluticasone.

Conclusions: Asthma treatment outcomes were similar or better with HFA-beclomethasone prescribed at significantly lower doses and with lower costs than fluticasone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2013.02.008DOI Listing
July 2013