Publications by authors named "Paul C Jepson"

9 Publications

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Selection of pesticides to reduce human and environmental health risks: a global guideline and minimum pesticides list.

Lancet Planet Health 2020 02 26;4(2):e56-e63. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

independent pesticide consultant, c/o Sustainable Agriculture Network, San José, Costa Rica.

Background: Pesticides present widespread risks to human and environmental health, yet selection criteria for end-users that factor in differences in risk between compounds are scant. We developed a system to classify pesticide risks and hazards with respect to human and environmental health and produce a minimum (lower risk) pesticide list.

Methods: We classified 659 pesticides by acute and chronic risks to human health (eg, respiratory and carcinogenic effects) and by environmental risks, including biomagnification and atmospheric ozone depletion and risks to aquatic life, terrestrial wildlife, and pollinators. From this analysis, we produced a guideline for selection of lower risk pesticides. The classification of highly hazardous and high-risk compounds has been tested in more than a million farm households in the tropics, and in US integrated pest management (IPM) programmes. The full classification, including the minimum pesticide list, has been used in management of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) throughout Africa and Asia.

Findings: Our analysis developed a stand-alone guideline for selection of lower risk pesticides. When classifying pesticides in current use against the fall armyworm in Africa, our guideline identified chemicals that are effective and of lower risk to human and environmental health. We argue that a minimum (lower risk) pesticides list, which meets IPM needs, could be developed from our classification system.

Interpretation: As far as we are aware, our analysis is the first to propose a method for implementing the idea of a minimum pesticide list and the first to outline lower risk candidate compounds. Currently accepted criteria for defining highly hazardous pesticides do not adequately protect human bystanders, aquatic life, terrestrial wildlife, and pollinators.

Funding: The Sustainable Agriculture Network, the Rainforest Alliance, the US Department of Agriculture-National Institute of Food and Agriculture, the US Department of Agriculture, the Foreign Agricultural Service, the US Agency for International Development, the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(19)30266-9DOI Listing
February 2020

Silicone wristbands detect individuals' pesticide exposures in West Africa.

R Soc Open Sci 2016 Aug 17;3(8):160433. Epub 2016 Aug 17.

Food Safety and Environmental Stewardship Program, Environmental and Molecular Toxicology , Oregon State University , ALS 1007, Corvallis, OR 97330 , USA.

We detected between 2 and 10 pesticides per person with novel sampling devices worn by 35 participants who were actively engaged in farming in Diender, Senegal. Participants were recruited to wear silicone wristbands for each of two separate periods of up to 5 days. Pesticide exposure profiles were highly individualized with only limited associations with demographic data. Using a 63-pesticide dual-column gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method, we detected pyrethoid insecticides most frequently, followed by organophosphate pesticides which have been linked to adverse health outcomes. This work provides the first report of individualized exposure profiles among smallholder farmers in West Africa, where logistical and practical constraints have prevented the use of more traditional approaches to exposure assessment in the past. The wristbands and associated analytical method enabled detection of a broad range of agricultural, domestic, legacy and current-use pesticides, including esfenvalerate, cypermethrin, lindane, DDT and chlorpyrifos. Participants reported the use of 13 pesticide active ingredients while wearing wristbands. All six of the pesticides that were both reportedly used and included in the analytical method were detected in at least one wristband. An additional 19 pesticide compounds were detected beyond those that were reported to be in use, highlighting the importance of measuring exposure in addition to collecting surveys and self-reported use records. The wristband method is a candidate for more widespread use in pesticide exposure and health monitoring, and in the development of evidence-based policies for human health protection in an area where food security concerns are likely to intensify agricultural production and pesticide use in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.160433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5108971PMC
August 2016

Effects of dietary esfenvalerate exposures on three aquatic insect species representing different functional feeding groups.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2008 Aug 11;27(8):1721-7. Epub 2008 Feb 11.

Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA.

Given the chemical properties of synthetic pyrethroids, it is probable that compounds, including esfenvalerate, that enter surface waters may become incorporated into aquatic insect food sources. We examined the effect of dietary esfenvalerate uptake in aquatic insects representing different functional feeding groups. We used three field-collected aquatic insect species: A grazing scraper, Cinygmula reticulata McDunnough (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae); an omnivorous filter feeder, Brachycentrus americanus Banks (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae); and a predator, Hesperoperla pacifica Banks (Plecoptera: Perlidae). Laboratory-cultured algae were preexposed for 24 h to esfenvalerate concentrations of 0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 microg/L and provided to two C. reticulata age classes (small and final-instar nymphs). Reduction in small nymph growth was observed following three weeks of feeding on algae exposed to 0.05 and 0.1 microg/L of esfenvalerate, and the highest dietary exposure reduced egg production in final-instar nymphs. The diet for B. americanus and H. pacifica consisted of dead third-instar Chironomus tentans larvae preexposed for 24 h to esfenvalerate concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1.0 microg/L. Consumption of larvae exposed to 0.5 to 1.0 microg/L of esfenvalerate caused case abandonment and mortality in B. americanus caddisfly larvae. Although H. pacifica nymphs readily consumed esfenvalerate-exposed larvae, no adverse effects were observed during the present study. Furthermore, no evidence of esfenvalerate-induced feeding deterrence was found in any of the species tested, suggesting that aquatic insects may not be able to distinguish between pyrethroid-contaminated and uncontaminated food sources. These findings indicate that feeding deterrence is not a factor in regulating aquatic insect dietary exposures to synthetic pyrethroids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/07-501.1DOI Listing
August 2008

Impact of aquatic insect life stage and emergence strategy on sensitivity to esfenvalerate exposure.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2008 Aug 11;27(8):1728-34. Epub 2008 Feb 11.

Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA.

We investigated the impact of aquatic insect life stage and emergence strategy on sensitivity to esfenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, using field-collected Brachycentrus americanus Banks (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae) and Cinygmula reticulata McDunnough (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae) insects. Final-instar C. reticulata emergence was observed for one week following three environmentally relevant, 48-h esfenvalerate exposures (0.005, 0.01, and 0.015 microg/L). Emergence was significantly depressed following exposure to esfenvalerate and resulted from an increase in nymph mortality during the emergence process. This experiment was duplicated for late-instar C. reticulata nymphs, which were similar in size to the final-instar nymphs but were not near emergence. Late-instar C. reticulata mayflies were approximately fivefold less sensitive to esfenvalerate exposures as gauged by one-week mortality rates. Brachycentrus americanus pupal mortality was significantly increased over that in controls following 48-h esfenvalerate exposures of 0.1 and 0.2 microg/L. These response concentrations correlated closely with those for case-abandonment rates of fourth-instar B. americanus larvae (a sublethal effect of esfenvalerate exposure). Pupal mortality rates were approximately 16-fold higher than those observed in larvae. Adult female egg weight as a percentage of total body weight was significantly decreased following pupal esfenvalerate exposures of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 microg/L. These findings suggest that exposure to esfenvalerate may impair hemimetabolous insect emergence behaviors and may decrease fecundity in holometabolous aquatic insects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/07-499.1DOI Listing
August 2008

Clutch morphology and the timing of exposure impact the susceptibility of aquatic insect eggs to esfenvalerate.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2008 Aug 12;27(8):1713-20. Epub 2008 Feb 12.

Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA.

We investigated Baetis spp. (mayfly), Hesperoperla pacifica (stonefly), and Brachycentrus americanus (caddisfly) susceptibility at the egg stage to esfenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. Eggs were obtained from the field or from field-collected gravid females at sites near Corvallis (OR, USA) and the Metolius River at Camp Sherman (OR, USA) for static exposures under controlled conditions for temperature and light. Eggs were exposed to esfenvalerate for 48 h at concentrations ranging from 0.025 to 4.0 microg/L. No effect on mortality or posthatch growth was detected in H. pacifica eggs exposed to esfenvalerate concentrations up to 1.0 microg/L. Exposure to 0.07 microg/L of esfenvalerate, however, caused a significant increase in Baetis spp. egg mortality, and exposure of near-eclosion eggs to lower concentrations (0.025 and 0.05 microg/L) resulted in behavioral effects and reduced survivorship in newly hatched Baetis nymphs. Early stage B. americanus eggs were 10-fold more sensitive to esfenvalerate when removed from the gelatinous clutch before exposure, an indication that the gelatin affords protection from toxicant exposure. Exposures of near-hatch B. americanus clutches to esfenvalerate concentrations ranging between 0.035 and 0.2 microg/L, however, resulted in significant clutch death within clutches resulting from behavioral aberrations of first-instar larvae. The results of the present study suggest that aquatic insect egg clutch morphology can be a strong influence on susceptibility of embryos to esfenvalerate exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/07-491.1DOI Listing
August 2008

Esfenvalerate-induced case-abandonment in the larvae of the caddisfly (Brachycentrus americanus).

Environ Toxicol Chem 2008 Feb;27(2):397-403

Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

Field-collected Brachycentrus americanus Banks (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae) larvae were used to investigate the relationship between esfenvalerate exposure and case-abandonment response, determine larval ability to construct a new case, and measure the change in predation risk to insects in rebuilt cases. We evaluated case-abandonment following four environmentally relevant esfenvalerate exposures, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 microg/L; 48-h exposures to 0.2 and 0.4 microg/L (nominal) esfenvalerate both resulted in over 60% of larvae abandoning cases and were statistically indistinguishable. Propensity to engage in building behaviors was significantly diminished in 0.2 and 0.4 microg/L esfenvalerate-exposed insects that had abandoned cases, with less than 20% of exposed insects producing cases. Cases built by intoxicated larvae were characterized by a disorganized composition, and required half the pressure to crush versus cases built by nonexposed larvae. Pre-exposing case-building material to 1 microg/L esfenvalerate also reduced the physical strength of rebuilt cases. Larvae inhabiting weaker rebuilt cases and larvae without cases were significantly more susceptible to predation by second year Hesperoperla pacifica Banks (Plecoptera: Perlidae) stonefly nymphs than those in original cases. Overall, we concluded that small behavioral responses can have profound consequences for survival of species and reveal susceptible stages in life-cycles that can be overlooked by conventional approaches to ecological risk assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/07-185R1.1DOI Listing
February 2008

Assessment of risk of insect-resistant transgenic crops to nontarget arthropods.

Nat Biotechnol 2008 Feb;26(2):203-8

Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstr. 191, 8046 Zurich, Switzerland.

An international initiative is developing a scientifically rigorous approach to evaluate the potential risks to nontarget arthropods (NTAs) posed by insect-resistant, genetically modified (IRGM) crops. It adapts the tiered approach to risk assessment that is used internationally within regulatory toxicology and environmental sciences. The approach focuses on the formulation and testing of clearly stated risk hypotheses, making maximum use of available data and using formal decision guidelines to progress between testing stages (or tiers). It is intended to provide guidance to regulatory agencies that are currently developing their own NTA risk assessment guidelines for IRGM crops and to help harmonize regulatory requirements between different countries and different regions of the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nbt1381DOI Listing
February 2008

Selenium accumulation patterns in lotic and lentic aquatic systems.

Sci Total Environ 2006 Jul 17;366(1):367-79. Epub 2006 Feb 17.

Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 1007 ALS, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

Selenium (Se) concentrations in water column, sediment and insect compartments were measured over 3 years, in conjunction with selected physicochemical parameters, from lotic (flowing water) and lentic (standing water) sites within a single watershed in Utah, USA. There was evidence for steady-state concentrations of total [Se] in the insects, sediment and detritus, while there was no correlation between these concentrations and the concentration in surface water. Insect Se burden may therefore provide a more accurate measurement of food web accumulation risk than surface water Se concentration. The importance of organism-specific factors on Se transfer to higher trophic levels was revealed by the steady-state Se body burden within the same insect taxa occupying similar environmental compartments in both aquatic systems. Additionally, however, insect Se body burdens, even within similar taxa, were up to 7 times greater within the lentic compared with the lotic system, and site-specific biogeochemical processes are also likely to play a role in the pattern and level of Se accumulation between hydrogeochemically different aquatic systems occurring within the same watershed. Though a site-specific relationship was apparent between organic content and sediment and detritus Se concentrations, this factor did not account for insect Se accumulation differences between the lotic and lentic aquatic habitats. If carbon content is to be used as a site-specific predictor of Se accumulation potential, further investigations of it's influence on the food web accumulation rate of Se are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.12.024DOI Listing
July 2006

Influences of sedimentary organic matter quality on the bioaccumulation of 4-nonylphenol by estuarine amphipods.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2004 Apr;23(4):865-73

Oregon State University-Hatfield Marine Science Center, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 2030 Southeast Marine Science Drive, Newport, Oregon 97365, USA.

Nonylphenol (NP) is a moderately persistent, hydrophobic chemical with endocrine-disrupting and acute narcotic effects in aquatic biota. Concern exists about the ultimate fate of NP in aquatic ecosystems and the potential for bioaccumulation by benthic biota from the sediment with the potential for further transfer to higher trophic levels. Our goals were to determine if benthic amphipods bioaccumulate significant amounts of NP from sediment and to determine how additions of organic matter influence NP bioaccumulation by amphipods. Estuarine sediment was spiked with 14C-NP and enriched with two types of organic carbon (OC) sources of different nutritional qualities. Macrophytic algae (Ulva species) were used as a labile and nutritious OC source. Wood lignins were used as a refractory and low-nutrition OC source. Nonylphenol bioaccumulation was measured in Eohaustorius estuarius, Grandidierella japonica, and Corophium salmonis after 16 d of exposure. Nonylphenol accumulation was inversely proportional to OC quantity, but was unaffected by OC nutritional quality. Significant differences were found in the accumulation patterns between the three amphipod species. Mean biota-sediment accumulation factors ranged from 8.1 to 33.9 in E. estuarius, from 4.6 to 17.2 in G. japonica, and averaged 7.1 in male C. salmonis and 16.0 in female C. salmonis. These accumulation factors indicate that estuarine amphipods could constitute an important source of NP to higher trophic levels, such as juvenile fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/03-220DOI Listing
April 2004