Publications by authors named "Paul C Edwards"

62 Publications

The impact of dental curriculum format on student performance on the national board dental examination.

J Dent Educ 2022 Jun 31;86(6):661-669. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Department of Orthodontics and Oral Facial Genetics, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

Purpose/objective: The effectiveness of different curriculum types has long been debated by dental educators aiming to provide the best education possible to their students. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of curriculum type (hybrid problem-based learning [PBL] vs. traditional) on National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) part I and II pass rates METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with a hybrid PBL cohort and traditional cohort. NBDE part I and II pass rates for the two cohorts were acquired, along with demographic and scholastic variables. Pass rates, scholastic variables, and demographic variables were compared using two-sample t-tests and chi-square tests. Associations of the variables with pass rates were analyzed using logistic regression. Significance was set at 5% RESULTS: No significant differences in pass rates for NBDE part I and II were observed between the cohorts. Cumulative dental school grade point average (GPA) was found to be an independent predictor of success for NBDE part I (odds ratio (OR): 1.40, 1.24-1.59 for 0.1 point intervals) and II (OR: 1.34, 1.18-1.52 for 0.1 point intervals), (p < 0.01). DAT biology sub-score was found to be predictive of success for NBDE part I (OR: 1.58, 1.14-2.19), (p = 0.01) CONCLUSIONS: No significant difference in NBDE part I and II pass rates between the cohorts was found. Dental school GPA was the most predictive variable for success on NBDE part I and II. These findings may be helpful considerations as institutions assess the structure of their school curricula.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jdd.12863DOI Listing
June 2022

CERE-120 Prevents Irradiation-Induced Hypofunction and Restores Immune Homeostasis in Porcine Salivary Glands.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2020 Sep 31;18:839-855. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Matrix and Morphogenesis Section, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Salivary gland hypofunction causes significant morbidity and loss of quality of life for head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Preventing hypofunction is an unmet therapeutic need. We used an adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) vector expressing the human neurotrophic factor neurturin (CERE-120) to treat murine submandibular glands either pre- or post-irradiation (IR). Treatment with CERE-120 pre-IR, not post-IR, prevented hypofunction. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis showed reduced gene expression associated with fibrosis and the innate and humoral immune responses. We then used a minipig model with CERE-120 treatment pre-IR and also compared outcomes of the contralateral non-IR gland. Analysis of gene expression, morphology, and immunostaining showed reduced IR-related immune responses and improved secretory mechanisms. CERE-120 prevented IR-induced hypofunction and restored immune homeostasis, and there was a coordinated contralateral gland response to either damage or treatment. CERE-120 gene therapy is a potential treatment for head and neck cancer patients to influence communication among neuronal, immune, and epithelial cells to prevent IR-induced salivary hypofunction and restore immune homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2020.07.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7479444PMC
September 2020

Nanofibrous antibiotic-eluting matrices: Biocompatibility studies in a rat model.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2020 02 23;108(2):306-315. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Post-Graduate Program in Oral Science (Periodontology Unit), School of Dentistry, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

This study evaluated the biocompatibility of degradable polydioxanone (PDS) electrospun drug delivery systems (hereafter referred as matrices) containing metronidazole (MET) or ciprofloxacin (CIP) after subcutaneous implantation in rats. Sixty adult male rats were randomized into six groups: SHAM (sham surgery); PDS (antibiotic-free matrix); 1MET (one 25 wt% MET matrix); 1CIP (one 25 wt% CIP matrix); 2MET (two 25 wt% MET matrices); and 2CIP (two 25 wt% CIP matrices). At 3 and 30 days, animals were assessed for inflammatory cell response (ICR), collagen fibers degradation, and oxidative profile (reactive oxygen species [ROS]; lipid peroxidation [LP]; and protein carbonyl [PC]). At 3 days, percentages of no/discrete ICR were 100, 93.3, 86.7, 76.7, 50, and 66.6 for SHAM, PDS, 1MET, 1CIP, 2MET, and 2CIP, respectively. At 30 days, percentages of no/discrete ICR were 100% for SHAM, PDS, 1MET, and 1CIP and 93.3% for 2MET and 2CIP. Between 3 and 30 days, SHAM, 1CIP, and 2CIP produced collagen, while 1MET and 2MET were unchanged. At 30 days, the collagen fiber means percentages for SHAM, PDS, 1MET, 1CIP, 2MET, and 2CIP were 63.7, 60.7, 56.6, 62.6, 51.8, and 61.7, respectively. Antibiotic-eluting matrices showed similar or better oxidative behavior when compared to PDS, except for CIP-eluting matrices, which showed higher levels of PC compared to SHAM or PDS at 30 days. Collectively, our findings indicate that antibiotic-eluting matrices may be an attractive biocompatible drug delivery system to fight periodontopathogens. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.34389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6812584PMC
February 2020

HPV and Oral Cancer: The Need to Integrate Oral Health Practices Into Nursing Education.

Clin J Oncol Nurs 2018 12;22(6):E166-E173

Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute.

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal cancer has increased in recent decades. With a shortage of dental professionals, nurses may be key in detecting oral cancer and educating patients.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess students in nursing and dental programs for their oral and oropharyngeal cancer knowledge and perceptions of responsibility and capability of performing oral screenings and HPV counseling.

Methods: 158 surveys were completed by students attending nursing and dental programs at a midwestern university. The chi-squared test and analysis of variance were used to calculate differences in frequencies of categorical and interval data.

Findings: Many students across programs were unaware of the potential effectiveness of the HPV vaccination in reducing oropharyngeal cancer. Nursing and nurse practitioner students were less likely to believe they could perform an examination or that it was within their perceived scope of practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1188/18.CJON.E166-E173DOI Listing
December 2018

A novel patient-specific three-dimensional drug delivery construct for regenerative endodontics.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2019 07 3;107(5):1576-1586. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine, and Radiology, IUSD, Indianapolis, Indiana, 46202.

Evoked bleeding (EB) clinical procedure, comprising a disinfection step followed by periapical tissue laceration to induce the ingrowth of undifferentiated stem cells from the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, is currently the only regenerative-based therapeutic approach to treating pulp tissue necrosis in undeveloped (immature) permanent teeth approved in the United States. Yet, the disinfection step using antibiotic-based pastes leads to cytotoxic, warranting a biocompatible strategy to promote root canal disinfection with no or minimal side-effects to maximize the regenerative outcomes. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a tubular three-dimensional (3D) triple antibiotic-eluting construct for intracanal drug delivery. Morphological (scanning electron microscopy), chemical (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), and mechanical (tensile testing) characteristics of the polydioxanone-based triple antibiotic-eluting fibers were assessed. The antimicrobial properties of the tubular 3D constructs were determined in vitro and in vivo using an infected (Actinomyces naeslundii) dentin tooth slice model and a canine method of periapical disease, respectively. The in vitro data indicated significant antimicrobial activity and the ability to eliminate bacterial biofilm inside dentinal tubules. In vivo histological findings demonstrated that, using the EB procedure, the tubular 3D triple antibiotic-eluting construct allowed the formation of an appropriate environment that led to apex closure and the ingrowth of a thin layer of osteodentin-like tissue into the root canal. Taken together, these findings indicate that our novel drug delivery construct is a promising biocompatible disinfection strategy for immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulps. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 107B: 1576-1586, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.34250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447484PMC
July 2019

Introduction to the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology focus issue on "Preneoplastic oral epithelial lesions".

Authors:
Paul C Edwards

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2018 06 6;125(6):574. Epub 2018 Apr 6.

Section Editor, Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology; Professor, Dept. of Oral Pathology, Medicine, and Radiology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2018.04.001DOI Listing
June 2018

OOOO and related journals: an opportunity to guide the dental school curriculum and reinforce the relationship between biomedical science education and dental practice?

Authors:
Paul C Edwards

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2018 06 29;125(6):508-509. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Section Editor, Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology; Editor, American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology; Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, Indiana.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2017.12.005DOI Listing
June 2018

Is it time to extend synoptic reporting to include potentially preneoplastic oral epithelial and lichenoid lesions?

Authors:
Paul C Edwards

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2017 08 8;124(2):105-106. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Section Editor, Editor, American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2017.05.505DOI Listing
August 2017

Should Dental Schools Train Dentists to Routinely Provide Limited Preventive Primary Medical Care? Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Dentists Should Be Trained to Routinely Provide Limited Preventive Primary Care and Viewpoint 2: Dentists Should Be Trained in Primary Care Medicine to Enable Comprehensive Patient Management Within Their Scope of Practice.

J Dent Educ 2017 May;81(5):561-570

Dr. Giddon is Professor of Developmental Biology Emeritus, Harvard School of Dental Medicine; Dr. Donoff is Dean, Harvard School of Dental Medicine; Dr. Edwards is Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine, and Radiology, Indiana University School of Dentistry; and Dr. Goldblatt is Dean Emeritus and Professor Emeritus, Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine, and Radiology, Indiana University School of Dentistry.

This Point/Counterpoint acknowledges the transformation of dental practice from a predominantly technically based profession with primary emphasis on restoration of the tooth and its supporting structures to that of a more medically based specialty focusing on the oral and maxillofacial complex. While both viewpoints accept the importance of this transformation, they differ on the ultimate desired outcome and how changes should be implemented during training of dentists as oral health professionals. Viewpoint 1 argues that, in response to a shortage of both primary care providers and access to affordable oral health care, dentists need to be able and willing to provide limited preventive primary care (LPPC), and dental educators should develop and implement training models to prepare them. Among changes proposed are consideration of three types of practitioners: oral physicians with sufficient training to provide LPPC; dentists with excellent technical proficiency but minimal medical and surgical training; and mid-level providers to provide simple restorative and uncomplicated surgical care. Viewpoint 2 argues that the objective of dentists' education in primary care medicine is to help them safely and effectively provide all aspects of oral health care, including appropriate preventive medical care, that already fall within their scope of knowledge and practice. Dental educators should encourage students to use this knowledge to take full ownership of non-tooth-related pathologic conditions of the oral and maxillofacial complex not currently managed in the dental setting, but encouraging graduates to expand into non-dental LPPC outside the recognized scope of practice will only further exacerbate fragmentation of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21815/JDE.016.023DOI Listing
May 2017

Welcoming ambiguity in dental medicine-an opportunity for curricular development?

Authors:
Paul C Edwards

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2017 Mar 24;123(3):281-282. Epub 2016 Dec 24.

Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Section Editor, Editor, American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indiana, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2016.12.006DOI Listing
March 2017

Combined DOG1 and Mammaglobin Immunohistochemistry Is Comparable to ETV6-breakapart Analysis for Differentiating Between Papillary Cystic Variants of Acinic Cell Carcinoma and Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma.

Int J Surg Pathol 2017 Apr 26;25(2):127-140. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

5 Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology Indiana University School of DentistryIndianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: We investigated the reliability of combined DOG1 and mammaglobin immunohistochemistry compared with ETV6 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the assessment of salivary tumors previously diagnosed as acinic cell carcinoma (ACC). Ultrastructural features of cases reclassified as mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) were assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Methods: Immunohistochemical (IHC) reactivity to DOG1 and mammaglobin was validated against FISH targeting the ETV6 gene in all 14 cases.

Results: Three cases with papillary cystic histomorphology previously diagnosed as ACC were revised to MASC. TEM features of the ETV6 rearrangement-positive MASC cases showed large numbers of secretory granules with extrusion into the intercellular spaces, well-developed endoplasmic reticulum, lipid-laden vacuoles, well-formed microvilli, and large lining cystic spaces.

Conclusions: Combined DOG1 and mammaglobin immunohistochemistry is comparable to ETV6 -breakapart analysis for differentiating between papillary cystic variants of ACC and MASC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1066896916670005DOI Listing
April 2017

Introduction to the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology focus issue on oral submucous fibrosis.

Authors:
Paul C Edwards

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2016 Aug;122(2):176

Section Editor, Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine, and Radiology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2016.07.002DOI Listing
August 2016

Case reports: the perils of offering treatment recommendations that have not been critically appraised.

Authors:
Paul C Edwards

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2016 Aug;122(2):115-6

Section editor, Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2016.05.016DOI Listing
August 2016

The Patient Educator Presentation in Dental Education: Reinforcing the Importance of Learning About Rare Conditions.

J Dent Educ 2016 May;80(5):533-41

Dr. Edwards is Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine, and Radiology, Indiana University School of Dentistry; Ms. Graham is Content and Curriculum Intern, International Pemphigus & Pemphigoid Foundation, Sacramento, CA; Ms. Oling is Coordinator of Instruction and Literature Librarian, Purchase College, State University of New York; and Ms. Frantz is Awareness Program Manager, International Pemphigus & Pemphigoid Foundation.

The aim of this study was to determine whether a patient educator presentation (PEP) on pemphigus vulgaris would increase second-year dental students' awareness of the importance of learning about rare conditions and improve their retention of rare disease knowledge. The study involved students' subjective assessments of a PEP experience at two U.S. dental schools. In this mixed methods study, cross-sectional data were obtained by surveys and in-depth interviews. Questions focused on students' assessment of the messages acquired from the PEP and its likely impact on their future clinical care. At University 1, students completed paper surveys with open-ended questions and participated in a focus group. At University 2, students completed an online survey consisting of rating scale and open-ended questions. Responses to open-ended questions were categorized into themes. At University 1, 79 students (out of a possible 102; response rate 77.5%) completed the survey, and an additional ten students participated in a focus group. At University 2, 30 students (out of a possible 104; response rate 28.8%) completed the survey. At Universities 1 and 2, 88% and 100%, respectively, of respondents stated the PEP would influence their future clinical decision making. The vast majority of respondents (94% and 100% at University 1 and University 2, respectively) were of the opinion that the personal testimonial from a patient would help them recall information about pemphigus vulgaris in five years' time. Respondents from both universities commented that the PEP emphasized the importance of not dismissing a patient's concerns. These results suggest that a presentation by a patient with a rare condition can be an effective educational tool for preclinical dental students.
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May 2016

Patient support and advocacy organizations: partners in promoting awareness and improving the lives of patients with oral and maxillofacial disease.

Authors:
Paul C Edwards

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2016 Mar 19;121(3):203-4. Epub 2015 Dec 19.

Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2015.12.001DOI Listing
March 2016

Foreign Body Gingivitis.

J Mich Dent Assoc 2015 Mar;97(3):44-7

Foreign body gingivitis (FBG) is a non-plaque induced chronic inflammatory process involving the marginal and/or attached gingiva. It results from the introduction of foreign particulate material, primarily dental prophylaxis paste and restorative dental materials, into the gingival tissues. Clinical presentation varies from an erythematous to vesiculoerosive-like process that may mimic a localized form of desquamative gingivitis or an erosive lichenoid process. Rarely, it may also present with a granular appearance. We describe the clinical presentation, differential diagnosis and clinical management of a 52-year-old Woman who presented with localized chronic inflammation of the maxillary anterior and left posterior gingiva secondary to the presence of foreign material.
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March 2015

The Title: It Really Does Matter.

Authors:
Paul C Edwards

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2015 Aug 29;120(2):97-8. Epub 2015 May 29.

Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine, and Radiology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA; Section Editor, Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2015.05.010DOI Listing
August 2015

Development of a mobile device optimized cross platform-compatible oral pathology and radiology spaced repetition system for dental education.

J Dent Educ 2015 Apr;79(4):439-47

Dr. Al-Rawi is Adjunct Instructor, Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry; Ms. Easterling is Instructional Technology Consultant, Center for Teaching and Learning, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis; and Dr. Edwards is Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine, and Radiology, Indiana University School of Dentistry.

Combining active recall testing with spaced repetition increases memory retention. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare students' perception and utilization of an electronic spaced repetition oral pathology-radiology system in dental hygiene education and predoctoral dental education. The study employed an open-source suite of applications to create electronic "flashcards" that can be individually adjusted for frequency of repetition, depending on a user's assessment of difficulty. Accessible across multiple platforms (iOS, Android, Linux, OSX, Windows) as well as via any web-based browser, this framework was used to develop an oral radiology-oral pathology database of case-based questions. This system was introduced in two courses: sophomore oral pathology for dental students and sophomore radiology for dental hygiene students. Students were provided free software and/or mobile tablet devices as well as a database of 300 electronic question cards. Study participants were surveyed on frequency and extent of use. Perception-based surveys were used to evaluate their attitudes towards this technology. Of the eligible students, 12 of 22 (54.5%) dental hygiene and 49 of 107 (45.8%) dental students responded to the surveys. Adoption rates and student feedback were compared between the two groups. Among the respondents, acceptance of this technology with respect to educational usefulness was similar for the dental and dental hygiene students (median=5 on a five-point scale; dental hygiene interquartile range (IQR)=0; dental IQR=1). Only a minority of the survey respondents (25% dental, 33% dental hygiene) took advantage of one of the main benefits of this technology: automated spaced repetition.
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April 2015

Second opinion reporting in head and neck pathology: perspective on Mullin et al.

Authors:
Paul C Edwards

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2015 Jun 20;119(6):599-600. Epub 2015 Jan 20.

Section Editor, Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2015.01.002DOI Listing
June 2015

The future of dental education: toward disruptive innovation or incremental improvements?

Authors:
Paul C Edwards

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2015 Mar 6;119(3):257-9. Epub 2015 Jan 6.

Section Editor, Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2014.12.006DOI Listing
March 2015

Small cell carcinoma in the parotid harboring Merkel cell polyomavirus.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2014 Dec 17;118(6):703-12. Epub 2014 Sep 17.

School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Electronic address:

Objective: This study aimed to document three new cases of primary small cell carcinoma (SmCC) of the parotid and examine immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data of the recently developed Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) within these tumors.

Study Design: Immunohistochemistry for neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin A, CD56, CD57, neuron-specific enolase [NSE], thyroid transcription factor 1 [TTF-1]), epithelial markers (CK20, CK7, CAM 5.2), and MCPyV large T antigen (LTAg) were examined. qPCR and Sanger sequencing were performed to confirm the presence of the MCPyV LTAg gene.

Results: Two males and one female, average age 76 years, presented with left parotid masses. Clinical examinations, histories, and imaging studies were negative for cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), pulmonary and extrapulmonary SmCC, or any other malignancy. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for CK20 in a perinuclear dotlike pattern (3/3), CAM 5.2 (3/3), (2/3), NSE (3/3), CD56 (2/3), and CD57 (3/3). Two cases stained positive for MCPyV, showing moderate to strong, diffuse positivity, confirmed with qPCR. PCR-Sanger sequencing of LTAg exon 2 showed greater than 97% similarity to the MCPyV reference genome in both cases.

Conclusion: Our findings expand the number of reported cases classified as primary parotid SmCC that harbors MCPyV and underscore the similarity between cutaneous MCC and parotid SmCC. Further investigation is needed to determine whether immune-based therapeutic strategies targeting MCPyV in MCC are also effective in the setting of parotid SmCC harboring MCPyV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2014.09.012DOI Listing
December 2014

Proteomic profiling of salivary gland after nonviral gene transfer mediated by conventional plasmids and minicircles.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2014 ;1:14007

Gene Therapy Program, Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

In this study, we compared gene transfer efficiency and host response to ultrasound-assisted, nonviral gene transfer with a conventional plasmid and a minicircle vector in the submandibular salivary glands of mice. Initially, we looked at gene transfer efficiency with equimolar amounts of the plasmid and minicircle vectors, corroborating an earlier report showing that minicircle is more efficient in the context of a physical method of gene transfer. We then sought to characterize the physiological response of the salivary gland to exogenous gene transfer using global proteomic profiling. Somewhat surprisingly, we found that sonoporation alone, without a gene transfer vector present, had virtually no effect on the salivary gland proteome. However, when a plasmid vector was used, we observed profound perturbations of the salivary gland proteome that compared in magnitude to that seen in a previous report after high doses of AAV. Finally, we found that gene transfer with a minicircle induces only minor proteomic alterations that were similar to sonoporation alone. Using mass spectrometry, we assigned protein IDs to 218 gel spots that differed between plasmid and minicircle. Bioinformatic analysis of these proteins demonstrated convergence on 68 known protein interaction pathways, most notably those associated with innate immunity, cellular stress, and morphogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mtm.2014.7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4236002PMC
January 2014

"Expanding" the scope of practice of dental medicine for tomorrow's dental graduate: a unique role for our combined specialties.

Authors:
Paul C Edwards

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2014 Aug 2;118(2):143-5. Epub 2014 Jun 2.

Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine, and Radiology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 1121 W Michigan St, Room S110, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5186. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2014.05.012DOI Listing
August 2014

Nonmedical use of pain medications in dental patients.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2014 Jul;40(4):312-6

Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University , Bowling Green , Ohio .

Background: Substance use is overrepresented in dental clinics that provide affordable care and dental clinics provide potential access to opioid analgesics. Research is needed to better understand prescription opioid misuse in this population.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of the misuse of prescription opioids in adults seeking dental care from a low-cost dental training clinic.

Methods: Patients were recruited from a university school's dentistry patient emergency and admission services clinic. Patients (n = 369) within the waiting area of the clinic completed a self-report questionnaire about their nonmedical use of prescription pain medications, medication diversion and use of substances.

Results: Approximately 37.9% (140/369) of those who completed the study survey reported at least some nonmedical use of pain medications within the past 30 days. Use was associated with diversion of medication, and use of tobacco, marijuana, and sedatives.

Conclusions: Within this sample from a dental clinic, nonmedical use of prescription pain medications was more common than in the general population. This suggests that dental clinics may be an appropriate setting for provider education and patient-based intervention strategies to reduce nonmedical use of pain medications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00952990.2014.930152DOI Listing
July 2014

Multiple simple bone cysts of the jaws: review of the literature and report of three cases.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2014 Jun 15;117(6):e458-69. Epub 2014 Mar 15.

Associate Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study contributes three well-documented cases of multiple simple bone cysts (SBCs) of the jaws and reviews previously published cases.

Study Design: A comprehensive literature search of multiple SBCs was conducted using the PubMed database. Synonyms of SBC were used as search key words in combination with "mandible or jaw," "bilateral, multiple, multifocal, atypical, and unusual."

Results: A total of 34 cases of multiple SBCs (including two asynchronous cases) were identified, including the three new cases reported here. Multiple SBCs primarily occurred in the second decade (52.9%) and bilaterally in the posterior mandible. Lesions demonstrated female predominance (1.8:1) and were frequently accompanied by bony expansion (44.1%) and a multilocular radiolucent appearance (20.6 %). Recurrence was reported in three patients (mean age: 39.3 years old).

Conclusion: Knowledge of the clinical and radiographic features of multiple SBCs is important in the diagnosis and management of this entity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2014.03.004DOI Listing
June 2014

The natural history of oral epithelial dysplasia: perspective on Dost et al.

Authors:
Paul C Edwards

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2014 Mar 20;117(3):263-6. Epub 2013 Dec 20.

Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, Indiana University School of Dentistry.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2013.12.399DOI Listing
March 2014

Image quality: it really does matter.

Authors:
Paul C Edwards

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2013 Nov;116(5):525-7

Section Editor, Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, Indiana University, 1121 West Michigan St Room S110, Indianapolis IN 46202-5186. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2013.08.007DOI Listing
November 2013

Toward monotasking in the dental school classroom?

Authors:
Paul C Edwards

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2013 Mar;115(3):285-7

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2012.12.005DOI Listing
March 2013
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