Publications by authors named "Paul Burr"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Diagnostic accuracy of the interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) for cases of feline mycobacteriosis.

Prev Vet Med 2021 Aug 8;193:105409. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and The Roslin Institute, The University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, EH25 9RG, United Kingdom.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) for diagnosing infections with members of the Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis-complex (MTBC) and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in domestic cats, and to generate defined feline-specific cut-off values using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to improve test performance. Records of 594 cats that had been tested by IGRA were explored to identify individuals that had a culture and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed case of mycobacterial disease, and those that had a final diagnosis of non-mycobacterial disease. A total of 117 cats - 80 with mycobacterial disease and 37 diagnosed with a condition other than mycobacteriosis - were identified for further detailed analysis. This population was used to estimate test sensitivity and specificity, as well as likelihood ratios for the IGRA to correctly identify a cat with or without mycobacterial disease. Agreement between IGRA results and culture/PCR using current and proposed new cut-off values was also determined. ROC analysis of defined confirmed infected and non-mycobacterial disease control cats allowed an adjustment of current test cut-offs that increased the overall test sensitivity for MTBC infections from 83.1 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 71.5-90.5 %) to 90.2 % (95 % CI: 80.2-95.4%), and M. bovis infection from 43 % (95 % CI: 28.2-60.7%) to 68 % (95 % CI: 51.4-82.1%) while maintaining high test specificity (100 % in both cases). Overall agreement between IGRA results and culture/PCR, while recognising that neither culture nor PCR tests have perfect sensitivity, improved from weak (κ = 0.57) to moderate (κ = 0.71) using new proposed IGRA test cut-off values. Application of these results, based upon the statistical analysis of accumulated test data, can improve the diagnostic performance of the feline IGRA, particularly for identifying infections with M. bovis, without compromising specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2021.105409DOI Listing
August 2021

Serial Interferon-Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) Testing to Monitor Treatment Responses in Cases of Feline Mycobacteriosis.

Pathogens 2021 May 26;10(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and The Roslin Institute, Easter Bush Campus, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK.

The interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is used to diagnose cases of feline mycobacteriosis, but the use of serial testing to monitor treatment responses has not been evaluated in this species. From a population of cats that underwent IGRA testing for diagnostic investigation, individuals were identified with a pre- and end-of-treatment IGRA that passed control thresholds. The number of cats which reverted to negative at the end-of-treatment IGRA, changes in paired antigen-specific optical density (OD) values and differences in the pre-treatment antigen-specific OD values for those which underwent reversion were compared. Factors to explain reversion or recurrence of disease post-treatment were explored. Four of 18 cats (22%) reverted to negativity at the point of clinical resolution ( = 0.33), there was no difference in paired antigen-specific OD values ( ≥ 0.12), and cats that reverted did not have a lower baseline OD value ( = 0.63). No statistically significant factors were identified to predict reversion ( ≥ 0.08). Remaining positive at the end of treatment IGRA was not associated with recurrence of disease post-treatment ( = 0.34). Overall, these data suggest there is limited value in the use of the IGRA to monitor treatment responses in cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8226617PMC
May 2021

Feline tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis infection of domestic UK cats associated with feeding a commercial raw food diet.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jul 7;68(4):2308-2320. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Mycobacterium (M.) bovis can infect cats and is a demonstrated zoonosis. We describe an outbreak of M. bovis in pet cats across England and Scotland associated with feeding a commercial raw food diet. Forty-seven cats presented with (pyo)granulomatous lesions, lymphadenopathy, pulmonary and/or alimentary disease over a one-year period where M. bovis infection was suspected or definitively diagnosed, and the cats all consumed the same specific brand of commercial raw venison pet food. Infection with M. bovis genotype 10:a was confirmed by culture and DNA typing of isolates in a small number of cases (n = 5); PCR was used in combination with or as an alternative to culture (n = 12) and/or infection with a Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex group organism was strongly suggested by positive responses to an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA; n = 34). Asymptomatic at-risk cats were screened by IGRA, identifying a further 83 infected cats. The five culture-positive cases were distributed across areas of England and Scotland at low risk of endemic bovine tuberculosis. Investigations revealed affected cats were mainly indoor-only, and had been fed the same commercial raw food as at least part of their diet. This diet was recalled by the manufacturer due to failure of statutory meat inspection of the component venison. As far as possible, other sources of infection were explored and excluded, including wildlife contact, access to raw milk and living with people with active M. bovis infection. Four owners and one veterinary surgeon were found to have high likelihood of latent tuberculosis infection. One owner required treatment. Although it was not possible to conclusively demonstrate a zoonotic origin for these infections, neither was it possible to eliminate the possibility. Our results provide compelling evidence that the commercial raw diet of these cats was the likely route of M. bovis infection in this outbreak of cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13889DOI Listing
July 2021

CONSERVATION CHALLENGES: THE LIMITATIONS OF ANTEMORTEM TUBERCULOSIS TESTING IN CAPTIVE ASIATIC LIONS ().

J Zoo Wildl Med 2020 Jun;51(2):426-432

School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, LE12 5RD, United Kingdom.

Genetic diversity of captive wild animals can be enhanced by moving those individuals with valuable genes between collections and through introduction of a new pair from a range country. This requires movement of animals, which is inherent with disease risks, such as the introduction of pathogenic sp. (MTBC) into a zoological collection. Decisions need to be made based on the outcome of perimovement disease screening using an array of tests, the majority of which are unvalidated in the species. A pair of endangered Asiatic lions () imported from India to the United Kingdom were screened for MTBC using the comparative intradermal tuberculosis (TB) test, the feline interferon-γ blood test, and the experimental bacteriophage assay. Reactions on all three tests prompted screening of the three resident Asiatic lions using the same tests, all of which were negative for MTBC. Based on these test results, the decision had to be made to exclude the genetically valuable pair from the current collection. MTBC could not be identified using further tests, including culture and PCR on a bronchoalveolar lavage, on feces, or on postmortem tissues. This case series highlights the usefulness of a control group when interpreting unvalidated test results for detection of MTBC, the value of training big cats for conscious blood sampling, and the practical implications of placing the comparative intradermal TB test in the eyelids, when dealing with a species that requires a general anesthetic for most hands-on interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2019-0084DOI Listing
June 2020

Fine scale characteristics of catfish aquaculture ponds influencing piscivorous avian species foraging use in the Mississippi Delta.

PLoS One 2020 26;15(2):e0229402. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Mississippi Field Station, National Wildlife Research Center, Wildlife Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Mississippi, Mississippi State, United States of America.

Piscivorous avian species are the main source of catfish depredation at aquaculture facilities in Mississippi, resulting in the economic loss of millions of dollars every year. Most notable of these avian species are the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and great egret (A. alba). Understanding why these species select specific ponds can increase management efficiency directed at avian dispersal and provide insight into their decision making with respect to foraging behavior. We collected species presence data on catfish ponds by flying 35 surveys from October through April of 2015-2017, during which an average of 973 catfish ponds were observed each year. We collected data associated with each pond's physical surroundings and contents and used occupancy modeling to determine their influence on avian occupancy probability. We also collected data associated with stocking practices and catfish health on a subset of ponds, and constructed resource selection functions to model their influence on avian presence. Pond area was positively related to occupancy probability of each species. Cormorant occupancy increased as pond distance from forest cover and activity centers, such as workshops and offices, increased. Distance to nearest activity center was positively related to egret occupancy, while distance to nearest forested area was negative. Ponds containing diseased catfish had an increased probability of use by both herons and egrets. In general, cormorants and egrets showed greater probability of use on the periphery of pond clusters. The abundance of catfish was positively related to cormorant and heron presence. Specific pond contents and characteristics influenced presence of each avian species in different ways, including fish species cultured, production methods, pond systems, and fish types. Many pond selection relationships were species-specific, illustrating inherent differences in their foraging ecology. Consequently, specific management actions aimed to reduce avian presence will depend on the targeted species.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0229402PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7043738PMC
May 2020

Feline mycobacterial infections.

Vet Rec 2019 09;185(11):347-348

Biobest Laboratories, 6 Charles Darwin House, The Edinburgh Technopole, Milton Bridge, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0PY.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.l5594DOI Listing
September 2019

Evidence of species and their significance during reintroduction of Eurasian beavers ( ) to Great Britain.

Vet Rec 2019 10 29;185(15):482. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Conservation Department, Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, Edinburgh, UK.

The Scottish Beaver Trial (SBT) reintroduced the Eurasian beaver () in 2009 using wild-caught Norwegian beavers. This included a six-month prerelease quarantine in Devon, England. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and government guidelines for health screening were followed, including testing for species. Unlicensed beavers, from Germany, were also identified in Scotland (Tayside) and Devon (later forming the River Otter Beaver Trial (ROBT)) and were health-screened under licence. Due to positive species results and lack of prerelease screening in ROBT and Tayside, beavers from Germany and Norway (range sources) were screened. One hundred and fifty-six samples from 151 beavers were analysed by species quantitative PCR (qPCR) (n=73 kidney (postmortem)/urine samples (antemortem)) or microscopic agglutination test (MAT, pools 1-6) (n=83 serum samples). No beavers from Norway (95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 0-5.6 per cent, n=52), Tayside or SBT postrelease (95 per cent CI 0-4.6 per cent, n=63) tested positive. Seven beavers from Germany and Devon were positive. This gives an overall 9.3 per cent (95 per cent CI 5.2-15.1 per cent) exposure level, of which 4.6 per cent (95 per cent CI 1.9-9.3 per cent) suggested infection on a positive qPCR (n=1) or MAT titre of at least 1/400 (n=6), although none had abnormal physical, biochemical or haematological changes. This study suggests that species infection in wild Eurasian beavers occurs at a low level, has no sex bias and does not appear to cause significant morbidity or mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.105429DOI Listing
October 2019

Tuberculosis due to in pet cats associated with feeding a commercial raw food diet.

J Feline Med Surg 2019 08 13;21(8):667-681. Epub 2019 May 13.

1 Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Objectives: , a member of the complex, can infect cats and has proven zoonotic risks for owners. Infected cats typically present with a history of outdoor lifestyle and hunting behaviour, and cutaneous granulomas are most commonly observed. The aim of this study is to describe an outbreak of tuberculous disease commencing with six young cats, living exclusively indoors in five different households across England, being presented to separate veterinarians across the UK with a variety of clinical signs.

Methods: Investigations into the pyogranulomatous lesions, lymphadenopathy and/or pulmonary disease of these cases consistently identified infection with . Infection was confirmed by PCR, where possible, or was indicated with a positive interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), where material for PCR was unavailable. In-contact, cohabiting cats were screened by IGRA and follow-up testing was undertaken/advised where results were positive. A lifestyle investigation was undertaken to identify the source of infection.

Results: Six clinically sick cats and seven in-contact cats were identified with evidence of infection. Five clinical cases were either too sick to treat or deteriorated despite therapy, giving a mortality rate of 83%. Lifestyle investigations revealed the common factors between clusters to be that affected cats had mycobacterial infections speciated to , were exclusively indoor cats and were fed a commercially available raw food product produced by a single manufacturer. The Food Standards Agency, Animal & Plant Health Agency, Public Health England and the food manufacturer concerned have been notified/informed. Other possible sources of exposure for these cats to were explored and were excluded, including wildlife contact, access to raw milk, the presence of rodent populations inside the buildings in which the cats lived and exposure to known infectious humans.

Conclusions And Relevance: Upon investigations, our results provide compelling, if circumstantial, evidence of an association between the commercial raw diet of these cats and their infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X19848455DOI Listing
August 2019

An outbreak of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis infection in a pack of English Foxhounds (2016-2017).

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 30;65(6):1872-1884. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, UK.

Mycobacterium bovis can cause tuberculosis (TB) in social mammals including lions, cattle and man, but canine infections are considered rare. In 2016/17 we investigated a M. bovis TB outbreak in a pack of approximately 180 Foxhounds within the bovine TB Edge Area of England. We employed a combination of immunological tests including an interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) and a serological assay (DPP VetTB, Chembio). Test-positive hounds were euthanased and subjected to post-mortem examination (PME). Overall 164 hounds were tested; 97 (59%) responded positively to at least one test. Eighty-five (52%) dogs responded to M. bovis antigens by IGRA while only 21 (12.9%) had detectable serological responses. At PME three hounds (3.1%) had visible lesions (VL) due to M. bovis infection, later confirmed by culture. Samples from 24 non-VL hounds were cultured and M. bovis infection was confirmed in a further three hounds (11%). This study is the first investigation and report of an outbreak of M. bovis TB in a canine species. We establish that, in principle, diagnostic tests used for identifying infected individuals of other species can effectively be used in the dog. Further work is urgently needed to establish the sensitivity and specificity of the testing approach used in this study for future clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282731PMC
December 2018

Sharp-Tailed Grouse Nest Survival and Nest Predator Habitat Use in North Dakota's Bakken Oil Field.

PLoS One 2017 12;12(1):e0170177. Epub 2017 Jan 12.

Department of Biology, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, United States of America.

Recent advancements in extraction technologies have resulted in rapid increases of gas and oil development across the United States and specifically in western North Dakota. This expansion of energy development has unknown influences on local wildlife populations and the ecological interactions within and among species. Our objectives for this study were to evaluate nest success and nest predator dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) in two study sites that represented areas of high and low energy development intensities in North Dakota. During the summers of 2012 and 2013, we monitored 163 grouse nests using radio telemetry. Of these, 90 nests also were monitored using miniature cameras to accurately determine nest fates and identify nest predators. We simultaneously conducted predator surveys using camera scent stations and occupancy modeling to estimate nest predator occurrence at each site. American badgers (Taxidea taxus) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were the primary nest predators, accounting for 56.7% of all video recorded nest depredations. Nests in our high intensity gas and oil area were 1.95 times more likely to succeed compared to our minimal intensity area. Camera monitored nests were 2.03 times more likely to succeed than non-camera monitored nests. Occupancy of mammalian nest predators was 6.9 times more likely in our study area of minimal gas and oil intensity compared to the high intensity area. Although only a correlative study, our results suggest energy development may alter the predator community, thereby increasing nest success for sharp-tailed grouse in areas of intense development, while adjacent areas may have increased predator occurrence and reduced nest success. Our study illustrates the potential influences of energy development on the nest predator-prey dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse in western North Dakota and the complexity of evaluating such impacts on wildlife.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0170177PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5231376PMC
August 2017

Utility of feline coronavirus antibody tests.

J Feline Med Surg 2015 Feb 25;17(2):152-62. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

Clinical Laboratory, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Eight different tests for antibodies to feline coronavirus (FCoV) were evaluated for attributes that are important in situations in veterinary practice. We compared four indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT), one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (FCoV Immunocomb; Biogal) and three rapid immunochromatographic (RIM) tests against a panel of samples designated by consensus as positive or negative. Specificity was 100% for all but the two IFATs based on transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), at 83.3% and 97.5%. The IFAT and ELISA tests were best for obtaining an antibody titre and for working in the presence of virus. The RIM tests were the best for obtaining a result quickly (10-15 mins); of these, the Speed F-Corona was the most sensitive, at 92.4%, followed by FASTest feline infectious peritonitis (FIP; 84.6%) and Anigen Rapid FCoV antibody test (64.1%). Sensitivity was 100% for the ELISA, one FCoV IFAT and one TGEV IFAT; and 98.2% for a second TGEV IFA and 96.1% for a second FCoV IFAT. All tests worked with effusions, even when only blood products were stipulated in the instruction manual. The ELISA and Anigen RIM tests were best for small quantities of sample. The most appropriate FCoV antibody test to use depends on the reason for testing: in excluding a diagnosis of FIP, sensitivity, specificity, small sample quantity, rapidity and ability to work in the presence of virus all matter. For FCoV screening, speed and sensitivity are important, and for FCoV elimination antibody titre is essential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X14538873DOI Listing
February 2015

Direct RT-PCR from serum enables fast and cost-effective phylogenetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhoea virus.

J Virol Methods 2013 Jun 26;190(1-2):1-3. Epub 2013 Mar 26.

Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0PZ, UK.

Studies of the molecular epidemiology of viral diseases are dependent on the analysis of large numbers of samples from infected individuals, and the assembly of relevant sequence databases are a prerequisite to investigate chains of infection. As part of research in support of the Scottish BVDV eradication campaign, we have established a direct RT-PCR method for the high throughput amplification and analysis of the informative 5'-untranslated region of the BVDV genome. Heat-treatment followed by a one-step RT-PCR, performed in 96-well plates, produced sufficient material for sequence analysis from 0.5 μl of serum or plasma. Of 93 samples assayed, only five failed to give full sequence data for the region amplified and these were subsequently successfully analysed in single tube format reactions. This approach improved the speed of analysis, reduced costs, operator time and the potential for contamination, and may allow analysis of samples for which volumes are too low for conventional RNA isolation. It also has the potential for wider application in both human and animal disease research in which high throughput and low cost would increase the size of datasets that can be obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2013.03.015DOI Listing
June 2013

Samples with high virus load cause a trend toward lower signal in feline coronavirus antibody tests.

J Feline Med Surg 2013 Apr 6;15(4):295-9. Epub 2012 Dec 6.

University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Measurement of feline coronavirus (FCoV) antibody titres is utilised mainly for diagnosing feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and for quarantine purposes. However, occasional samples show a falsely low or negative FCoV antibody test. We tested the hypothesis that such results are due to virus in the sample binding antibody and rendering it unavailable to antigen in the test. Thirteen effusions, one plasma and three undefined samples from cats with FIP, which gave unexpectedly low FCoV antibody titres, were examined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Increasing amounts of virus correlated with lower signals in indirect immunoflourescent, enzyme-linked immunosorbent asssay and rapid immunomigration antibody tests. However, five samples were negative by RT-PCR, so the presence of virus alone may not explain all cases of false-negative FCoV antibody tests, although it is a possible explanation in 71% of discordant samples. We conclude that falsely low or negative FCoV antibody tests can occur in samples rich in virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X12467995DOI Listing
April 2013

Schmallenberg virus milk antibody ELISA.

Vet Rec 2012 Nov;171(20):511-2

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.e7739DOI Listing
November 2012

Quarantine protects Falkland Islands (Malvinas) cats from feline coronavirus infection.

J Feline Med Surg 2012 Feb;14(2):171-6

Institute Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, UK.

Feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Since 2002, when 20 cats on the Falkland Islands were found to be FCoV seronegative, only seronegative cats could be imported. Between 2005-2007, 95 pet and 10 feral cats tested negative by indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) analysis using two strains of type II FCoV, two transmissible gastroenteritis virus assays, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and rapid immunomigration test. Twenty-four samples (23%) showed non-specific fluorescence, mostly attributable to anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). The reason for ANA was unclear: reactive samples were negative for Erhlichia canis antibodies; seven were feline immunodeficiency virus positive, but 15 were negative. It was not possible to determine retrospectively whether the cats had autoimmune disease, hyperthyroidism treatment, or recent vaccination which may also cause ANA. The FCoV/ FIP-free status of the Falkland Islands cats should be maintained by FCoV testing incoming cats. However, ANA can complicate interpretation of IFA tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X11429644DOI Listing
February 2012

Future of PETS.

Vet Rec 2010 Mar;166(12):373

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.c1504DOI Listing
March 2010

Serological testing--an alternative to boosters?

Authors:
Paul Burr

Vet Microbiol 2006 Oct 18;117(1):39-42. Epub 2006 Apr 18.

BioBest Laboratories Ltd., Pentlands Science Park, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0PZ, United Kingdom.

The issue of the duration of immunity, particularly for the modified live viral components of veterinary vaccines, has been a significant part of the recent vaccination debate. One manufacturer has increased the recommended booster interval for these components to 3 years give name and another now states 'up to 4 years' immunity. There remain many unanswered questions regarding this duration of immunity (DOI). Studies suitable for data sheet claims are time consuming and costly and can only be performed in laboratory dogs under tightly controlled conditions. Evidence from rabies serology testing in the UK shows that the response of individual animals to routine vaccination is highly variable. Much of the published field evidence on the persistence of antibody titres originates from North America, where vaccination strategies and reservoir species differ from Europe. Quantifying the effect of exposure to field virus on the maintenance of immunity in these studies is impossible, and little is known of the circulation of virus in unvaccinated dogs and wild mammals throughout Europe. If owners or vets are concerned about revaccination one option is to assess the need for each booster by performing a blood test. There is some published evidence of the relationship between antibody titres and protective immunity, and tests are available to measure responses to individual viral components of the routine canine and feline vaccines. It must be remembered that most commercial tests to assess immunity only measure antibodies, which are only one aspect of the immune response to vaccination. It is therefore possible that animals without or with low antibody titres are in fact protected. Serological tests are an option if owners are unwilling to have their animal boostered without evidence that it is needed. However, the cost of these tests is likely to exceed that of booster vaccination for the foreseeable future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.04.008DOI Listing
October 2006

Expression of cell cycle associated proteins cyclin A, CDK-2, p27kip1 and p53 in equine sarcoids.

Cancer Lett 2005 Apr;221(2):237-45

Division of Pathological Sciences, Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH, Scotland, UK.

Equine sarcoids are benign fibroblastic skin tumours affecting equids worldwide. Whilst the pathogenesis is not entirely understood, infection with Bovine Papillomavirus (BPV) types 1 and 2 has been implicated as a major factor in the disease process, however the mechanism by which BPV infection contributes to sarcoid pathology is not clear. In this study, we show that the majority of sarcoids express the BPV-1 major transforming gene E6. Further, we demonstrate that sarcoid lesions are not associated with high levels of cellular proliferation as assessed by Ki67 expression or with expression of cell cycle regulators CDK-2, cyclin A and p27kip1. Our analysis of p53 shows that a subset of sarcoids are associated with abnormal cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of p53 and that the transactivation function of p53 is compromised in cells with cytoplasmic p53.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2004.08.039DOI Listing
April 2005

Testing for equine arteritis virus.

Vet Rec 2003 May;152(20):636

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May 2003
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