Publications by authors named "Paul A Nakonezny"

103 Publications

Anticoagulation in Elective Spine Cases: Rates of Hematomas Versus Thromboembolic Disease.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Jul;46(13):901-906

The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study with propensity matched cohorts.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of anticoagulation with VTE and hematoma complications after spine surgery.

Summary Of Background Data: One of the major complications of surgery is VTE which can range in presentation. Spine surgery is an especially complex balance between minimizing the risk of a VTE event and also the increased risk of a hematoma which can lead to devastating neurological outcomes.

Methods: The elective spine surgery cases at a single academic center between 2015 and 2017 were identified. A total of 3790 patients were initially identified. Two hundred sixty patients were excluded. The cohort was then matched using a propensity score. This matched a single patient who did not receive anticoagulation to a single patient who did within the institution. This left a total of 1776 patients with 888 patients in each arm.

Results: The incidence of VTE, PE, and unplanned reoperation for hematoma in this cohort was 0.96%, 0.34%, and 1.13%, respectively. Predicted odds of VTE and PE were not significantly different; however, the odds of an unplanned reoperation for hematoma (odds ratio [OR] = 7.535, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.004-28.340, P = 0.002) were greater for those who received pharmacological anticoagulation in our institutional cohort.

Conclusion: In this study, anticoagulation does not lead to lower rates of VTE events, but it increases the risk of symptomatic hematomas which require a return trip to the OR. While this was not a randomized controlled trial, we attempted to correct for this with propensity matching. Future randomized control trials would be needed.Level of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003935DOI Listing
July 2021

An exploratory study of clinical and physiological correlates of problematic social media use in adolescents.

Psychiatry Res 2021 May 19;302:114020. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology and Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States. Electronic address:

Prior validation studies of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) demonstrate its utility for identifying problematic social media use in adolescents. There are knowledge gaps regarding the potential clinical and physiological underpinnings of problematic social media use in adolescents. This cross-sectional, single-visit study examined a sample of depressed (n = 30) and healthy (n = 30) adolescents who underwent clinical assessments of depressive symptom severity, bullying, cyberbullying, self-esteem, salivary measures of stress (cortisol and α-amylase) to identify correlates with adolescent and parental reports of the BSMAS. LASSO-penalized multiple linear regression models were implemented. With respect to the adolescent BSMAS scores in all subjects, the risk of problematic social media increased as depressive symptom severity increased. Depressed female adolescents appeared to have a greater risk. Based on parental BSMAS scores, depression status, depressive symptom severity, cyberbullying score, and salivary cortisol significantly predicted problematic social media use. For the depressed sample, the risk of problematic social media use increased as salivary cortisol increased. No significant predictors of problematic social media usage emerged in the healthy control sample. These preliminary results provide novel insights into clinical and physiological characteristics of problematic social media use in adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.114020DOI Listing
May 2021

Insulin Dependence Increases the Risk of 30-Day Postoperative Complications Following Ankle Fracture Surgery in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Associate Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Electronic address:

Patients with diabetes mellitus that undergo ankle fracture surgery have higher rates of postoperative complications compared to patients without diabetes mellitus. We evaluated the rate of complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, and patients without diabetes in the 30-day postoperative period following ankle fracture surgery. We also analyzed hospital length of stay, unplanned readmission, unplanned reoperation, and death. Patients who underwent operative management for ankle fractures between 2012 and 2016 were identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program® database using Current Procedural Terminology codes. Multiple logistic regression was implemented. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated along with the 95% confidence interval. A total of 19,547 patients undergoing ankle surgery were identified from 2012 to 2016. Of these patients, 989 (5.06%) had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 1256 (6.43%) had noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 17,302 (88.51%) did not have diabetes mellitus. Compared to patients without diabetes, patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had significantly greater adjusted odds of superficial surgical site infections, deep surgical site infections, osteomyelitis, wound dehiscence, pneumonia, unplanned intubation, mechanical ventilation, urinary tract infection, cardiac arrest, bleeding requiring transfusion, sepsis, hospital length of stay, unplanned readmission, unplanned reoperation, and death following ankle fracture surgery. We demonstrate that insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a strong predictor of 30-day postoperative complications, unplanned readmission, unplanned reoperation, and death following ankle fracture surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2021.03.011DOI Listing
March 2021

Insulin Dependence Increases the Risk of 30-Day Postoperative Complications Following Ankle Fracture Surgery in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Associate Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Electronic address:

Patients with diabetes mellitus that undergo ankle fracture surgery have higher rates of postoperative complications compared to patients without diabetes mellitus. We evaluated the rate of complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, and patients without diabetes in the 30-day postoperative period following ankle fracture surgery. We also analyzed hospital length of stay, unplanned readmission, unplanned reoperation, and death. Patients who underwent operative management for ankle fractures between 2012 and 2016 were identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program® database using Current Procedural Terminology codes. Multiple logistic regression was implemented. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated along with the 95% confidence interval. A total of 19,547 patients undergoing ankle surgery were identified from 2012 to 2016. Of these patients, 989 (5.06%) had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 1256 (6.43%) had noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 17,302 (88.51%) did not have diabetes mellitus. Compared to patients without diabetes, patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had significantly greater adjusted odds of superficial surgical site infections, deep surgical site infections, osteomyelitis, wound dehiscence, pneumonia, unplanned intubation, mechanical ventilation, urinary tract infection, cardiac arrest, bleeding requiring transfusion, sepsis, hospital length of stay, unplanned readmission, unplanned reoperation, and death following ankle fracture surgery. We demonstrate that insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a strong predictor of 30-day postoperative complications, unplanned readmission, unplanned reoperation, and death following ankle fracture surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2021.03.011DOI Listing
March 2021

Altered markers of stress in depressed adolescents after acute social media use.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 04 2;136:149-156. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Social media use (SMU) is an inherent element in the daily life and neurodevelopment of adolescents, but broad concerns exist regarding the untoward effects of social media on adolescents. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study that sought to examine the acute effects of SMU on clinical measures and biomarkers of stress in healthy and depressed adolescents. After at least 24 h of abstinence from social media, depressed adolescents (n = 30) and healthy control adolescents (n = 30) underwent baseline clinical assessment of their prior SMU, depressive symptom severity, self-esteem, and exposure to bullying. Participants provided salivary samples that were analyzed for α-amylase and cortisol levels. After 20 min of unsupervised SMU, saliva analyses and clinical assessments were repeated. After 20 min of SMU, salivary cortisol and α-amylase levels were significantly higher in adolescents with depression but not in healthy control adolescents. Furthermore, small but statistically significant changes in depressive symptom severity occurred in all participants. These changes in depressive symptoms were not clinically meaningful. SMU did not significantly change self-esteem measures among participants. Adolescents with depression appeared to have more physiological reactivity after SMU compared with healthy adolescents. Further research should characterize SMU as a clinical dimension and risk factor among adolescents with depression and other psychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.01.055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009842PMC
April 2021

Functional improvement in hip pathology is related to improvement in anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing: an intricate link between physical and mental well-being.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Feb 3;22(1):133. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 1801 Inwood Rd, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA.

Background: Pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression are risk factors for poor functional outcomes and worse post-treatment pain that can be treated alongside physical care given to orthopedic patients. While these factors have been shown to be common in patients with hip pathology, there is limited literature that follows these conditions throughout treatment. The purpose of this study was to track psychological factors in patients with various hip pathology to determine if they improved alongside functional measures following treatment.

Methods: Patients presenting to a specialist hip clinic were prospectively evaluated for outcomes of pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression, and hip function. Pre- and post-treatment assessments were undertaken: Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, the Hip Outcome Survey, and Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS). Patient characteristics were recorded. A correlation analysis, using the Spearman partial correlation coefficient (r), was conducted to evaluate the relationship between change in psychological factors with change in functional outcomes.

Results: A total of 201 patients (78 male, 123 female) with a mean age of 53.75 ± 18.97 years were included, with diagnoses of hip dysplasia (n = 35), femoroacetabular impingement (n = 35), lateral trochanteric pain syndrome (n = 9), osteoarthrosis (n = 109), and avascular necrosis of the hip (n = 13). Statistical analysis revealed a significant negative relationship between change in function level (as measured by HOOS ADL) and change in pain catastrophizing (r = - 0.373, p < 0.0001), depression (r = - 0.363, p < 0.0001), and anxiety (r = - 0.264, p = 0.0002). Pain catastrophizing, depression, and anxiety improved with function. Spearman correlation coefficients also revealed that pain catastrophizing, HADS anxiety, and HADS depression improved with improvement in other patient-reported functional outcomes.

Conclusions: Patients with hip pathology often exhibit pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression, but improvements in hip functionality are associated with decreased severity of these psychological comorbidities. Exploring this connection demonstrates the correlation between musculoskeletal impairment and psychosocial outcomes and mental health. Perioperative multidisciplinary assessment may be a beneficial part of comprehensive orthopaedic hip care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04001-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7860171PMC
February 2021

Sex differences in reporting of concussion symptoms in adults.

Clin Neuropsychol 2020 Dec 1:1-14. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Psychiatry, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Objective: To examine differences in concussion symptom reporting between female and male adults considering current psychological symptoms such as anxiety and depression and pre-injury factors in order to identify sex differences which may guide treatment efforts. This prospective study is part of the North Texas Concussion Registry (ConTex). Subjects (N = 132) age 19 to 78 years had sustained a concussion within 30 days of clinic visit. The independent variable was sex and covariates included age, ethnicity, current anxiety and depression ratings, history of attention deficit disorder, history of headache/migraine, and time to clinic. The dependent variables were 22 post-concussion symptoms as measured by the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-5 Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. : Analysis of covariance and ordinal logistic regression results both revealed that females had a greater likelihood of reporting increased symptom severity for 15/22 concussion symptoms. The largest risk ratios (effect size) in symptom reporting between sexes (higher symptoms in females) included: feeling more emotional 4.05 (0.72), fatigue or low energy 4.05 (0.72), sensitivity to light 3.74 (0.69), headache 3.65 (0.57), balance problems 3.31 (0.53), pressure in head 3.06 (0.51), and neck pain 2.97 (0.60). Adult females in our sample reported higher levels of many concussion symptoms than males and showed an increased risk of developing these same symptoms following concussion. Examination of the magnitude of sex difference in concussion symptom reporting will better inform medical staff to anticipate and address symptoms that may present greater challenges for adult females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2020.1842500DOI Listing
December 2020

The Effect of Length of Hospital Stay and Patient Factors on Patient Satisfaction in an Academic Hospital.

Orthopedics 2020 Nov 22;43(6):373-379. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) is a metric for patient satisfaction consisting of 19 questions divided into 10 domains. Scores affect hospital reimbursements and accreditation and may play a role in patient outcomes. It is unclear how length of stay and other factors affect each of the 10 domains. This retrospective review gathered data of 600 patients between December 2008 and January 2017 who completed the HCAHPS survey. The odds of complete satisfaction in each of the 10 domains was evaluated. The results suggest increased length of stay is associated with lower odds of patient satisfaction and decreased likelihood of recommending the hospital. The odds of being completely satisfied regarding communication with physicians, discharge information, and responsiveness of the hospital staff, as well as the odds of recommending the hospital to others, were lower if the care provider was younger than the patient. Obese patients were also more likely to be satisfied with responsiveness and care transition. Male patients were more satisfied with communication about medications (odds ratio [OR], 1.694), care transition (OR, 1.489), and cleanliness (OR, 2.120). Medicare and fewer consults were related to increased odds of patient satisfaction with care transition (OR, 1.748 and 0.573, respectively). Males, older patients, and White patients were more likely to recommend the hospital (OR, 1.476, 1.025, and 1.690, respectively). Length of stay affects patient satisfaction and likelihood of recommending the hospital to others. Other factors such as a younger provider age than the patient, lower body mass index, female sex, non-Medicare insurance, and higher number of consults are also associated with lower satisfaction in various domains. Hospital systems can bolster patient satisfaction by strategizing day-of-surgery and weekend staffing to reduce length of stay. [Orthopedics. 2020;43(6):373-379.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20200910-02DOI Listing
November 2020

Incidence and predictors of positive intraoperative cultures in primary shoulder arthroplasty following prior ipsilateral shoulder surgery.

JSES Int 2020 Jun 21;4(2):366-371. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Shoulder Service, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Background: To our knowledge, the rate of positive intraoperative cultures in patients undergoing primary shoulder arthroplasty with prior ipsilateral nonarthroplasty shoulder surgery is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and predictors of positive cultures in these patients.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients with prior ipsilateral shoulder surgery with intraoperative cultures taken at the time of primary shoulder arthroplasty. We evaluated culture results, demographics, and number of prior surgeries. Regression analysis was used to determine patient-related risk factors that predict positive cultures.

Results: A total of 682 patients underwent primary shoulder arthroplasty, 83 had at least 1 prior ipsilateral shoulder surgery: 65.1% male, mean age 64.2 ± 10.9 years. For the cohort of 83 patients, an average of 3.2 ± 1.2 tissue samples were obtained for each patient, with a mean of 0.84 ± 1.14 tissue cultures being positive (range 0-5). Thirty-seven of the 83 patients (44.5%) had at least 1 positive culture, with the most frequent organism (31/37; 83.4%). An average of 1.9 ± 0.96 tissue cultures resulted positive (range 1-5) for the 37 patients who had positive cultures, 40.5% (15/37) had only 1 positive tissue culture (12/15 , 2/15 , and 1/15 vancomycin-resistant enterococcus). Male sex and history of prior shoulder infection were predictive of culture positivity (odds ratios: 2.5 and 20.9, respectively). Age, race, medical comorbidities, number of prior shoulder surgeries, and time from index shoulder surgery were not predictive of culture positivity.

Conclusion: About 45% of patients with no clinical signs of infection and a history of prior ipsilateral shoulder surgery undergoing primary shoulder arthroplasty grew positive intraoperative cultures. The significance of these findings remains unclear with regard to risk of periprosthetic infection and how these patients should be managed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2019.12.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256896PMC
June 2020

Incidence and predictors of positive intraoperative cultures in primary shoulder arthroplasty following prior ipsilateral shoulder surgery.

JSES Int 2020 Jun 21;4(2):366-371. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Shoulder Service, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Background: To our knowledge, the rate of positive intraoperative cultures in patients undergoing primary shoulder arthroplasty with prior ipsilateral nonarthroplasty shoulder surgery is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and predictors of positive cultures in these patients.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients with prior ipsilateral shoulder surgery with intraoperative cultures taken at the time of primary shoulder arthroplasty. We evaluated culture results, demographics, and number of prior surgeries. Regression analysis was used to determine patient-related risk factors that predict positive cultures.

Results: A total of 682 patients underwent primary shoulder arthroplasty, 83 had at least 1 prior ipsilateral shoulder surgery: 65.1% male, mean age 64.2 ± 10.9 years. For the cohort of 83 patients, an average of 3.2 ± 1.2 tissue samples were obtained for each patient, with a mean of 0.84 ± 1.14 tissue cultures being positive (range 0-5). Thirty-seven of the 83 patients (44.5%) had at least 1 positive culture, with the most frequent organism (31/37; 83.4%). An average of 1.9 ± 0.96 tissue cultures resulted positive (range 1-5) for the 37 patients who had positive cultures, 40.5% (15/37) had only 1 positive tissue culture (12/15 , 2/15 , and 1/15 vancomycin-resistant enterococcus). Male sex and history of prior shoulder infection were predictive of culture positivity (odds ratios: 2.5 and 20.9, respectively). Age, race, medical comorbidities, number of prior shoulder surgeries, and time from index shoulder surgery were not predictive of culture positivity.

Conclusion: About 45% of patients with no clinical signs of infection and a history of prior ipsilateral shoulder surgery undergoing primary shoulder arthroplasty grew positive intraoperative cultures. The significance of these findings remains unclear with regard to risk of periprosthetic infection and how these patients should be managed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2019.12.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256896PMC
June 2020

A single assessment with the Brief Adherence Rating Scale (BARS) discriminates responders to long-acting injectable antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2020 06 5;220:92-97. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Arizona and Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Tucson, AZ 85723, USA.

Objective: To determine if a single baseline adherence assessment (Brief Adherence Rating Scale [BARS]) could identify patients who are likely to respond to long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic treatment.

Method: The current secondary analysis included a sub-sample of adult outpatients (N = 176) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who participated in the "A Comparison of Long-Acting Injectable Medications for Schizophrenia (ACLAIMS)" trial and had a baseline BARS assessment and a baseline and month 3 Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) rating. The main outcome was LAI treatment response, defined as a ≥ 20% decrease (baseline to month 3) on the PANSS total score. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Area Under the Curve (AUC) analysis was conducted to determine the optimal cutpoint of baseline BARS adherence in discriminating LAI treatment response at month 3. A logistic mixed model estimated the odds of response to LAI treatment at month 3 from the optimal baseline BARS cutpoint.

Results: The ROC analysis determined that the single baseline BARS rating (cutoff ≤66%), indicating low adherence, best discriminated patients likely to respond to LAI treatment (AUC = 0.603, SE = 0.046, 95% binomial exact CI = 0.527 to 0.676, p = 0.025), with 38% sensitivity and 85% specificity. The logistic mixed model analysis revealed that patients with ≤66% BARS adherence had 3.464 times the predicted odds (95% CI = 1.604 to 7.480, p = 0.001) of responding to LAI treatment than those who were >66% BARS adherent.

Conclusion: A single baseline BARS assessment discriminated response to LAI treatment suggesting it is a reasonable tool to identify candidates for LAI antipsychotic treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2020.03.053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306424PMC
June 2020

Early-Onset Osteoarthritis originates at the chondrocyte level in Hip Dysplasia.

Sci Rep 2020 01 17;10(1):627. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Division of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 2QQ, UK.

Subjects with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) often show early-onset osteoarthritis (OA); however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology are not known. We investigated whether cellular changes in chondrocytes from OA cartilage can be detected in chondrocytes from DDH cartilage before histological manifestations of degeneration. We characterized undamaged and damaged articular cartilage from 22 participants having hip replacement surgery with and without DDH (9 DDH-OA, 12 OA-only, one femoral fracture). Tissue immunostaining revealed changes in damaged OA-only cartilage that was also found in undamaged DDH-OA cartilage. Chondrocytes in situ from both groups show: (i) thicker fibers of vimentin intermediate filaments, (ii) clusters of integrin αβ, (iii) positive MMP13 staining and (iv) a higher percentage of cells expressing the serine protease HtrA1. Further characterization of the extracellular matrix showed strong aggrecan and collagen II immunostaining in undamaged DDH cartilage, with no evidence of augmented cell death by activation of caspase 3. These findings suggest that early events in DDH cartilage originate at the chondrocyte level and that DDH cartilage may provide a novel opportunity to study these early changes for the development of therapeutic targets for OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-57431-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6969105PMC
January 2020

Depression and Non-modifiable Patient Factors Associated with Patient Satisfaction in an Academic Orthopaedic Outpatient Clinic: Is it More Than a Provider Issue?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2019 Dec;477(12):2653-2661

B. K. Tisano, B. S. Gross, J. R. Martinez, J. E. Wells, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX, USA P. A. Nakonezny, Department of Population and Data Sciences, Division of Biostatistics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX, USA.

Background: Patient satisfaction surveys play an increasingly important role in United States healthcare policy and serve as a marker of provided physician services. In attempts to improve the patient's clinical experience, focus is often placed on components of the healthcare system such as provider interaction and other experiential factors. Patient factors are often written off as "non-modifiable"; however, by identifying and understanding these risk factors for dissatisfaction, another area for improvement and intervention becomes available.

Questions/purposes: (1) Do patients in the orthopaedic clinic with a preexisting diagnosis of depression report lower satisfaction scores than those without a preexisting diagnosis of depression? (2) What other non-modifiable patient factors influence patient-reported satisfaction?

Methods: We reviewed Press Ganey Survey scores, which assess patient experiential satisfaction with a single clinical encounter, from 3044 clinic visits (2527 patients) in adult reconstructive, sports, and general orthopaedic clinics at a single academic medical center between November 2010 and May 2017, during which time approximately 19,000 encounters occurred. Multiple patient factors including patient age, gender, race, health insurance status, number of previous clinic visits with their physician, BMI, and a diagnosis of depression were recorded. Patient satisfaction was operationalized as a binary outcome as satisfied or less satisfied, and a multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds of being satisfied.

Results: After adjusting for all other covariates in the model, we found that patients with a diagnosis of depression were less likely to be satisfied than patients without this diagnosis (odds ratio 0.749 [95% confidence interval, 0.600-0.940]; p = 0.01). Medicare-insured patients were more likely to be satisfied than non-Medicare patients (OR 1.257 [95% CI, 1.020-1.549]; p = 0.03), patients in the sports medicine clinic were more likely to be satisfied than those seen in the general orthopaedic clinic (OR 1.397 [95% CI, 1.096-1.775]; p = 0.007), and established patients were more likely to be satisfied than new patients (OR 0.763 [95% CI, 0.646-0.902]; p = 0.002).

Conclusions: Given the association of depression with lower satisfaction with a single visit at the orthopaedic clinic, providers should screen for depression and address the issue during the outpatient encounter. The impact of such comprehensive care or subsequent treatment of depression on improving patient-reported satisfaction offers areas of future study.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000000927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6907291PMC
December 2019

Use of a Fully Automated Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy Intervention in a Community Population of Adults With Depression Symptoms: Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Med Internet Res 2019 11 18;21(11):e14754. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Center for Mental Health Research and Recovery, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, United States.

Background: Although internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) interventions can reduce depression symptoms, large differences in their effectiveness exist.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an iCBT intervention called Thrive, which was designed to enhance engagement when delivered as a fully automated, stand-alone intervention to a rural community population of adults with depression symptoms.

Methods: Using no diagnostic or treatment exclusions, 343 adults with depression symptoms were recruited from communities using an open-access website and randomized 1:1 to the Thrive intervention group or the control group. Using self-reports, participants were evaluated at baseline and 4 and 8 weeks for the primary outcome of depression symptom severity and secondary outcome measures of anxiety symptoms, work and social adjustment, psychological resilience, and suicidal ideation.

Results: Over the 8-week follow-up period, the intervention group (n=181) had significantly lower depression symptom severity than the control group (n=162; P<.001), with a moderate treatment effect size (d=0.63). Moderate to near-moderate effect sizes favoring the intervention group were observed for anxiety symptoms (P<.001; d=0.47), work/social functioning (P<.001; d=0.39), and resilience (P<.001; d=0.55). Although not significant, the intervention group was 45% less likely than the control group to experience increased suicidal ideation (odds ratio 0.55).

Conclusions: These findings suggest that the Thrive intervention was effective in reducing depression and anxiety symptom severity and improving functioning and resilience among a mostly rural community population of US adults. The effect sizes associated with Thrive were generally larger than those of other iCBT interventions delivered as a fully automated, stand-alone intervention.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03244878; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03244878.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/14754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6887812PMC
November 2019

Use of Tailored Feedback Improves Accuracy of Delirium Documentation in the Burn ICU: Results of a Performance Improvement Initiative.

J Burn Care Res 2020 02;41(2):299-305

Department of Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Branch, Dallas, Texas.

One of the most widely used tools for delirium assessment in burn intensive care units is the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit delirium assessment tool. However, some nurses struggle with inaccurate delirium documentation. This performance improvement project was undertaken to assess the impact that routine chart audits with tailored feedback would have on documentation accuracy. An a priori goal of at least 90% documentation accuracy was set by burn leadership at our academic, American Burn Association-verified burn center. For the precorrectional feedback time period, nursing delirium documentation was reviewed for accuracy by the nurse educator. In the postcorrectional feedback time period, an intervention was started, in which the educator sent tailored feedback to nurses with inaccurate delirium documentation. A Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used to compare the proportions of correct delirium documentation for the precorrectional feedback and postcorrectional feedback time periods. The overall rates of correct delirium documentation in the precorrectional feedback time period were 49.15% (SD = 31.86), 95% CI: 36.43 to 66.31. A significant increase was seen in the rates of correct delirium documentation for the postcorrectional feedback time period (91.47% [SD = 8.28], 95% CI: 87.45 to 95.67), P = .0001. In the 4 months prior to starting corrective feedback, zero out of five (0%) audits reached the 90% goal of accurate delirium documentation. In the 8 months in which corrective feedback was being given, 9 out of 15 (60%) audits reached the compliance goal set by leadership. Using corrective feedback improves the accuracy of nursing delirium documentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/irz153DOI Listing
February 2020

Effect of Patient Body Mass Index, Recommendation for Weight Modification, and Nonmodifiable Factors on Patient Satisfaction.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2020 May;28(10):e448-e455

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, (Dr. Wells, Mr. Batty, Dr. Box), and Division of Biostatistics, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (Dr. Nakonezny), Dallas, TX.

Introduction: Patient satisfaction serves an increasingly important role in health care. Multiple nonmodifiable patient factors have been found to influence patient satisfaction. To the best of our knowledge, however, no study has investigated the influence of body mass index (BMI) on satisfaction scores. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether BMI and provider recommendation for patient weight modification were associated with patient satisfaction.

Methods: We reviewed Press Ganey patient satisfaction survey scores from 3,044 clinical encounters in an academic orthopaedic center between November 2010 and May 2017. Multiple patient factors, BMI, and recommendation for weight loss, or requirement of weight loss, before surgery were recorded. Patient satisfaction was operationalized as a binary outcome of completely satisfied or not completely satisfied, and multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of being completely satisfied from the subset of potential predictors.

Results: White patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.340, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.113 to 1.584, P = 0.0007) and Medicare-insured patients (OR = 1.260, 95% CI: 1.044 to 1.521, P = 0.0164) were more likely to be completely satisfied, whereas patients being seen by a provider for the first time were less likely to be completely satisfied (OR = 0.728, 95% CI: 0.626 to 0.847, P < 0.0001). BMI, recommendation for weight loss, and requirement of weight modification before surgery were not found to be associated with patient satisfaction.

Discussion: Neither patient BMI nor provider recommendation for weight loss, or as a requirement for surgery, was associated with patient satisfaction. Race, insurance status, and previous visits with the care provider were identified as nonmodifiable patient factors that influence patient satisfaction.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-19-00330DOI Listing
May 2020

The Dimension of the Press Ganey Survey Most Important in Evaluating Patient Satisfaction in the Academic Outpatient Orthopedic Surgery Setting.

Orthopedics 2019 Jul;42(4):198-204

Many studies have examined modifiable and nonmodifiable patient factors influencing patient satisfaction scores. The objective of this study was to evaluate which of the 6 domains making up the Press Ganey Survey had a greater magnitude of relative importance in the expected relationship with patient satisfaction in outpatient orthopedic surgery encounters. Press Ganey Survey satisfaction scores from 4737 clinical encounters from adult reconstructive surgery, sports medicine, hand, foot and ankle, trauma, and general orthopedic clinics at a single academic center from November 2010 to May 2017 were reviewed. Multiple patient factors, modifiable and nonmodifiable, were recorded. The Press Ganey Survey was divided into 6 domains to evaluate the relative importance of each to total patient satisfaction. The standardized parameter estimates from the multiple linear regression revealed that of the 6 domains making up the Press Ganey Survey, care provider had the greatest magnitude of relative importance in the expected relationship with total patient satisfaction (ß=0.53972). Approximately 80% of the variance in total patient satisfaction was accounted for by the care provider. The relative importance of the remaining 5 domains was as follows: access (ß=0.23483), personal issues (ß=0.16796), moving through the visit (ß=0.16795), nurse/assistant (ß=0.10010), and special services/valet (ß=0.06302). A principal components analysis suggested a 6-factor solution for the Press Ganey total satisfaction scale; care provider was the most dominant factor, and valet parking services was the least. The care provider had the most influence on the patient's overall satisfaction. Altogether, access, personal issues, moving through the visit, nurse/assistant, and special services/valet accounted for only approximately 20% of the total variance in patient satisfaction. This knowledge can be used by providers in the current health care climate, where patient consumerism is developing into the driver of care. This could allow resources to be focused on areas of influence, yielding a greater impact on patient satisfaction scores. [Orthopedics. 2019; 42(4):198-204.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20190625-03DOI Listing
July 2019

The Differential Impact of Social Media Use on Middle and High School Students: A Retrospective Study.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2019 12 24;29(10):746-752. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic Depression Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Social media use is now a central aspect of adolescent life and development. Little is known about the clinical implications of social media use in children and adolescents presenting in acute crisis for psychiatric admission. This study sought to compare the potential effects of social media use among middle and high school students on outcomes of psychiatric morbidity. It was hypothesized that among social media users, high school students would have greater psychiatric morbidity compared with middle school students. The research team extracted clinical and demographic data from adolescents (aged 12-17 years) presenting for acute psychiatric admission who also had documented social media use ( = 56). Educational status, middle school ( = 21) versus high school ( = 35), was examined as an independent variable. Psychotropic medication use, self-injurious behavior, suicide risk, and suicidal ideation were examined as dependent variables in logistic regression models. High school students using social media had significantly greater predicted odds of psychotropic medication use and self-injurious behavior compared with students in middle school who used social media. High school students using social media had greater, although not statistically significant, predicted odds of suicide risk and suicidal ideation compared with middle school students using social media. Social media use is likely an important factor to consider in psychiatric evaluations. The present findings suggest that social media use in high school students is associated with greater psychiatric morbidity compared with middle school students. Further research could illuminate the developmental lines of social media use and age-specific risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2019.0071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6885760PMC
December 2019

Treating Hypertrophic Burn Scar With 2940-nm Er:YAG Laser Fractional Ablation Improves Scar Characteristics as Measured by Noninvasive Technology.

J Burn Care Res 2019 06;40(4):416-421

UT Southwestern Division of Burns/Trauma/Critical Care, Dallas, Texas.

Their group previously demonstrated high-patient satisfaction for the treatment of hypertrophic burn scar (HBS) with the erbium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser, but this and other literature supporting the practice suffer from a common weakness of a reliance on subjective assessments by patients or providers. Herein, they sought to prospectively study the effects of Er:YAG fractional ablation on HBS using noninvasive, objective technologies to measure outcomes. Patients with HBS had identical regions of scar designated for treatment by the Er:YAG laser (TREAT) or to be left untreated (CONTROL). They prospectively collected scar measurements of TREAT and CONTROL regions preoperatively, 3 weeks, and 3 months after Er:YAG treatment. Scar measurements included viscoelastometry, transepidermal water loss, optical coherent tomography, and high-frequency ultrasound. Outcomes were measured for the aggregate difference between the TREAT group vs the CONTROL group, as well as within each group in isolation. Seventeen patients were seen preoperatively, followed by n = 15 at 3 weeks and n = 11 at 3 months. A mixed-model repeated measures analysis showed no significant effect of fractional ablation when comparing the overall TREAT group measurements with those of the CONTROL group. However, when considered as within-group measurements, TREAT scars showed significant improvement in viscoelastic deformity (P = .03), elastic deformity (P = .004), skin roughness (P = .05), and wrinkle depth (P = .04) after fractional ablation, whereas CONTROL scars showed no such within-group changes. HBS treated by the Er:YAG laser showed objective improvements, whereas no such changes were seen within the untreated scars over the same time frame.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/irz056DOI Listing
June 2019

Lower Extremity Necrotizing Fasciitis in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients: Mortality and Amputation.

Int J Low Extrem Wounds 2019 Jun 1;18(2):114-121. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

1 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Lower extremity necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a severe infection requiring immediate surgery. The aim of this study was to assess patient factors predictive of amputation and mortality in diabetes mellitus (DM) and non-DM patients with lower extremity NF. The American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database was reviewed retrospectively. Out of 674 patients with lower extremity NF, 387 had DM (57.4%). Patients with DM had lower mortality ( = .004). Increased mortality was independently associated with age >60 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69-9.77), partial thromboplastin time >38 seconds (aOR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.09-6.62), albumin <2.0 mg/dL (aOR = 2.84, 95% CI = 1.13-7.37), coagulopathy (aOR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.24-9.19), higher anesthesia risk category (aOR = 3.08, 95% CI = 1.18, 8.59), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aOR = 3.46, 95% CI = 1.13-10.9), postoperative acute respiratory distress syndrome (aOR = 5.24, 95% CI = 2.04-14.4), and postoperative septic shock (aOR = 5.14, 95% CI = 1.94-14.1). Amputation was independently associated with DM (aOR = 4.35, 95% CI = 2.63-7.35) but not mortality. Although DM was associated with more amputations for lower extremity NF, patients with DM had lower mortality than non-DM patients in the bivariate analysis. Further research is needed to investigate outcomes among DM and non-DM patients in the context of lower extremity NF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534734619836464DOI Listing
June 2019

Prospective Analysis of Operating Room and Discharge Delays in a Burn Center.

J Burn Care Res 2019 04;40(3):281-286

UT Medical Branch Division of Burn and Trauma Surgery, Galveston, Texas.

Delays to the operating room (OR) or discharge (DC) lead to longer lengths of stay and increased costs. Surprisingly, little work has been done to quantify the number and cost of delays for inpatients to the OR, and to DC to outpatient status. They reviewed their burn admissions to determine how often a patient experiences delays in healthcare delivery. Data for all burn admissions were prospectively collected from 2014 to 2016. A quality improvement filter was created to define acceptable parameters for patient throughput. Every hospital day was labeled as 1) No delay, 2) Operation, 3) Delay to the OR, or 4) Delay to DC. They had 1633 admissions: 432 ICU admissions (26%) and 1201 floor admissions (74%). Six hundred fifteen patients (37.7%) received an operation. Patients with delays included 331 with OR delays (20.3%) and 503 with DC delays (30.8%). Average delay days included (Mean ± SD): OR delay days = 4.7 ± 6.2 and DC delay days = 4.1 ± 4.4. Total number of hospital days was 13,009, divided into 1616 OR delay days (12%) and 2096 DC delay days (16%). Significant OR delays were due to patient unstable for OR (n = 387 [24%]), OR space availability (n = 662 [41%]), indeterminate wound depth (n = 437 [27%]), and donor site availability (n = 83 [5%]). Significant DC delays were due to medical goals not reached (n = 388 [19%]), pain control and wound care (n = 694 [33%]), PT/OT clearance (n = 168 [8.0%]), and DC placement delays (n = 754 [36%]). Costs for OR and DC delays ranged between US$1,000,000 and US$5,000,000. Costs of increasing OR capacity and/or additional social work ancillary staff can be justified through millions of dollars of savings annually.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/irz015DOI Listing
April 2019

Increased Rates of Readmission, Reoperation, and Mortality Following Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Ankle Fractures Are Associated With Diabetes Mellitus.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2019 May 11;58(3):470-474. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study was to compare the rates of readmission, reoperation, and mortality in patients with and without diabetes mellitus during the 30-day postoperative period after ankle fracture surgery. Patients who underwent operative management for ankle fractures between 2006 and 2015 were identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database by using Current Procedural Terminology codes for ankle fracture surgery. A total of 17,464 patients undergoing ankle fracture surgery were identified. Of these patients, 2044 (11.7%) had diabetes and 15,420 (88.3%) did not have diabetes. We excluded patients older than 90 years or with inadequate perioperative data. Patients with diabetes had significantly higher rates of readmission (2.84% vs 1.05%, p < .0001), significantly higher rates of unplanned reoperation (2.3% vs 0.74%, p < .0001), and significantly higher rates of mortality (0.7% vs 0.2%, p < .0001) compared with patients without diabetes. Additionally, patients with diabetes had significantly greater age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of unplanned readmission (OR 2.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74 to 3.31, p < .0001), unplanned reoperation (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.27, p < .0001), and mortality (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.62, p = .0432) than did patients without diabetes after ankle surgery. In this large-scale retrospective study, we demonstrated that the presence of diabetes significantly increases the risk of unplanned readmission, unplanned reoperation, and mortality during the 30-day postoperative period after ankle fracture surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2018.09.023DOI Listing
May 2019

Trauma Surgeon and Palliative Care Physician Attitudes Regarding Goals-of-Care Delineation for Injured Geriatric Patients.

Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2019 Aug 6;36(8):669-674. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

13 Department of Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX, USA.

Background: The value of defining goals of care (GoC) for geriatric patients is well known to the palliative care community but is a newer concept for many trauma surgeons. Palliative care specialists and trauma surgeons were surveyed to elicit the specialties' attitudes regarding (1) importance of GoC conversations for injured seniors; (2) confidence in their own specialty's ability to conduct these conversations; and (3) confidence in the ability of the other specialty to do so.

Methods: A 13-item survey was developed by the steering committee of a multicenter, palliative care-focused consortium and beta-tested by trauma surgeons and palliative care specialists unaffiliated with the consortium. The finalized instrument was electronically circulated to active physician members of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma and American Academy for Hospice and Palliative Medicine.

Results: Respondents included 118 trauma surgeons (8.8%) and 244 palliative care specialists (5.7%). Palliative physicians rated being more familiar with GoC, were more likely to report high-quality training in performing conversations, believed more palliative specialists were needed in intensive care units, and had more interest in conducting conversations relative to trauma surgeons. Both groups believed themselves to perform GoC discussions better than the other specialty perceived them to do so and favored their own specialty leading team discussions.

Conclusions: Both groups believe themselves to conduct GoC discussions for injured seniors better than the other specialty perceived them to do so, which led to disparate views on the optimal leadership of these discussions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049909118823182DOI Listing
August 2019

Renal Function as a Predictor of Early Transmetatarsal Amputation Failure.

Foot Ankle Spec 2019 Oct 12;12(5):439-451. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (JA, KMR, GTL, DKW), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major concern in patients with foot disease because it is associated with high rates of neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, and poor wound healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate renal dysfunction as a risk factor for reamputation after initial transmetatarsal amputation (TMA). Patients who underwent a TMA were retrospectively identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Of 2018 patients, reamputation after TMA occurred in 4.4%. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) was associated with 100% increased odds of TMA failure (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.10, 3.52), 128% increased odds of major amputation (adjusted OR = 2.28; 95% CI = 1.27, 3.96), and 182% increased odds of 30-day mortality (adjusted OR = 2.82; 95% CI = 1.69, 4.64). In addition, white blood cell count >10 000/mm and deep infection at the time of surgery were independently associated with TMA failure. In conclusion, severe renal dysfunction is associated with TMA failure in the short-term, perioperative period. There was no incremental increase in risk of TMA failure with worsening level of renal function before ESRD. A multidisciplinary approach should be implemented in patients with CKD to prevent foot-related pathologies that may necessitate lower-extremity amputation. : .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1938640018816371DOI Listing
October 2019

A comparison of cholecystitis grading scales.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019 03;86(3):471-478

From the Department of Surgery (T.D.M., J.B.I., L.T., H.B.C., R.V., A.T.C.), Division of General and Acute Care Surgery (C.T.M., A.L.E., S.L., H.A.P., M.W.C.), and Division of Biostatistics, Department of Clinical Sciences (P.A.N), University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas.

Background: Previously, our group developed the Parkland grading scale for cholecystitis (PGS) to stratify gallbladder (GB) disease severity that can be determined immediately when performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). In prior studies, PGS demonstrated excellent interrater reliability and was internally validated as an accurate measure of LC outcomes. Here, we compare PGS against a more complex cholecystitis severity score developed by the national trauma society, American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST), which requires clinical, operative, imaging, and pathologic inputs, as a predictor of LC outcomes.

Methods: Eleven acute care surgeons prospectively graded 179 GBs using PGS and filled out a postoperative questionnaire regarding the difficulty of the surgery. Three independent raters retrospectively graded these GBs using PGS from images stored in the electronic medical record. Three additional surgeons then assigned separate AAST scores to each GB. The intraclass correlation coefficient statistic assessed rater reliability for both PGS and AAST. The PGS score and the median AAST score became predictors in separate linear, logistic, and negative binomial regression models to estimate perioperative outcomes.

Results: The average intraclass correlation coefficient of PGS and AAST was 0.8647 and 0.8341, respectively. Parkland grading scale for cholecystitis was found to be a superior predictor of increasing operative difficulty (R, 0.566 vs. 0.202), case length (R, 0.217 vs. 0.037), open conversion rates (area under the curve, 0.904 vs. 0.757), and complication rates (area under the curve, 0.7039 vs. 0.6474) defined as retained stone, small-bowel obstruction, wound infection, or postoperative biliary leak. Parkland grading scale for cholecystitis performed similar to AAST in predicting partial cholecystectomy, readmission, bile leak rates, and length of stay.

Conclusion: Both PGS and AAST are accurate predictors of LC outcomes. Parkland grading scale for cholecystitis was found to be a superior predictor of subjective operative difficulty, case length, open conversion rates, and complication rates. Parkland grading scale for cholecystitis has the advantage of being a simpler, operative-based scale which can be scored at a single point in time.

Level Of Evidence: Single institution, retrospective review, level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002125DOI Listing
March 2019

Psychometric Properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Modified for Major Depressive Disorder in Adolescents.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2019 02 2;29(1):34-40. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

1 Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

Objectives: The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Modified (PHQ-9M) is a self-report tool used to assess the presence and severity of depressive symptoms in teenagers. Despite widespread use in primary care clinics and psychiatric settings, the PHQ-9M has not been validated nor are its psychometric properties adequately understood for the adolescent population. This study sought to examine the psychometrics of the PHQ-9M in treatment-seeking, depressed adolescents at a psychiatric psychopharmacology clinic who were concurrently assessed with the Children's Depression Rating Scale Revised (CDRS-R) and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Adolescent (17-item) Self-Report (QIDS-A17-SR).

Methods: Adolescents (N = 160) aged 13 through 18 years with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder, determined on the basis of a clinical interview and semi-structured interview using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version, were assessed for severity of depressive symptoms with the PHQ-9M, CDRS-R (adolescent interview only), and QIDS-A17-SR assessments at baseline, 4, and 8 weeks. Classical test theory analysis was used to evaluate the internal consistency and dimensionality of the PHQ-9M. Convergent validity was evaluated via intraclass correlations of the PHQ-9M with the CDRS-R and QIDS-A17-SR. Sensitivity to treatment response was also evaluated.

Results: The internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α) at baseline, 4, and 8 weeks was 0.879, 0.859, and 0.827 for the PHQ-9M; 0.739, 0.835, and 0.867 for CDRS-R; and 0.712, 0.777, and 0.804 for QIDS-A17-SR, respectively. The PHQ-9M had moderate convergent validity with the CDRS-R but good convergent validity with the QIDS-A17-SR. The PHQ-9M was less sensitive to changes in symptom severity than the CDRS-R and QIDS-A17-SR.

Conclusions: The PHQ-9M appears to be a valid and reliable assessment tool for the severity of depressive symptoms in a psychiatric clinic setting. However, its utility as a treatment outcome measure may be limited compared with other available rating scales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2018.0112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354604PMC
February 2019

Prospective validation of the Parkland Grading Scale for Cholecystitis.

Am J Surg 2019 01 21;217(1):90-97. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

UT Southwestern Division of General and Acute Care Surgery, Dallas, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The Parkland Grading Scale for Cholecystitis (PGS) was developed as an intraoperative grading scale to stratify gallbladder (GB) disease severity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). We aimed to prospectively validate this scale as a measure of LC outcomes.

Methods: Eleven surgeons took pictures of and prospectively graded the initial view of 317 GBs using PGS while performing LC (LIVE) between 9/2016 and 3/2017. Three independent surgeon raters retrospectively graded these saved GB images (STORED). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) statistic assessed rater reliability. Fisher's Exact, Jonckheere-Terpstra, or ANOVA tested association between peri-operative data and gallbladder grade.

Results: ICC between LIVE and STORED PGS grades demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC = 0.8210). Diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, difficulty of surgery, incidence of partial and open cholecystectomy rates, pre-op WBC, length of operation, and bile leak rates all significantly increased with increasing grade.

Conclusions: PGS is a highly reliable, simple, operative based scale that can accurately predict outcomes after LC. TABLE OF CONTENTS SUMMARY: The Parkland Grading Scale for Cholecystitis was found to be a reliable and accurate predictor of laparoscopic cholecystectomy outcomes. Diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, surgical difficulty, incidence of partial and open cholecystectomy rates, pre-op WBC, operation length, and bile leak rates all significantly increased with increasing grade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2018.08.005DOI Listing
January 2019

Prospective validation of the Parkland Grading Scale for Cholecystitis.

Am J Surg 2019 01 21;217(1):90-97. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

UT Southwestern Division of General and Acute Care Surgery, Dallas, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The Parkland Grading Scale for Cholecystitis (PGS) was developed as an intraoperative grading scale to stratify gallbladder (GB) disease severity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). We aimed to prospectively validate this scale as a measure of LC outcomes.

Methods: Eleven surgeons took pictures of and prospectively graded the initial view of 317 GBs using PGS while performing LC (LIVE) between 9/2016 and 3/2017. Three independent surgeon raters retrospectively graded these saved GB images (STORED). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) statistic assessed rater reliability. Fisher's Exact, Jonckheere-Terpstra, or ANOVA tested association between peri-operative data and gallbladder grade.

Results: ICC between LIVE and STORED PGS grades demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC = 0.8210). Diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, difficulty of surgery, incidence of partial and open cholecystectomy rates, pre-op WBC, length of operation, and bile leak rates all significantly increased with increasing grade.

Conclusions: PGS is a highly reliable, simple, operative based scale that can accurately predict outcomes after LC. TABLE OF CONTENTS SUMMARY: The Parkland Grading Scale for Cholecystitis was found to be a reliable and accurate predictor of laparoscopic cholecystectomy outcomes. Diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, surgical difficulty, incidence of partial and open cholecystectomy rates, pre-op WBC, operation length, and bile leak rates all significantly increased with increasing grade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2018.08.005DOI Listing
January 2019

In vitro effects of a kaolin-coated hemostatic dressing on anticoagulated blood.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2018 09;85(3):485-490

Department of Surgery (M.W.C., N.V., J.C.W., P.E.G.), UT Southwestern, Dallas, Texas; UT Houston Health Science Center (C.C.C.), Houston, Texas; and Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Biostatistics (P.A.N.), UT Southwestern, Dallas, Texas.

Background: The use of kaolin-coated dressings has become common and have efficacy in normal patients, but their increased use will inevitably include use on bleeding patients taking anticoagulants. We hypothesize that kaolin coating material (KCM) will improve clotting regardless of anticoagulation medication.

Methods: A prospective study was performed on blood from patients who were on a vitamin K antagonist (VKA), unfractionated heparin (UH), an antiplatelet (AP) agent, a Xa inhibitor (Xa), or a direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI). None were on more than one type of anticoagulation medication. Viscoelastic testing was performed with and without KCM. All p values were adjusted for multiple comparisons.

Results: The addition of KCM significantly decreased the time for initial clot formation (CT) in all groups. The mean CT for controls was decreased from 692 to 190.8 s (p < 0.0001). KCM decreased the initial clot formation time by about 1.5 times in those on DTI (p = 0.043) and 2.5 times in those taking AP medication (p < 0.001). The most profound effect was seen in those on UH (no KCM 1,602 s vs. KCM 440 s; p < 0.001), VKA (no KCM 1,152 s vs. 232 s; p < 0.01), and Xa (no KCM 1,342 s vs. 287 s; p < 0.001). Analysis of other clot formation parameters revealed that KCM significantly improved the clot formation kinetics (CFT) only in patients taking Xa (p = 0.03). KCM improved maximum clot strength in patients on Xa inhibitors (p = 0.05). Patients on UH had a larger effect size with an increase in clot strength from 24.35 mm to 43.35 mm whereas those on Xa had an increase of 38.7 mm to 49.85 mm.

Conclusion: In this in vitro analysis, the addition of KCM to the blood of patients taking any of these anticoagulation medications significantly improved the time to initial clot formation, indicating that kaolin-based hemostatic dressings will be effective in initiating clot formation in patients on anticoagulants.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic, level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000001999DOI Listing
September 2018