Publications by authors named "Paul A Carpenter"

123 Publications

American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Series, #4: Cytomegalovirus Treatment and Management of Resistant or Refractory Infections after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

The Practice Guidelines Committee of the American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (ASTCT) partnered with its Transplant Infectious Disease Special Interest Group (TID-SIG) to update its 2009 compendium-style infectious disease guidelines for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). A new approach was taken, with the goal of better serving clinical providers by publishing each standalone topic in the infectious diseases series as a concise format of frequently asked questions (FAQs), tables, and figures. Adult and pediatric infectious diseases and HCT content experts developed and answered these FAQs. Topics were finalized with harmonized recommendations that were made by assigning an A through E strength of recommendation paired with a level of supporting evidence graded I through III. The fourth topic in the series focuses on the management and treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-resistant/refractory (R/R) infections. The diagnosis, definitions of R/R CMV, risk factors, virologic genotypes, and treatment algorithms are reviewed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.09.010DOI Listing
September 2021

Initial therapy of chronic graft vs. host disease: Analysis of practice variation and failure-free survival.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, SEATTLE, Washington, United States.

Prior clinical trials largely considered prednisone 1mg/kg/day with or without calcineurin inhibitor as standard initial therapy for chronic graft vs. host disease (cGVHD) but uncertainty remains regarding the extent of practice variation and whether this affects subsequent outcomes. We assembled a cohort of 745 cGVHD patients treated with initial systemic immune suppressive (IS) therapy from three prior Chronic GVHD Consortium observational studies. Initial therapy was defined as first IS therapy started for cGVHD or prednisone increased to ≥ 0.4mg/kg/day from lower doses within 30 days before cGVHD diagnosis to any time afterward. Initial therapies were non-prednisone IS therapies (n=137, 18%), prednisone alone (n=411, 55%), or prednisone plus other IS therapy (n=197, 26%). In multivariate analysis, initial therapy group was not associated with FFS (failure-free survival, a composite of death, relapse, new IS therapy), overall survival (OS) or non-relapse mortality (NRM). Among the prednisone-based approaches, steroid dose (mg/kg/day) was <0.25 (9%), 0.25-0.74 (36%), 0.75-1.25 (42%), or >1.25 (13%). Prednisone dose within the steroid-treated patients was not significantly associated with FFS, OS, or NRM. No significant interactions were detected between overall cGVHD severity and either initial therapy group or prednisone dose for the outcomes of FFS, OS, or NRM. These observational data document heterogeneity in more contemporary cGVHD initial treatment practices, including prednisone dose and use of non-steroid approaches. This variation was not associated with FFS, OS, or NRM. Prospective trials are needed to verify efficacy of reduced-dose prednisone or prednisone-free initial therapy approaches.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005286DOI Listing
September 2021

Non-relapse mortality among patients diagnosed with chronic GVHD: An updated analysis from The Chronic GVHD Consortium.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, United States.

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the leading cause of late morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. To better understand patients at highest risk for non-relapse mortality (NRM), we analyzed patient, transplant, and chronic GVHD-related variables, risk factors, and causes of non-relapse deaths in an updated cohort of 937 subjects enrolled on two prospective, longitudinal observational studies through the Chronic GVHD Consortium. The median follow-up of survivors was 4 years (0.1 months - 12.5 years). Relapse accounted for 25% of the 333 deaths. The cumulative incidence of NRM was 22% at 5 years and increased over time with a projected 40% (95%CI, 30-50) at 12 years. Centers reported that chronic GVHD (37.8%) was the commonest cause of NRM and was associated with organ failure, infection, or additional cause not otherwise specified. The next most frequent causes without mention of chronic GVHD were infection (17%) and respiratory failure (10%). In multivariate analysis, an increased risk for NRM was significantly associated with the use of reduced intensity conditioning, higher total bilirubin, NIH skin score 2-3, NIH lung score 1-3, worse modified HAP adjusted activity score, and decreased distance on walk test. In conclusion, chronic GVHD NRM does not plateau but increases over time and is most commonly attributed to GVHD or infection, presumably associated with immunocompromised status. Severe skin and lung chronic GVHD remain challenging manifestations associated with increased NRM, for which novel therapeutic options are needed that do not predispose patients to infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004941DOI Listing
September 2021

American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Series: #3-Prevention of Cytomegalovirus Infection and Disease After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 09;27(9):707-719

Division of Infectious Diseases, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

The Practice Guidelines Committee of the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy partnered with its Transplant Infectious Disease Special Interest Group to update its 2009 compendium-style infectious diseases guidelines for the care of hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. A new approach was taken with the goal of better serving clinical providers by publishing each standalone topic in the infectious disease series as a concise format of frequently asked questions (FAQ), tables, and figures. Adult and pediatric infectious disease and HCT content experts developed and answered FAQs. Topics were finalized with harmonized recommendations that were made by assigning an A through E strength of recommendation paired with a level of supporting evidence graded I through III. The third topic in the series focuses on the prevention of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in HCT recipients by reviewing prophylaxis and preemptive therapy approaches; key definitions, relevant risk factors, and diagnostic monitoring considerations are also reviewed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.001DOI Listing
September 2021

Seroprevalence of Measles and Mumps Antibodies Among Individuals With Cancer.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2118508. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.

Importance: Although patients with cancer are at an increased risk of infection-related complications, few studies have characterized their vulnerability to measles and mumps. Given the recent outbreaks and increased community vaccine hesitancy, understanding measles and mumps immunity within this population is vital.

Objectives: To identify a point prevalence estimate of protective measles and mumps antibodies among ambulatory patients with cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this cross-sectional study, residual clinical plasma samples were obtained from consecutive patients with cancer at Seattle Cancer Care Alliance/Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington, in August 2019. These samples were tested for measles and mumps IgG using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients without cancer were excluded from the analysis.

Exposures: Patient age, sex, self-reported race and ethnicity, primary disease, receipt of chemotherapy in the past 30 days before sample collection, hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) history, and date of most recent intravenous immunoglobulin treatment were abstracted from electronic medical records.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Measles and mumps IgG seroprevalence, defined as the proportion of patients with positive antibody test results, was measured overall and among the subgroups.

Results: Of the 959 patients included in the analysis, 510 (53%) were male individuals and the mean (SD) age at sample collection was 60 (15) years. Most patients (576 [60%]) had a malignant solid tumor, and 383 patients (40%) had a hematologic malignant neoplasm; 146 patients (15%) had an HCT history. Overall, the seroprevalence of measles antibodies was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.72-0.78), and the seroprevalence of mumps antibodies was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.59-0.65). The lowest seroprevalences were among patients with a hematologic malignant neoplasm (0.63 for measles and 0.48 for mumps), those with a history of HCT (0.46 for measles and 0.29 for mumps), and those aged 30 to 59 years (0.49-0.63 for measles and 0.41-0.58 for mumps).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, 25% of ambulatory patients with cancer lacked protective antibodies for measles and 38% lacked protective antibodies for mumps. Deficits in protective antibodies underscore patients' increased risk during outbreaks and emphasize the need for community-based efforts to increase herd immunity to protect this population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.18508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319758PMC
July 2021

Standardizing Definitions of Hematopoietic Recovery, Graft Rejection, Graft Failure, Poor Graft Function, and Donor Chimerism in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Report on Behalf of the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 08;27(8):642-649

West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is potentially curative for certain hematologic malignancies and nonmalignant diseases. The field of allo-HCT has witnessed significant advances, including broadening indications for transplantation, availability of alternative donor sources, less toxic preparative regimens, new cell manipulation techniques, and novel GVHD prevention methods, all of which have expanded the applicability of the procedure. These advances have led to clinical practice conundrums when applying traditional definitions of hematopoietic recovery, graft rejection, graft failure, poor graft function, and donor chimerism, because these may vary based on donor type, cell source, cell dose, primary disease, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, and conditioning intensity, among other variables. To address these contemporary challenges, we surveyed a panel of allo-HCT experts in an attempt to standardize these definitions. We analyzed survey responses from adult and pediatric transplantation physicians separately. Consensus was achieved for definitions of neutrophil and platelet recovery, graft rejection, graft failure, poor graft function, and donor chimerism, but not for delayed engraftment. Here we highlight the complexities associated with the management of mixed donor chimerism in malignant and nonmalignant hematologic diseases, which remains an area for future research. We recognize that there are multiple other specific, and at times complex, clinical scenarios for which clinical management must be individualized.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.007DOI Listing
August 2021

Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Graft-versus-Host Disease after Cord Blood Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 07;27(7):540-544

Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapies, Department of Medicine, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina.

The incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after cord blood (CB) transplantation (CBT) is lower than expected given the marked degree of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatch of CB grafts. While the exact mechanism that underlies this biology remains unclear, it is hypothesized to be due to the low number of mostly immature T-cells infused as part of the graft1,2, and increased tolerance of CB-derived lymphocytes induced by the state of pregnancy. Nevertheless, acute GVHD (aGVHD) is a significant complication of CBT. In contrast, the incidence of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) following CBT is lower than what is observed following matched related or unrelated donor HSC transplantation (HSCT)3-6. This review outlines the guidelines for the prevention and management of acute and chronic GVHD following CBT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.03.012DOI Listing
July 2021

Systematic Reviews in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy: Considerations and Guidance from the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, and Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 05 28;27(5):380-388. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Electronic address:

Systematic reviews apply rigorous methodologies to address a prespecified, clearly formulated clinical research question. The conclusion that results is often cited to more robustly inform decision making by clinicians, third-party payers, and managed care organizations about the clinical question of interest. Although systematic reviews provide a rigorous standard, they may be infeasible when the task is to create general disease-focused guidelines comprising multiple clinical practice questions versus a single major clinical practice question. Collaborating transplantation and cellular therapy society committees also recognize that the quantity and or quality of reference sources may be insufficient for a meaningful systematic review. As the conduct of systematic reviews has evolved over time in terms of grading systems, reporting requirements, and use of technology, here we provide current guidance on methodologies, resources for reviewers, and approaches to overcome challenges in conducting systematic reviews in transplantation and cellular therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.12.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8415092PMC
May 2021

National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: I. The 2020 Etiology and Prevention Working Group Report.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 06 2;27(6):452-466. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Division of Hematological Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Preventing chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains challenging because the unique cellular and molecular pathways that incite chronic GVHD are poorly understood. One major point of intervention for potential prevention of chronic GVHD occurs at the time of transplantation when acute donor anti-recipient immune responses first set the events in motion that result in chronic GVHD. After transplantation, additional insults causing tissue injury can incite aberrant immune responses and loss of tolerance, further contributing to chronic GVHD. Points of intervention are actively being identified so that chronic GVHD initiation pathways can be targeted without affecting immune function. The major objective in the field is to continue basic studies and to translate what is learned about etiopathology to develop targeted prevention strategies that decrease the risk of morbid chronic GVHD without increasing the risks of cancer relapse or infection. Development of strategies to predict the risk of developing debilitating or deadly chronic GVHD is a high research priority. This working group recommends further interrogation into the mechanisms underpinning chronic GVHD development, and we highlight considerations for future trial design in prevention trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217141PMC
June 2021

Commentary: Is Immune Recovery-Based Post-Transplantation Vaccination in Children Better Than Time-Based Revaccination?

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 04 6;27(4):281-283. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

University of Washington Department of Pediatrics, Seattle, Washington; Pediatric Transplant Infectious Disease, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington; Affiliate, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.03.007DOI Listing
April 2021

American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Infectious Disease Guidelines: Preface to the Series.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 02 10;27(2):103-104. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Hematology and Stem Cell Transplantation Section, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.10.004DOI Listing
February 2021

American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Series, 1: Enterobacterales Infection Prevention and Management after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 02;27(2):108-114

Department of Infectious Diseases, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

The Practice Guidelines Committee of the American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy partnered with its Transplant Infectious Disease Special Interest Group to update its 2009 compendium-style infectious diseases guidelines for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). A completely fresh approach was taken, with the goal of better serving clinical providers by publishing each stand-alone topic in the infectious diseases series in a concise format of frequently asked questions (FAQs), tables, and figures [1]. Adult and pediatric infectious diseases and HCT content experts developed and then answered FAQs, and then finalized topics with harmonized recommendations that were made by assigning a strength of recommendation ranging from A to E paired with a level of supporting evidence graded I to III. The first topic in the series focuses on potentially life-threatening infections in HCT caused by Enterobacterales, relevant infection risk factors, and practical considerations regarding prevention and treatment of these infections in the setting of emerging multidrug resistance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.10.001DOI Listing
February 2021

American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Series, 2: Management and Prevention of Aspergillosis in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipients.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 03;27(3):201-211

Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

The Practice Guidelines Committee of the American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy partnered with its Transplant Infectious Disease Special Interest Group to update its 2009 compendium-style infectious disease guidelines for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). A completely fresh approach was taken with the goal of better serving clinical providers by publishing each standalone topic in the infectious disease series as a concise format of frequently asked questions (FAQs), tables, and figures. Adult and pediatric infectious disease and HCT content experts developed, then answered FAQs, and finalized topics with harmonized recommendations that were made by assigning an A through E strength of recommendation paired with a level of supporting evidence graded I through III. This second guideline in the series focuses on invasive aspergillosis, a potentially life-threatening infection in the peri-HCT period. The relevant risk factors, diagnostic considerations, and prophylaxis and treatment approaches are reviewed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.10.003DOI Listing
March 2021

Challenges and Opportunities for COVID-19 Vaccines in Patients with Cancer.

Cancer Invest 2021 Mar 18;39(3):205-213. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Given the rapidly expanding global spread of the SARS-Co-V-2 virus and the expanding number of individuals with the serious and potentially fatal illness, COVID-19, there is an urgent need for safe and effective vaccines. Based on compelling evidence that patients with cancer are at increased risk for greater morbidity and mortality with COVID-19, several professional organizations have provided early guidance on the role of COVID-19 vaccines in patients with malignant disease. In this commentary we review the available data on the efficacy and safety of the approved and forthcoming vaccines in patients with cancer. Based on a review of the totality of available evidence, we recommend that most patients with cancer should receive the recommended dose and schedule of one of the COVID-19 vaccines when available. We encourage industry, regulators and professional research organizations to carefully track the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with cancer in the real world setting and routinely report unanticipated adverse events and signs of loss of efficacy. Particular attention is needed for patients on active cancer therapy to carefully evaluate efficacy and safety in relationship to the timing of vaccination relative to that of active cancer treatment and immunosuppression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07357907.2021.1885596DOI Listing
March 2021

Systematic reviews in hematopoietic cell transplantation and cellular therapy: considerations and guidance from the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research late effects and quality of life working committee.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 04 29;56(4):786-797. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Systematic reviews apply rigorous methodologies to address a pre-specified, clearly formulated clinical research question. The conclusion that results is often cited to more robustly inform decision-making by clinicians, third-party payers and managed care organizations about the clinical question of interest. While systematic reviews provide a rigorous standard, they may be unfeasible when the task is to create general disease-focused guidelines comprised of multiple clinical practice questions versus a single major clinical practice question. Collaborating transplantation and cellular therapy societal committees also recognize that the quantity and or quality of reference sources may be insufficient for a meaningful systematic review. As the conduct of systematic reviews has evolved over time in terms of grading systems, reporting requirements and use of technology, here we provide current guidance in methodologies, resources for reviewers, and approaches to overcome challenges in conducting systematic reviews in transplantation and cellular therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01199-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168056PMC
April 2021

Blood and marrow transplantation during the emerging COVID-19 pandemic: the Seattle approach.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 02 26;56(2):305-313. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

On January 20, 2020, the first patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States of America was diagnosed in Washington state, which subsequently experienced rapidly increasing numbers of COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths. This placed the Seattle Blood and Marrow Transplant Program at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Fred Hutch) in the national epicenter of this pandemic. Here, we summarize the experience gained during our rapid response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our efforts were aimed at safely performing urgent and potentially life-saving stem cell transplants in the setting of pandemic-related stresses on healthcare resources and shelter-in-place public health measures. We describe the unique circumstances and challenges encountered, the current state of the program amidst evolving COVID-19 cases in our community, and the guiding principles for recovery. We also estimate the collateral impact of directing clinical resources toward COVID-19-related care on cancer patients in need of stem cell transplantation. Although our experience was influenced by specific regional and institutional factors, it may help inform how transplant programs respond to COVID-19 and future pandemics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01068-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7519858PMC
February 2021

Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia: An Evidence-Based Review from the American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 01 20;27(1):6-20. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

EBMT Paris Study Office, Paris, France; Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

The role of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the management of newly diagnosed adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is reviewed and critically evaluated in this evidence-based review. An AML expert panel, consisting of both transplant and nontransplant experts, was invited to develop clinically relevant frequently asked questions covering disease- and HCT-related topics. A systematic literature review was conducted to generate core recommendations that were graded based on the quality and strength of underlying evidence based on the standardized criteria established by the American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Steering Committee for evidence-based reviews. Allogeneic HCT offers a survival benefit in patients with intermediate- and high-risk AML and is currently a part of standard clinical care. We recommend the preferential use of myeloablative conditioning in eligible patients. A haploidentical related donor marrow graft is preferred over a cord blood unit in the absence of a fully HLA-matched donor. The evolving role of allogeneic HCT in the context of measurable residual disease monitoring and recent therapeutic advances in AML with regards to maintenance therapy after HCT are also discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.09.020DOI Listing
January 2021

Bone Health Management After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: An Expert Panel Opinion from the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 10 9;26(10):1784-1802. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Division of Clinical Research, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Bone health disturbances commonly occur after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and avascular necrosis (AVN) foremost among them. BMD loss is related to pretransplantation chemotherapy and radiation exposure and immunosuppressive therapy for graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) and results from deficiencies in growth or gonadal hormones, disturbances in calcium and vitamin D homeostasis, as well as osteoblast and osteoclast dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of AVN remains unclear, high-dose glucocorticoid exposure is the most frequent association. Various societal treatment guidelines for osteoporosis exist, but the focus is mainly on menopausal-associated osteoporosis. HCT survivors comprise a distinct population with unique comorbidities, making general approaches to bone health management inappropriate in some cases. To address a core set of 16 frequently asked questions (FAQs) relevant to bone health in HCT, the American Society of Transplant and Cellular Therapy Committee on Practice Guidelines convened a panel of experts in HCT, adult and pediatric endocrinology, orthopedics, and oral medicine. Owing to a lack of relevant prospective controlled clinical trials that specifically address bone health in HCT, the answers to the FAQs rely on evidence derived from retrospective HCT studies, results extrapolated from prospective studies in non-HCT settings, relevant societal guidelines, and expert panel opinion. Given the heterogenous comorbidities and needs of individual HCT recipients, answers to FAQs in this article should be considered general recommendations, with good medical practice and judgment ultimately dictating care of individual patients. Readers are referred to the Supplementary Material for answers to additional FAQs that did not make the core set.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.07.001DOI Listing
October 2020

HLA-Haploidentical Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Treatment of Nonmalignant Diseases Using Nonmyeloablative Conditioning and Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 07 28;26(7):1332-1341. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington; Division of Hematology and Oncology, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington. Electronic address:

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is often the only curative therapy for patients with nonmalignant diseases; however, many patients do not have an HLA-matched donor. Historically, poor survival has been seen after HLA-haploidentical HCT because of poor immune reconstitution, increased infections, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and graft failure. Encouraging results have been reported using a nonmyeloablative T cell-replete HLA-haploidentical transplant approach in patients with hematologic malignancies. Here we report the outcomes of 23 patients with various nonmalignant diseases using a similar approach. Patients received HLA-haploidentical bone marrow (n = 17) or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cell (n = 6) grafts after conditioning with cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg, fludarabine 150 mg/m, and 2 or 4 Gy total body irradiation. Postgrafting immunosuppression consisted of cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, ± sirolimus. Median patient age at HCT was 10.8 years. Day 100 transplant-related mortality (TRM) was 0%. Two patients died at later time points, 1 from intracranial hemorrhage/disseminated fungal infection in the setting of graft failure and 1 from infection/GVHD. The estimated probabilities of grades II to IV and III to IV acute GVHD at day 100 and 2-year National Institutes of Health consensus chronic GVHD were 78%, 26%, and 42%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 2.5 years, the 2-year overall and event-free rates of survival were 91% and 78%, respectively. These results are encouraging and demonstrate favorable disease-specific lineage engraftment with low TRM in patients with nonmalignant diseases using nonmyeloablative conditioning followed by T cell-replete HLA-haploidentical grafts. However, additional strategies are needed for GVHD prevention to make this a viable treatment approach for patients with nonmalignant diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.03.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306430PMC
July 2020

Late infectious complications in hematopoietic cell transplantation survivors: a population-based study.

Blood Adv 2020 04;4(7):1232-1241

Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA.

Few studies have compared the incidence of infections occurring ≥2 years after hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) with other cancer patients and the general population. In this study, ≥2-year HCT survivors who were Washington residents treated from 1992 through 2009 (n = 1792; median age, 46 years; 52% allogeneic; 90% hematologic malignancies) were matched to individuals from the state cancer registry (n = 5455, non-HCT) and driver's license files (n = 16 340; Department of Licensing [DOL]). Based on hospital and death registry codes, incidence rate ratios (IRRs; 95% confidence interval [CI]) of infections by organism type and organ system were estimated using Poisson regression. With 7-year median follow-up, the incidence rate (per 1000 person-years) of all infections was 65.4 for HCT survivors vs 39.6 for the non-HCT group (IRR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-1.9) and 7.2 for DOL (IRR, 10.0; 95% CI, 8.3-12.1). Bacterial and fungal infections were each 70% more common in HCT vs non-HCT cancer survivors (IRR, 1.7; P < .01), whereas the risk for viral infection was lower (IRR, 1.4; P = .07). Among potentially vaccine-preventable organisms, the IRR was 3.0 (95% CI, 2.1-4.3) vs the non-HCT group. Although the incidences of all infections decreased with time, the relative risk in almost all categories remained significantly increased in ≥5-year HCT survivors vs other groups. Risk factors for late infection included history of relapse and for some infections, history of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Providers caring for HCT survivors should maintain vigilance for infections and ensure adherence to antimicrobial prophylaxis and vaccination guidelines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160274PMC
April 2020

Indications for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation and Immune Effector Cell Therapy: Guidelines from the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 07 9;26(7):1247-1256. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

BMT & Cellular Therapy Program, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

The American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (ASTCT) published its first white paper on indications for autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in 2015. It was identified at the time that periodic updates of indications would be required to stay abreast with state of the art and emerging indications and therapy. In recent years the field has not only seen an improvement in transplantation technology, thus widening the therapeutic scope of HCT, but additionally a whole new treatment strategy using modified immune effector cells, including chimeric antigen receptor T cells and engineered T-cell receptors, has emerged. The guidelines review committee of the ASTCT deemed it optimal to update the ASTCT recommendations for indications for HCT to include new data and to incorporate indications for immune effector cell therapy (IECT) where appropriate. The guidelines committee established a multiple stakeholder task force consisting of transplant experts, payer representatives, and a patient advocate to provide guidance on indications for HCT and IECT. This article presents the updated recommendations from the ASTCT on indications for HCT and IECT. Indications for HCT/IECT were categorized as (1) Standard of care, where indication is well defined and supported by evidence; (2) Standard of care, clinical evidence available, where large clinical trials and observational studies are not available but have been shown to be effective therapy; (3) Standard of care, rare indication, for rare diseases where demonstrated effectiveness exists but large clinical trials and observational studies are not feasible; (4) Developmental, for diseases where preclinical and/or early-phase clinical studies show HCT/IECT to be a promising treatment option; and (5) Not generally recommended, where available evidence does not support the routine use of HCT/IECT. The ASTCT will continue to periodically review these guidelines and update them as new evidence becomes available.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.03.002DOI Listing
July 2020

Assessment of ST2 for risk of death following graft-versus-host disease in pediatric and adult age groups.

Blood 2020 04;135(17):1428-1437

Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

Assessment of prognostic biomarkers of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the pediatric age group is lacking. To address this need, we conducted a prospective cohort study with 415 patients at 6 centers: 170 were children age 10 years or younger and 245 were patients older than age 10 years (both children and adults were accrued from 2013 to 2018). The following 4 plasma biomarkers were assessed pre-HCT and at days +7, +14, and +21 post-HCT: stimulation-2 (ST2), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), regenerating islet-derived protein 3α (REG3α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). We performed landmark analyses for NRM, dichotomizing the cohort at age 10 years or younger and using each biomarker median as a cutoff for high- and low-risk groups. Post-HCT biomarker analysis showed that ST2 (>26 ng/mL), TNFR1 (>3441 pg/mL), and REG3α (>25 ng/mL) are associated with NRM in children age 10 years or younger (ST2: hazard ratio [HR], 9.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.74-30.38; P = .0003; TNFR1: HR, 4.29; 95% CI, 1.48-12.48; P = .0073; REG3α: HR, 7.28; 95% CI, 2.05-25.93; P = .0022); and in children and adults older than age 10 years (ST2: HR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.15-5.86; P = .021; TNFR1: HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 0.96-4.58; P = .06; and REG3α: HR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.19-5.55; P = .016). When pre-HCT biomarkers were included, only ST2 remained significant in both cohorts. After adjustment for significant covariates (race/ethnicity, malignant disease, graft, and graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis), ST2 remained associated with NRM only in recipients age 10 years or younger (HR, 4.82; 95% CI, 1.89-14.66; P = .0056). Assays of ST2, TNFR1, and REG3α in the first 3 weeks after HCT have prognostic value for NRM in both children and adults. The presence of ST2 before HCT is a prognostic biomarker for NRM in children age 10 years or younger allowing for additional stratification. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02194439.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019002334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7180084PMC
April 2020

Refined National Institutes of Health response algorithm for chronic graft-versus-host disease in joints and fascia.

Blood Adv 2020 01;4(1):40-46

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Implementation of the 2014 National Institutes of Health (NIH) response algorithm for joint/fascia graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) has identified real-world limits to its application. To refine the 2014 NIH response algorithm, we analyzed multicenter prospective observational data from the Chronic GVHD Consortium. The training cohort included 209 patients and the replication cohort included 191 patients with joint/fascia involvement during their course of chronic GVHD. Linear mixed models with random patient effect were used to evaluate correlations between response categories and clinician- or patient-perceived changes in joint status as an anchor of response. Analysis of the training cohort showed that a 2-point change in total photographic range of motion (P-ROM) score was clinically meaningful. The results also suggested that a change from 0 to 1 on the NIH joint/fascia score should not be considered as worsening and suggested that both the NIH joint/fascia score and total P-ROM score, but not individual P-ROM scores, should be used for response assessment. On the basis of these results, we developed an evidence-based refined algorithm, the utility of which was examined in an independent replication cohort. Using the refined algorithm, ∼40% of responses were reclassified, largely mitigating most divergent responses among individual joints and changes from 0 to 1 on the NIH joint/fascia score. The refined algorithm showed robust point estimates and tighter 95% confidence intervals associated with clinician- or patient-perceived changes, compared with the 2014 NIH algorithm. The refined algorithm provides a superior, evidence-based method for measuring therapeutic response in joint/fascia chronic GVHD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960471PMC
January 2020

Vaccine Oka Varicella Meningitis in Two Adolescents.

Pediatrics 2019 12;144(6)

Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington.

The live-attenuated varicella vaccine, a routine immunization in the United States since 1995, is both safe and effective. Like wild-type varicella-zoster virus, however, vaccine Oka (vOka) varicella can establish latency and reactivate as herpes zoster, rarely leading to serious disease, particularly among immunocompromised hosts. Previous cases of reactivated vOka resulting in meningitis have been described in young children who received a single dose of varicella vaccine; less is known about vOka reactivation in older children after the 2-dose vaccine series. We present 2 adolescents with reactivated vOka meningitis, 1 immunocompetent and 1 immunocompromised, both of whom received 2 doses of varicella vaccine many years before as children. Pediatricians should be aware of the potential of vOka varicella to reactivate and cause clinically significant central nervous system disease in vaccinated children and adolescents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-1522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6889945PMC
December 2019

Survivorship after Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma: Late Effects and Quality of Life.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 02 9;26(2):407-412. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Medicine/Medical Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Although autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) is standard therapy for patients with lymphoma and multiple myeloma (MM), few studies have addressed late effects and quality of life (QoL) in long-term survivors after AHCT. Using long-term follow-up (LTFU) annual questionnaires with self-reported outcomes, we surveyed 665 patients who were at ≥5 years after AHCT for the diagnosis of lymphoma or MM. Three-hundred and eighty-nine patients completed the questionnaire (58% response rate) at a median of 11 years (range, 5-30 years) after AHCT. The median patient age was 63 years (range, 22-88 years) in the 268 patients with lymphoma and 69 years (range, 34-84 years) in the 121 patients with multiple myeloma. The most commonly reported medical conditions (>10% incidence) were sexual dysfunction, history of shingles, cataracts, osteoporosis or osteopenia, joint replacement, and skin cancer. Current medication use was more frequent in the patients with MM for infection prevention/treatment (19% for MM versus 5% lymphoma; P < .001), hypertension (41% versus 26%; P = .004), osteoporosis (23% versus 10%; P < .001), and pain (32% versus 11%, P < .001). Treated hypothyroidism was more common in lymphoma patients. In multivariate analysis combining lymphoma and MM, worse physical functioning was associated with older age, shorter interval since AHCT, comorbidities, relapse, and treatment for depression and/or pain. Worse mental functioning was associated with younger age and treatment for anxiety, depression, or pain. In conclusion, AHCT survivors report generally good QoL but many late effects and symptoms that are potentially amenable to intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.10.002DOI Listing
February 2020

Use of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy in Clinical Practice for Relapsed/Refractory Aggressive B Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: An Expert Panel Opinion from the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 12 22;25(12):2305-2321. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Lymphoma Program, Abramson Cancer Center at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Axicabtagene ciloleucel (YESCARTA; Kite Pharma, a Gilead Company, Los Angeles CA) and tisagenlecleucel (KYMRIAH; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp., Basel, Switzerland) are two CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell products currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration; the European Medicines Agency; Health Canada; Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (Japan); and Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia) for treatment of specific subtypes of relapsed/refractory aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Although this approval has been transformative in the use of cellular immunotherapy in lymphoma, there are concerns regarding appropriate use of this novel therapy and of short- and long-term toxicities. To address these issues, representatives of the American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy convened to recognize and address key issues surrounding the clinical application of CD19 CAR T cell therapy in B cell lymphomas, in collaboration with worldwide experts. The aim of this article is to provide consensus opinion from experts in the fields of hematopoietic cell transplantation, cellular immunotherapy, and lymphoma regarding key clinical questions pertinent to the use of CD19 CAR T cell products for the treatment of NHL. As the clinical practice using CAR T cells grows worldwide, we anticipate that this guidance will be relevant for hematology/oncology physicians who care for patients with lymphomas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.08.015DOI Listing
December 2019

Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Updated 2019 Evidence-Based Review from the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 11 22;25(11):2113-2123. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Division of Hematology/Oncology/Transplantation, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN.

The role of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is reviewed and critically evaluated in this systematic evidence-based review. Specific criteria were used for searching the published literature and for grading the quality and strength of the evidence and the strength of the recommendations. A panel of ALL experts developed consensus on the treatment recommendations based on the evidence. Allogeneic HCT offers a survival benefit in selected patients with ALL, and this review summarizes the standard indications as well as the areas of controversy. There is now greater experience with pediatric-inspired chemotherapy regimens that has transformed upfront therapy for adult ALL, resulting in higher remission rates and overall survival. This in turn has increased the equipoise around decision making for ALL in first complete remission (CR1) when there is no measurable residual disease (MRD) at the end of induction and/or consolidation. Randomized studies are needed for adults with ALL to compare allogeneic HCT in CR1 with pediatric-inspired chemotherapy alone. Indications for transplantation in the evolving landscape of MRD assessments and novel targeted and immune therapeutics remain important areas of investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.08.014DOI Listing
November 2019
-->