Publications by authors named "Patryk Oleszczuk"

96 Publications

Modification of ordered mesoporous carbon for removal of environmental contaminants from aqueous phase: A review.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 30;418:126266. Epub 2021 May 30.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127, China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety of Ministry of Education of China, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, China. Electronic address:

Contamination of water bodies by potentially toxic elements and organic pollutants has aroused extensive concerns worldwide. Thus it is significant to develop effective adsorbents for removing these contaminants. As a new member of carbonaceous material families (activated carbon, biochar, and graphene), ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) with larger specific surface area, ordered pore structure, and higher pore volume are being evaluated for their use in contaminant removal. In this paper, modification techniques of OMC were systematically reviewed for the first time. These include nonmetallic doping modification (nitrogen, sulfur, and boron) and the impregnation of nano-metals and metal oxides (iron, copper, cobalt, nickel, magnesium, and rare earth element). Reaction conditions (solution pH, reaction temperature, sorbent dosage, and contact time) are of critical importance for the removal performance of contaminants onto OMC. In addition, the pristine and modified OMC have been investigated for the removal of a range of contaminants, including cationic/anionic toxic elements and organic contaminants (synthetic dye, phenol, and others), and involving different and specific mechanisms of interaction with contaminants. The future research directions of the application of pristine and modified OMC were proposed. Overall, this review can provide sights into the modification techniques of OMC for removal of environmental contaminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126266DOI Listing
May 2021

Biochars ages differently depending on the feedstock used for their production: Willow- versus sewage sludge-derived biochars.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 1;789:147458. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 3 Maria Curie-Sklodowska Square, 20-031 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of abiotic aging of biochars under controlled laboratory conditions on its physicochemical properties and in consequence on their stability. Biochars (BCs) produced at 500 and 700 °C from willow or sewage sludge were incubated at different temperatures (-20, 4, 20, 60, or 90 °C) for 6 and 12 months. Pristine (i.e. immediately after their production) and aged BCs were characterized using a range of complementary methods. As a result of simulated temperature aging, there was a change in all biochar properties studied, with the direction of these changes being determined by both the type of feedstock and biochar production temperature. At all temperatures, aging was the most intense during the first 6 months and led to oxidation of the biochars and removal of the most labile components from them. The intensity of these processes increased with increasing aging temperature. Incubation of the biochars for another 6 months did not have such a significant effect on the biochar properties as that observed during the first months of incubation, which is evidence that the biochars had reached stability. The sewage sludge-derived biochars with a higher mineral content than the willow-derived biochars were less stable. The low-temperature biochars (BC-500) with lower aromaticity were more prone to abiotic oxidation than the high-temperature biochars (BC-700) with higher aromaticity and structurally ordered C. Based on this study, it can be concluded that aging induced changes will be specific for each biochar, i.e. they will depend on both the type of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. Nonetheless, all biochars will be oxidized to a smaller or greater extent, which will result in an increase in the number of surface oxygen functional groups, an increased degree of their hydrophilicity and polarity, and a decrease in pH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147458DOI Listing
October 2021

COVID-19 discarded disposable gloves as a source and a vector of pollutants in the environment.

J Hazard Mater 2021 09 27;417:125938. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

The appearance of the virus SARS-CoV-2 at the end of 2019 and its spreading all over the world has caused global panic and increase of personal protection equipment usage to protect people against infection. Increased usage of disposable protective gloves, their discarding to random spots and getting to landfills may result in significant environmental pollution. The knowledge concerning possible influence of gloves and potential of gloves debris on the environment (water, soil, etc.), wildlife and humans is crucial to predict future consequences of disposable gloves usage caused by the pandemic. This review focuses on the possibility of chemical release (heavy metals and organic pollutants) from gloves and gloves materials, their adsorptive properties in terms of contaminants accumulation and effects of gloves degradation under environmental conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076738PMC
September 2021

Four Types of TiO Reduced the Growth of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains.

Foods 2021 Apr 25;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Functional Anatomy and Cytobiology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland.

Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO) containing a nanoparticle fraction (TiO NPs -nanoparticles) is widely used as a food additive (E171 in the EU). In recent years, it has increasingly been raising controversies as to the presence or absence of its harmful effects on the gastrointestinal microbiota. The complexity and variability of microbiota species present in the human gastrointestinal tract impede the assessment of the impact of food additives on this ecosystem. As unicellular organisms, bacteria are a very convenient research model for investigation of the toxicity of nanoparticles. We examined the effect of TiO (three types of food-grade E171 and one TiO NPs, 21 nm) on the growth of 17 strains of lactic acid bacteria colonizing the human digestive tract. Each bacterial strain was treated with TiO at four concentrations (60, 150, 300, and 600 mg/L TiO). The differences in the growth of the individual strains were caused by the type and concentration of TiO. It was shown that the growth of a majority of the analyzed strains was decreased by the application of E171 and TiO NPs already at the concentration of 150 and 300 mg/L. At the highest dose (600 mg/L) of the nanoparticles, the reactions of the bacteria to the different TiO types used in the experiment varied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10050939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146636PMC
April 2021

Sewage sludge and solid residues from biogas production derived biochar as an effective bio-waste adsorbent of fulvic acids from water or wastewater.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 5;278:130447. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 3, 20-031, Lublin, Poland.

Due to environmental concern, direct utilization of sewage sludge or residues from biogas production is restricted. Conversion of problematic bio-wastes into biochars can be a very effective solution. In the presented study, the adsorption of fulvic acids onto series of biochars produced from bio-wastes such as sewage sludge, residues from biogas production, and plant (Miscanthus sp.) were performed to examine the behavior of biochars in the environment and interactions with fulvic acids as the representatives of dissolved organic matter. The results clearly indicate that the highest excess of fulvic acids, 93-96 mg g, was chemisorbed onto biochar obtained specifically from sewage sludge. The mechanism of the adsorption was independent from applied biochar feedstock. Monolayer coverage was dominant onto all biochars. Generally, adsorption was assumed to be controlled by polar interactions between fulvic acids and the biochars or pre-adsorbed and residual fulvic acids molecules (which were dominant) and the strong π-π interactions. The obtained high values of the adsorption capacity of sewage sludge derived biochars confirmed that thermal treatment is a very effective tool of bio-waste management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130447DOI Listing
September 2021

Comparison of lead(II) ions accumulation and bioavailability on the montmorillonite and kaolinite surfaces in the presence of polyacrylamide soil flocculant.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 24;276:130088. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie- Sklodowska University in Lublin, M. Curie-Sklodowska Sq. 3, 20-031, Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

Heavy metals, such as Pb(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), do not degrade like organic compounds and remain in soil for a long time. The presence of organic, mineral or polymeric substances (such as polyacrylamides) may contribute to the accumulation and immobilization of toxic metals in poorly absorbable form for living organisms. The main aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of lead(II) ions immobilization on the layered aluminosilicate surfaces in the anionic polyacrylamide presence. The effectiveness of Pb(II) adsorption was tested depending on metal cation concentration, content of dissociable groups in added flocculant as well as internal structure of clay mineral. The desorption tests of heavy metal ions were performed by the use of water and EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid). By means of measurements of suspension stability and aggregate size formed in the studied systems, the flocculating ability of anionic polyacrylamide was checked. The electrokinetic parameters of mineral particles, i.e. surface charge density and electrokinetic potential, without and with individual adsorbates were also determined. It has been shown that the Pb cations adsorbed amount and the effectiveness of their immobilization strongly depends on the polyacrylamide presence in the system and the internal structure of aluminosilicate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130088DOI Listing
August 2021

Simultaneous adsorption of Cu(II) ions and poly(acrylic acid) on the hybrid carbon-mineral nanocomposites with metallic elements.

J Hazard Mater 2021 06 14;412:125138. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie, Sklodowska University in Lublin, M. Curie-Sklodowska Sq. 3, 20-031 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

In order to propose a novel, effective adsorbent of Cu(II) ions, hybrid carbon-mineral nanocomposites with metallic elements (Mn/Fe in the case of B-6, Mn - B-8) were examined. A combination of mechanochemical and pyrolytic methods was used to obtain these bimodal micro-mesopore systems. First, mechanochemical mixing of phenol-formaldehyde resin and inorganic compounds in a ball mill was carried out. Then, the pyrolysis of the mixture under inert atmosphere at 800 °C was performed. The obtained composites were characterized using nitrogen adsorption/desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electron microscopes as well as X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption, electrokinetic and aggregation studies were also performed, in the absence and presence of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) - a macromolecular compound commonly used in industry and agriculture, which may be present in wastewater together with copper(II) ions. Under examined conditions (at pH 5 and 6), Cu(II) adsorbed amount was higher on the B-8 surface than on the B-6 one. At pH 6 for the initial Cu(II) concentration 100 ppm, 51.74% of the ions was adsorbed on B-8% and 46.68% - on B-6. Heavy metal adsorption contributes to stronger aggregation of nanocomposite particles. Thus, the presented bimodal solids, especially that containing Mn (called B-8), can be considered as adsorbents in heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125138DOI Listing
June 2021

Ecotoxicological assessment of sewage sludge-derived biochars-amended soil.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 10;275:116484. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Department of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, 3 Maria Curie-Skłodowska Square, 20-031, Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

The study aimed to evaluate the ecotoxicity of soil (S) amended with biochars (BCKN) produced by the thermal conversion of sewage sludge (SSL) at temperatures of 500 °C, 600 °C, or 700 °C and SSL itself. The ecotoxicological tests were carried out on organisms representing various trophic levels (Lepidium sativum in plant, Folsomia candida in invertebrates, and Aliivibrio fischeri in bacteria). Moreover, the study evaluated the effects of three plants (Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens, and Arabidopsis thaliana) growing on BCKN700-amended soil on its ecotoxicological properties. The experiment was carried out for six months. In most tests, the conversion of sewage sludge into biochar caused a significant decrease in toxicity by adding it to the soil. The pyrolysis temperature directly determined this effect. The soil amended with the biochars produced at higher temperatures (600 °C and 700 °C) generally exhibited lower toxicity to the test organisms than the SSL. Because of aging, all the biochars lost their inhibition properties against the tested organisms in the solid-phase tests and had a stimulating influence on the reproductive ability of F. candida. With time, the fertilizing effect of the BCKN700 amended soil also increased. The aged biochars also did not have an inhibitory effect on A. fischeri luminescence in the leachate tests. The study has also demonstrated that the cultivation of an appropriate plant species may additionally reduce the toxicity of soil fertilized with biochar. The obtained results show that the conversion of sewage sludge to biochar carried out at an appropriate temperature can become a useful method in reducing the toxicity of the waste and while being safe for agricultural purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116484DOI Listing
April 2021

The addition of biochar as a sustainable strategy for the remediation of PAH-contaminated sediments.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 7;263:128274. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125, Napoli, Italy.

The contamination of sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been widely spread for years due to human activities, imposing the research and development of effective remediation technologies for achieving efficient treatment and reuse of sediments. In this context, the amendment of biochar in PAH-contaminated sediments has been lately proposed as an innovative and sustainable technology. This review provides detailed information about the mechanisms and impacts associated with the supplementation of biochar to sediments polluted by PAHs. The properties of biochar employed in these applications have been thoroughly examined. Sorption onto biochar is the main mechanism involved in PAH removal from sediments. Sorption efficiency can be significantly improved even in the presence of a low remediation time (i.e. 30 d) when a multi-PAH system is used and biochar is provided with a high dosage (i.e. by 5% in a mass ratio with the sediment) and a specific surface area of approximately 360 m g. The use of biochar results in a decrease (i.e. up to 20%) of the PAH degradation during bioaugmentation and phytoremediation of sediments, as a consequence of the reduction of PAH bioavailability and an increase of water and nutrient retention. In contrast, PAH degradation has been reported to increase up to 54% when nitrate is used as electron acceptor in low-temperature biochar-amended sediments. Finally, biochar is effective in co-application with Fe for the persulfate degradation of PAHs (i.e. up to 80%), mainly when a high catalyst dose and an acidic pH are used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128274DOI Listing
January 2021

The chronic effects of CuO and ZnO nanoparticles on Eisenia fetida in relation to the bioavailability in aged soils.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 23;266:128982. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Poland.

The bioavailability and bioaccumulation of metal-based engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in soils need to be evaluated in environmentally relevant scenarios. The aim of this study was an analysis of potentially available metal-component ENPs (nano-ZnO and nano-CuO) in soils. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were used to examine the bioaccumulation potential of ENPs. Micro-particles (micro-ZnO and micro-CuO) and metal salts (ZnCl and CuCl) were used to evaluate the nano-effect and the activity of dissolved ions, respectively. Zn- and Cu-compounds were added to sandy loam and silt loam at a concentration of 10 mg kg. The bioavailable fractions of metals were extracted from soil using HO, MgCl with CHCOONa or EDTA. EDTA was the most effective extractant of Zn and Cu (10.06-11.65 mg Zn kg and 2.69-3.52 mg Cu kg), whereas the HO-extractable metal concentration was at the lowest level (1.98-2.12 mg Zn kg and 0.54-0.82 Cu mg kg). The bioavailable metal concentrations were significantly higher in silt loam than sandy loam soil, which was related to the higher pH value of silt. There were no significant differences between the Zn content in the earthworms incubated in the two soils, which may confirm the auto-regulation of the Zn content by earthworms. However, the bioaccumulation of Cu was strongly correlated with the extractable Cu concentrations. The juvenile earthworms accumulated Cu and Zn more than adults. Based on our results, aging neutralized the differences between the ionic and particulate effects of metal-compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128982DOI Listing
March 2021

THE DARK SIDE OF BLACK GOLD: Ecotoxicological aspects of biochar and biochar-amended soils.

J Hazard Mater 2021 02 6;403:123833. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Department of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, 3 Maria Curie-Skłodowska Square, 20-031 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

Biochar, a product of biomass pyrolysis, is characterized by significant surface area, porosity, high water holding capacity, and environmental persistence. It is perceived as a material that can counteract climate change due to its high carbon stability and is also considered suitable for soil amendment (fertility improvement, soil remediation). However, biochar can have a toxic effect on organisms as harmful substances may be present in it. This paper reviews the literature regarding the current knowledge of harmful substances in biochar and their potential negative impact on organisms from different trophic levels. The effects of biochar on the content and toxicity of harmful substances in biochar-amended soils are also reviewed. Application of biochar into soil does not usually have a toxic effect and very often stimulate plants, bacteria activity and invertebrates. The effect however is strictly determined by type of biochar (especially the feedstock used and pyrolysis temperature) as well as contaminants content. The pH, electrical conductivity, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as heavy metals are the main factor usually responsible for biochar toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123833DOI Listing
February 2021

Co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and biomass in carbon dioxide as a carrier gas affects the total and leachable metals in biochars.

J Hazard Mater 2020 12 12;400:123144. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, 3 Maria Curie-Skłodowska Square, 20-031 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

The total and available (water extracted) content of selected metal were determined in co-pyrolyzed SSL with willow (8:2, 6:2 w/w) at 500, 600, and 700 °C using two different carrier gases (N or CO). The study investigated the relationship of metal content and bioavailability to toxicity of biochars towards bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), plants (Lepidium sativum), and arthropods (Folsomia candida). For the biochar produced at a ratio of 6:4 (SSL:willow), the content of most metals significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) from 5.9% to 28.9%. Co-pyrolysis of SSL with willow decreased water extractable metal concentrations (Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn) from 8.0% to 100%. The CO resulted from 6 to 200 % increase (P ≤ 0.05) of metal content relative to the biochar pyrolyzed in N. An increase in pyrolysis temperature caused a higher concentration of the metals in the biochars. The available content of most metals decreased from 9 to 100 %. The adverse effect of these biochars on living organisms was reduced due to a stronger binding of the metals (especially Cu and Cd) with the biochar matrix. The negative impact of Cd, Cr, and Cu on living organisms was also confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123144DOI Listing
December 2020

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) persistence, bioavailability and toxicity in sewage sludge- or sewage sludge-derived biochar-amended soil.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Dec 23;747:141123. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 3, 20-031 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

Soils can be contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when either sewage sludge (SSL) or biochar (BC) are used. There are no comparative studies regarding the effects of soil amendment with SSL or BC on the persistence, bioavailability and toxicity of PAHs. This research compared the persistence of PAHs (based on the extractable content, C) and their bioavailability (freely dissolved, C) as well as the toxicity (solid phase: Phytotoxkit F with Lepidium sativum and the Collembolan test with Folsomia candida; leachates: Phytotestkit F with L. sativum and Microtox® with Aliivibrio fischeri) of soil amended with SSL or with SSL-derived BCs. BCs were produced from three different sewage sludges at a temperature of 500 °C. SSLs or BCs were added to the soil at a rate of 1% (30 t/ha). Adding SSL to the soil increased more the PAH content in it than after BC application, which was associated with a higher content of PAHs in SSL. Losses of Σ16 C and C PAHs were higher than those observed for biochar only in the case of one SSL. In the other cases, PAH losses were either higher for biochar or did not differ significantly between SSL and BC. On the other hand, the analysis of the individual groups of PAHs showed significant differences between SSL and BC, both for C and C. Nonetheless, these differences were largely driven by the type of sewage sludge and biochar. Only in the case of root growth inhibition the toxicity higher was for the SSL-amended soils than for the BC-amended ones. In the other cases, varying results were observed which were determined by the type of sewage sludge/biochar, similarly to PAH losses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141123DOI Listing
December 2020

PET-microplastics as a vector for heavy metals in a simulated plant rhizosphere zone.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Nov 15;744:140984. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, Iran.

Although microplastics (MPs) are ubiquitous contaminants in different ecosystems, their interactions with other pollutants including heavy metals remain relatively unknown. Wheat is an important grain that makes the basis of human food in many parts of the world. Thus, pollutants that affect its production are important subjects of study. This research focuses on the possible effects of the transport of the adsorbed heavy metals onto MPs to the roots of growing wheat. The adsorption of three heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Zn) onto PET particles was examined. Pb and Cd were selected because they are known to be toxic, while Zn is an essential nutrient for plants. Adsorption experiments were performed using 1 g of PET-MP particles in 20 ml of five different concentrations of each individual element (Pb, Cd, and Zn) (denoted as S-elements). To investigate the antagonistic and synergistic effects of these elements on each other, they were studied collectively with all 3 elements present (denoted as C-elements). Desorption experiments were then performed for three scenarios in which the wheat rhizosphere zone was simulated. Generally, the concentration of the investigated heavy metals adsorption on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) decreased in the order: S-Cd > S-Zn > S-Pb and C-Zn > T-Cd > C-Pb. PET particles exposed to Zn, Cd, and Pb solution adsorbed from 7.2 to 8.5%, 5.3 to 9.8%, and 29.8 to 68.5% of the initial heavy metals concentration, respectively. 11.3 to 15.2%, 12.5 to 23.35%, and 5.5 to 33.6% of the initially adsorbed Zn, Cd, and Pb were desorbed in the wheat rhizosphere zone in the three defined scenarios, respectively. The results show that PET particles can act as a vector in transferring heavy metals to the rhizosphere zone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140984DOI Listing
November 2020

Carbon dioxide as a carrier gas and mixed feedstock pyrolysis decreased toxicity of sewage sludge biochar.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 7;723:137796. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Department of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, 3 Maria Curie-Skłodowska Square, 20-031 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

The common use of sewage sludge (SSL)-derived biochar can be limited due to contaminants present in SSL, which may affect SSL-derived biochar toxicity. We propose the reduction of SSL-derived biochar toxicity by it co-pyrolysis with biomass and in CO atmosphere. Ecotoxicity of biochars produced at 500, 600, and 700 °C from SSL and SSL with the addition of willow (at a ratio of SSL:willow - 8:2 and 6:4, w/w) in an atmosphere of N or CO were investigated. The toxicity of aqueous extracts derived from the biochars (Lepidium sativum - Elongation test, Vibrio fischeri - Microtox) or solid-phase toxicity (Lepidium sativum - Phytotoxkit F, Folsomia candida - Collembolan test) was also studied. SSL-derived biochar produced at N atmosphere usually was toxic for all tested organisms. Co-pyrolysis of mixed feedstock reduced the toxicity of the produced biochar. In the case of biochars produced from SSL and willow under N atmosphere decrease in inhibition of F. candida reproduction (from 27 to 58%) or its stimulation (from 7 to 30%) in comparison to SSL alone derived biochar, was observed. Co-pyrolysis of SSL with willow significantly reduced the toxicity of extracts the SSL-derived biochar towards L. sativum. The aqueous extracts obtained from the biochars produced at temperatures of 500 and 600 °C with willow addition were also less toxic to V. fischeri than the biochars produced from SSL alone. The change of carrier gas from N to CO, regardless of the feedstock used, in most cases reduced toxicity or positively affected the test organisms. This was probably caused by changes in the physicochemical properties and content of contaminants in the biochars produced in an atmosphere of CO, compared to N. An exception was root growth inhibition in the solid phase tests where no significant differences were found between biochars produced in N and CO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137796DOI Listing
June 2020

The convertion of sewage sludge to biochar as a sustainable tool of PAHs exposure reduction during agricultural utilization of sewage sludges.

J Hazard Mater 2020 06 26;392:122416. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, 3 Maria Curie-Skłodowska Square, 20-031 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

There is a discussion in the literature whether PAHs introduced with biochar are safe and whether they are persistent in the environment. The persistence of PAHs (C - total and C - freely dissolved) in sewage sludge (SSL) or SSL-derived biochar-amended soils was investigated. Biochar were produced at 500, 600 and 700 °C. We also compared the persistence of PAHs in these experimental treatments depending on the plants cultivated (grass, clover and thale cress). We showed that the C PAHs in the biochar-amended soils exhibited higher persistence than in the SSL-amended soil. The opposite trend was observed for C PAHs. A higher reduction of C PAHs was noted in the biochar-amended soils than in SSL-amended soil. The persistence of both C and C PAHs clearly varied between the biochars produced at different temperatures. It should be stated that despite that for biochar the persistence of C PAHs is higher compared to SSL-amended soils, an opposite trend is observed for the fraction of C (which is directly responsible for the toxic effect), and this entails a lower risk to the environment (lower mobility and bioavailability). The plants had a significant impact on C PAHs content depending on the number of PAH rings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122416DOI Listing
June 2020

Formation of persistent free radicals in biochar derived from rice straw based on a detailed analysis of pyrolysis kinetics.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 18;715:136575. Epub 2020 Jan 18.

Faculty of Environmental Science & Engineering, Kunming University of Science & Technology, Kunming 650500, Yunnan, China; Yunnan Provincial Key Lab of Soil Carbon Sequestration and Pollution Control, Kunming 650500, Yunnan, China. Electronic address:

The presence of persistent free radicals (PFR) in biochars may greatly broaden the application of biochars in pollution control, but may also cause negative impacts to the environment. Understanding the structural basis and the formation mechanisms of PFR is essential for a targeted biochar production and application. This study used rice straw (RS), a ubiquitous agricultural waste, to investigate the generation processes of PFR in relation to RS pyrolysis kinetics. Based on a detailed thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) analysis, the activation energy was calculated by Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) methods. This work combined pyrolysis kinetics analysis and solid particle characterization. Our results showed that lignin started to pyrolyze at a lower temperature than cellulose and hemicellulose. Lignin was the main factor for PFR generation. Chemical bond breaking contributed only slightly to PFR formation. The reconfiguration of the carbonaceous structures may be a more important contributor to PFR formation, while the cross-linking between different compositions and the interactions between the chemical compositions and inorganic minerals may play a significant role for PFR generation and stabilization in RS. This study provides useful theoretical basis to understand the thermal pyrolysis process of RS and the manipulation of biochar properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136575DOI Listing
May 2020

Effect of biochar addition to sewage sludge on cadmium, copper and lead speciation in sewage sludge-amended soil.

Chemosphere 2020 Jan 30;239:124719. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Sklodowska-Curie University, Maria Curie-Sklodowska Square 3, 20-031, Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

The goal of the present work was to evaluate the speciation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in sewage sludge (SL) amended soil and SL-biochar (BC) amended soil in a long-term field experiment. SL or SL with biochar (at the dose of 2.5%, 5.0% or 10%) were applied to the soil. The dose of SL in the soil was 11 t/ha. At the beginning of the study, after 12 and 18 months the distribution of Cd, Cu and Pb was determined between the following fractions: (1) water soluble, exchangeable and bound to carbonates (F1), (2) bound to Fe-Mn oxides (F2), (3) bound to organic matter (F3) and (4) bound to quartz, feldspars, etc. (F4). The soil, SL and biochar were characterized by different distribution of Pb, Cu and Cd. The highest mobility of Cd and Cu was observed in the control soil, while Pb in SL. Addition of SL to the soil caused the increased of the mobility index of Cu and Pb, increasing the risk associated with the presence of these metals in the mobile soil fraction (F1). However, the addition of biochar to SL before application to the soil modified the distribution of studied elements. The most mobile and bioavailable fractions (F1) were transferred to less bioavailable (F2, F3) and potentially immobile fractions (F4).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124719DOI Listing
January 2020

Impact of ZnO and ZnS nanoparticles in sewage sludge-amended soil on bacteria, plant and invertebrates.

Chemosphere 2019 Dec 13;237:124359. Epub 2019 Jul 13.

Center for the Environmental Implications of Nano Technology (CEINT), Duke University, Box 90287, 121 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC 27708, USA.

The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and zinc sulfide nanoparticles (ZnS NPs) on the toxicity of sewage sludges in sewage sludge-amended soils was investigated with respect to plant- (Lepidium sativum) and soil- (Folsomia candida) species. The toxicity of porewater obtained from the tested soils towards Vibrio fischeri (Microtox®) was also investigated. Two sewage sludges (SSL1 and SSL2) with different organic matter content were amended with nanoparticles. Depending on the type of biotest and the type of sewage sludge, different effects of ZnO or ZnS NPs on the toxicity of sewage sludge-amended soil were observed. In general, ZnO and ZnS NPs stimulated root growth for SSL1 or reduced the harmful impact of SSL2 on the root growth of L. sativum roots. Greater stimulation or inhibition of root growth was observed for the ZnO than ZnS NPs. The unfavorable effect of ZnO/ZnS NPs on F. candida mortality and reproduction was observed at a concentration of ZnO/ZnS in sewage sludge ≥250 mg/kg. Generally, there were no significant differences between ZnO and ZnS NPs toxicity towards F. candida. Aging for 45 days of sewage sludge-amended soil containing NPs affected ZnO and ZnS NPs toxicity to all tested organisms. In the most cases, the toxicity decreased after 45 days of aging for plant (L. sativum) and invertebrates (F. candida). The toxicity of porewater to V. fischeri from sewage sludge-amended soil contains ZnO NPs did not change, while in the case of ZnS NPs, the toxicity increased after 45 days of aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124359DOI Listing
December 2019

Effect of reclamation treatments on microbial activity and phytotoxicity of soil degraded by the sulphur mining industry.

Environ Pollut 2019 Sep 20;252(Pt B):1429-1438. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Faculty of Agrobioengineering, Department of Environmental Microbiology, Leszczyńskiego 7, 20-069, Lublin, Poland.

The aim of the work was to determine the trend, intensity and changes of selected microbial and phytotoxic parameters of degraded soil in the area of former sulphur mine reclaimed by post-flotation lime (PFL), sewage sludge (SS), mineral wool (MW- mixed with soil, MWP-pad) and mineral fertilizer (NPK). The following parameters: number of proteolytic bacteria and fungi, ammonification, nitrification, activities of alkaline phosphatase and arylsulphatase Lepidium sativum growth index (GI) and phenolic compounds were analysed in the soil in second and third year of the experiment. The addition of the SS separately or in combination with other remediation agents was found to be the most valuable for the number of microorganisms, intensification of nitrification process and enzymatic activities. In objects where other materials were added without sewage sludge, the inhibition of fungal growth as well as alkaline phosphatase and arylsulphatase activities was observed, however the inhibitory effect declined with time. The observed increase of GI shows the long-term, positive effect of treatments on soil properties concerning plant growth. The use of lime and lime together with sewage sludge contributed to the decrease in the content of phenolic compounds in the reclaimed soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.06.066DOI Listing
September 2019

Carbon dioxide as a carrier gas and biomass addition decrease the total and bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar produced from sewage sludge.

Chemosphere 2019 Aug 8;228:26-34. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, 3 Maria Curie-Skłodowska Square, 20-031, Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

Organic-solvent extractable (C) and freely dissolved (C) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (US EPA 16 PAHs) were determined in biochars produced from the mixture of sewage sludge and sewage sludge and willow (8:2 or 6:4, w/w). The pyrolysis was carried out at 500, 600, and 700 °C using two different carrier gases (N or CO). Addition of willow and the change of carrier gas from N to CO reduced C PAHs (from 7.0 to 52%) and C PAHs (15-29%) content. Co-application of willow and SSL and the use of CO as a carrier gas also beneficially affected the PAHs profile. The biochars produced with willow addition and/or in a CO atmosphere were characterized by a lower (from 9.0 to 62.8%) percentage of 3-6-ring PAHs (C) than the biochars derived from sewage sludge alone in N atmosphere. The contribution of individual C PAHs did not differ significantly between biochars. The presence of willow during pyrolysis influenced the direction of the changes in the C PAH content depending on the pyrolysis temperature. For SSL alone, regardless of the carrier gas used, the content of C PAHs was observed to decrease with increasing temperature, whereas in the presence of willow temperature did not affect significantly (P ≥ 0.05) the C PAHs content. The change of carrier gas from N to CO increased the affinity of the biochars to PAHs as confirmed by the distribution coefficients log K.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.04.029DOI Listing
August 2019

Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Exposure on Human Health-a Review.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2020 Jan 13;193(1):118-129. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Bromatology and Food Physiology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950, Lublin, Poland.

Recently, an increased interest in nanotechnology applications can be observed in various fields (medicine, materials science, pharmacy, environmental protection, agriculture etc.). Due to an increasing scope of applications, the exposure of humans to nanoparticles (NPs) is inevitable. A number of studies revealed that after inhalation or oral exposure, NPs accumulate in, among other places, the lungs, alimentary tract, liver, heart, spleen, kidneys and cardiac muscle. In addition, they disturb glucose and lipid homeostasis in mice and rats. In a wide group of nanoparticles currently used on an industrial scale, titanium dioxide nanoparticles-TiO NPs-are particularly popular. Due to their white colour, TiO NPs are commonly used as a food additive (E 171). The possible risk to health after consuming food containing nanoparticles has been poorly explored but it is supposed that the toxicity of nanoparticles depends on their size, morphology, rate of migration and amount consumed. Scientific databases inform that TiO NPs can induce inflammation due to oxidative stress. They can also have a genotoxic effect leading to, among others, apoptosis or chromosomal instability. This paper gives a review of previous studies concerning the effects of exposure to TiO NPs on a living organism (human, animal). This information is necessary in order to demonstrate potential toxicity of inorganic nanoparticles on human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01706-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6914717PMC
January 2020

Biochar-supported nZVI (nZVI/BC) for contaminant removal from soil and water: A critical review.

J Hazard Mater 2019 07 19;373:820-834. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Korea Biochar Research Center & Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, South Korea. Electronic address:

The promising characteristics of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) have not been fully exploited owing to intrinsic limitations. Carbon-enriched biochar (BC) has been widely used to overcome the limitations of nZVI and improve its reaction with environmental pollutants. This work reviews the preparation of nZVI/BC nanocomposites; the effects of BC as a supporting matrix on the nZVI crystallite size, dispersion, and oxidation and electron transfer capacity; and its interaction mechanisms with contaminants. The literature review suggests that the properties and preparation conditions of BC (e.g., pore structure, functional groups, feedstock composition, and pyrogenic temperature) play important roles in the manipulation of nZVI properties. This review discusses the interactions of nZVI/BC composites with heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds in soil and water. Overall, BC contributes to the removal of contaminants because it can attenuate contaminants on the surface of nZVI/BC; it also enhances electron transfer from nZVI to target contaminants owing to its good electrical conductivity and improves the crystallite size and dispersion of nZVI. This review is intended to provide insights into methods of optimizing nZVI/BC synthesis and maximizing the efficiency of nZVI in environmental cleanup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.03.080DOI Listing
July 2019

Combined Effects of Plant Cultivation and Sorbing Carbon Amendments on Freely Dissolved PAHs in Contaminated Soil.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 05 18;53(9):4860-4868. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering , Texas Tech University , Lubbock , Texas 79409 , United States.

We report freely dissolved concentrations ( C) of PAHs in soils amended with 2.5% biochar and activated carbon (AC) during a long-term (18-months) field experiment. The study evaluates also the impact of different plants (clover, grass, willow) on C PAHs. The cumulative effect of treatments on nitrogen and available forms of phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium is also assessed. The direct addition of biochar to soil did not cause any immediate reduction of the sum of 16 C PAHs, while AC resulted in a slight reduction of 5- and 6 ring compounds. The efficiency of binding of C PAHs by biochar and AC increased with time. For biochar, the maximum reduction of 4-6-ring PAHs (18-67%) was achieved within 6 months. For 2- and 3-ring PAHs, a gradual decrease of C was observed which reached 60-66% at 18 months. AC proved to be better in reducing C PAHs than biochar, though for 2- and 3-ring PAHs, the differences in AC and biochar performances were smaller than those for 4-6-ring PAHs. After 18 months, a significantly lower content of C PAHs was observed in the soil with plants compared to the unplanted soil. Except for potassium, AC or biochar did not negatively impact nutrient availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b06265DOI Listing
May 2019

Adsorption capacity of phenanthrene and pyrene to engineered carbon-based adsorbents produced from sewage sludge or sewage sludge-biomass mixture in various gaseous conditions.

Bioresour Technol 2019 May 4;280:421-429. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, Maria Curie-Skłodowska Square 3, 20-031 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

Adsorption of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) by engineered carbon-based adsorbents produced from sewage sludge in an atmosphere of nitrogen (N) or carbon dioxide (CO) at temperatures of 500, 600, and 700 °C was investigated. The addition of willow to the SSL decreased the biochar adsorption capacity. However, there was an increase in the adsorption capacity after changing N to CO. The addition of willow to SSL and the type of carrier gas affected the mechanism of adsorption. The adsorption of PHE and PYR on the SSL-derived adsorbents produced in N occurred through pore filling. The adsorption on the SSL-derived adsorbents with willow followed the mechanism of π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions and hydrophobic interactions. A similar mechanism was observed with regard to the biochars produced from SSL in atmosphere of CO. For the SSL-derived adsorbents with willow in CO, the adsorption mechanism was observed to vary between PHE and PYR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.02.021DOI Listing
May 2019

Sequential extraction of nickel and zinc in sewage sludge- or biochar/sewage sludge-amended soil.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Sep 2;636:927-935. Epub 2018 May 2.

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Sklodowska-Curie University, Maria Curie-Sklodowska Square 3, 20-031 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

Fractionation of nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in sewage sludge-amended soil and in sewage sludge/biochar-amended soil was investigated. The results were compared with ecotoxicological tests in order to determine the contribution of metals to the toxicity of amended soils. The study was conducted as a long-term field experiment. Sewage sludge (SL) or sewage sludge with a 2.5, 5 or 10% addition of biochar (BC) was added to the soil. Samples for analysis were taken immediately after experiment establishment as well as after 12 and 18 months from the beginning of the study. The fractionation analysis of Ni and Zn was performed using the BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) three-step sequential extraction procedure. The following forms were determined: mobile (F1); bound to FeMn oxides (F2); bound to organic matter (F3) and residual (F4). The soil, SL and BC differed in the contribution of individual forms of the metals. The application of SL into the soil resulted in an increased soil content of mobile forms of Ni and Zn by 180 and 103%, respectively. The mobility index (MI) significantly increased, which evidences the risk related to the presence of these metals. Biochar in the sewage sludge significantly reduced the content of Ni and Zn in F1 fraction. The study also demonstrated that biochar amendment promotes the transition over time of available forms of Ni and Zn into their residual forms (F4), which leads to a further reduction in the environmental risk related to their presence in the environment. The conducted statistical analysis revealed only intermittent relationships between the individual forms of the metals and soil physicochemical properties and toxicity, which may indicate more complex mechanisms that occur in the experimental systems investigated. Therefore, the use of SL in combination with BC can be an effective method for reducing the environmental risk related to the presence of metals in SL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.072DOI Listing
September 2018

Changes of total and freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and toxicity of biochars treated with various aging processes.

Environ Pollut 2018 Jun 20;237:65-73. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, 3 Maria Curie-Skłodowska, Square, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biochar aging on the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (the total content - C, and the freely dissolved - C) in biochar and its ecotoxicity. Two biochars (BCS and BCM) with varying properties were aged for 420 days at different temperatures (-20 °C, 4 °C, 20 °C, 70 °C), at a variable temperature (-20/20 °C), in the presence of nutrients, and in the presence of inoculum and nutrients. After the aging process, C and C PAHs were determined in samples obtained and an ecotoxicological analysis was performed, which involved tests with bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), invertebrates (Folsomia candida) and plants (Lepidium sativum). Aging significantly affected all the parameters tested. The range of changes in the studied parameters depended on the type of biochar and ageing conditions. In the case of most of the aging methods, PAH content (C, C) and toxicity were found to decrease. Aging in the presence of microorganisms and nutrients and in the presence of nutrients alone caused the greatest reduction in C PAH content (a reduction from 30 to 100% relative to non-aged biochar), C PAH content (a reduction from 12 to 100%), root growth inhibition (a reduction from 73 to 90%), and luminescence inhibition (a reduction from 24 to 100%). In the case of C PAHs and toxicity to F. candida, some aging methods caused their increase. The study also found a significant relationship between the changes in C PAH content during aging and inhibition of root growth (BCS, BCM) and inhibition of V. fischerii luminescence (BCM). In no case was a significant correlation (P ≥ 0.05) between C PAHs and the investigated toxicity parameters found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.01.073DOI Listing
June 2018

A field study of bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and biochar amended soils.

J Hazard Mater 2018 05 31;349:27-34. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, 3 Maria Curie-Skłodowska Square, 20-031 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

The bioavailable PAHs (freely dissolved concentration, Cfree) were determined in sewage sludge (SL) or sewage sludge and biochar (BC) amended soil. SL or SL with a 2.5, 5 or 10% of BC was applied to the soil. The study was conducted as a long-term field experiment. Addition of BC to SL at a dose of 2.5 and 5% did not affect the content of Cfree PAHs in soils. However a significant difference (by 13%) in Cfree PAHs content was noted in experiment with 10% addition of BC. During the experiment, the concentration of Cfree PAHs in SL- and SL/BC-amended soil decreased. In particular sampling terms the content of Cfree PAHs in SL/BC-amended soil was significantly lower comparing to the Cfree PAHs content in SL-amended soil. After 18 months, Cfree PAH content was significantly lower in SL/BC-amended soil than in the experiment with SL alone, and did not differ significantly from the Σ16 Cfree content in the control soil. The largest decrease relative to the soil with sewage sludge alone was observed for 3-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs. This is the first field-based evidence that biochar soil amendment was effective to reduce of the Cfree of PAHs in sewage sludge-amended soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.01.045DOI Listing
May 2018

Application of biochar to sewage sludge reduces toxicity and improve organisms growth in sewage sludge-amended soil in long term field experiment.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Jun 26;625:8-15. Epub 2017 Dec 26.

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

The aim of the present study was to determine changes in the physicochemical properties and toxicity of soil amended with sewage sludge (10t/ha) or sewage sludge (10t/ha) with biochar addition (2.5, 5 or 10% of sewage sludge). The study was carried out as a field experiment over a period of 18months. Samples for analysis were taken at the beginning of the experiment as well as after 6, 12 and 18months. The study investigated toxicity of the unamended soil, sewage sludge-amended soil and sewage sludge-amended soil with biochar addition towards Folsomia candida (collembolan test) and Lepidium sativum (Phytotoxkit F). Moreover, toxicity of aqueous extracts obtained from the tested soils towards Vibrio fischeri (Microtox®) and Lepidium sativum (elongation test) was determined. The study showed that addition of biochar to the sewage sludge and soil reduced leaching of nutrients (mainly phosphorus and potassium) from the amended soil. Biochar significantly reduced sewage sludge toxicity, exhibiting a stimulating effect on the tested organisms. The stimulating effect of biochar addition to the sewage sludge persisted throughout the entire experiment. Apart from the remediatory character of biochar, this is also evidence of its fertilizing character. In the tests with L. sativum (leachates and solid phase) and V. fischeri (leachates), increasing the rate of biochar in the sewage sludge increased root growth stimulation (L. sativum) and bacteria luminescence (V. fischeri). However, increasing biochar rate decreased F. candida reproduction stimulation, which could have been an effect of reduced nutrient bioavailability due to the biochar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.118DOI Listing
June 2018

Combined toxicity of endosulfan and phenanthrene mixtures and induced molecular changes in adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Chemosphere 2018 Mar 23;194:30-41. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Individual and combined toxicities of endosulfan (ENDO) with phenanthrene (PHE) were evaluated using zebrafish (Danio rerio) adults. The 96-h LC values for ENDO and PHE were 4.6 μg L and 920 μg L, respectively. To evaluate the mixture toxicity, LC and LC concentrations were grouped into four combinations as ENDO-LC + PHE-LC, ENDO-LC + PHE-LC, ENDO-LC + PHE-LC, and ENDO-LC + PHE-LC, and their acute toxicities were determined. The combination of LC-ENDO and LC-PHE exhibited a synergistic effect. In addition, acetylcholinesterase activity decreased in zebrafish bodies exposed to ENDO with or without PHE. Combined treatments induced higher glutathione S-transferase activity compared to individual treatments. Carboxylesterase activity increased in both heads and bodies of ENDO-treated fishes compared with PHE-treated fishes. Using RT-qPCR technique, CYP1A gene expression significantly up-regulated in all combinations, whereas CYP3A was unchanged, suggesting that enzymes involved in defense may play different roles in the detoxification. CYP7A1 gene responsible for bile acid biosynthesis is dramatically down-regulated after exposure to the synergistic combination exposure, referring that the synergistic effect may be resulted from the reduction of bile production in zebrafishes. Among gender-related genes, CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 genes in female zebrafish decreased after treatment with ENDO alone and combination of LC-ENDO and LC-PHE. This might be related to a reduction in cortisol production. The overall results indicated that ENDO and PHE were toxic to zebrafish adults both individually and in combination, and that their co-presence induced changes in the expression of genes responsible for metabolic processes and defense mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.11.128DOI Listing
March 2018
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