Publications by authors named "Patrizia Paffetti"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prevalence of hypophysitis in a cohort of patients with metastatic melanoma and prostate cancer treated with ipilimumab.

Endocrine 2017 Dec 12;58(3):535-541. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

Section of Endocrinology, Department of Medical, Surgical and Neurological sciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Objective: Ipilimumab is a human monoclonal antibody directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, that has been shown to significantly improve survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Blocking cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 elicits T cell activation, proliferation and anti-tumor response, but can also trigger immune-related adverse events. Among immune-related endocrinopathies, hypophysitis represents the most frequent, with an incidence up to 17% in patients treated with ipilimumab.

Design And Methods: We report nine cases of ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis in a cohort of 273 patients treated with ipilimumab between 2006 and 2015, as part of clinical trials or after its marketing. Thyroid function tests were scheduled at screening and during follow up (every 21 days) in all patients. Cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and estradiol (for females) or testosterone (for males), prolactin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1 were measured only in case of clinical suspicion.

Results: The incidence of hypophysitis was 3.3%. The most frequent pituitary failure was adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone secretion with a complete recovery of thyroid stimulating hormone, but not of adrenocorticotropic hormone during follow up. All patients had negative pituitary antibodies. The main symptoms at diagnosis were fatigue and headache.

Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware about the risk of hypophysitis during treatment with immune check-point inhibitors and the necessity of investigating pituitary function during therapy. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging does not seem pivotal for a definite diagnosis if not performed at the onset of disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-017-1289-2DOI Listing
December 2017

Bariatric Surgery Reduces Serum Anti-mullerian Hormone Levels in Obese Women With and Without Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

Obes Surg 2017 07;27(7):1750-1754

Department of Medical, Surgical and Neurological Sciences, University of Siena, Viale M. Bracci 16, 53100, Siena, Italy.

Purpose: Obesity in fertile women has negative effect on fertility. Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) represents a good index of fertility, and it is considered a marker of ovarian reserve and of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) gravity. Previous studies evaluated the relationship between obesity and AMH with contradictory results. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and AMH and the changes of AMH in obese women in reproductive age submitted to bariatric surgery.

Materials And Methods: Fifty-five obese patients between 18 and 39 years with (29 patients) and without PCOS (26 patients) were compared with a control group of normal weight women with (24 patients) and without PCOS (19 patients). Fourteen obese women with PCOS and 18 without PCOS underwent to bariatric surgery. Serum AMH, testosterone, androstenedione, and DHEAS were performed in all patients before and 1 year after surgical intervention.

Results: AMH was significantly higher in the PCOS groups (p < 0.001), both in obese (5.84 ± 3.94 ng/ml) and non-obese women (7.35 ± 4.39 ng/ml). AMH was positively related to testosterone (p < 0.0001), androstenedione (p = 0.0005), and DHEAS (p = 0.003). After bariatric surgery, AMH levels were reduced in the both PCOS (p = 0.02) and non-PCOS group (p = 0.04).

Conclusions: AMH levels are elevated in PCOS patients regardless of the body weight. Bariatric surgery is effective in the normalization of AMH levels (a possible indirect marker of better fertility) only in obese patients with PCOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-016-2528-yDOI Listing
July 2017

Biomarkers of oxidative stress in babies at high risk for retinopathy of prematurity.

Front Biosci (Elite Ed) 2009 Jun 1;1:547-52. Epub 2009 Jun 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Reproductive Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Oxygen-induced oxidative stress (OS) has damaging effects in the perinatal period. For now there is a lake of evidence that OS occurs in babies with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) We tests the hypothesis that a strict oxygen policy may minimize postnatal OS reducing severity of ROP. Multicenter prospective cohort study (72 newborns), using a common clinical management protocol with a strict control of oxygen administration. Assessment of biochemical markers of OS in blood samples at birth and on days 7, 14, and 21. Sixteen babies (22.2 per cent) developed ROP stage 1-2. No severe form of ROP was observed. Birth weight and O2 administration in delivery room were the factors significantly associated with the development of ROP stage 1-2. Prematurity and O2 administration in delivery room are the main factors coming into play in the course of ROP. Because room air is richer in oxygen than intrauterine environment, higher OS can be minimized, as well as incidence and severity of ROP, using standardized management with a restricted oxygen breathing policy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2741/e52DOI Listing
June 2009

Non-protein-bound iron detection in small samples of biological fluids and tissues.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2006 Sep;112(3):221-32

Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Reproductive Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Interest in the pro-oxidative nature of non-protein-bound-iron (NPBI) led to the development of an assay for its detection. The aim was to set up a reliable method of detecting NPBI in small samples of biological fluids and tissue. The method was based on preferential chelation of NPBI by a large excess of the low-affinity ligand nitrilotriacetic acid. To separate NPBI, a two-step filtration procedure was used. All glassware and plasticware were treated to minimize iron contamination. Measurements were performed in plasma, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage, and brain tissues. The analytic system detected iron as ferric nitrate standard down to a concentration of 0.01 microM. The 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridone-Fe(DHP-Fe) complex eluted with a retention time of about 2.6 min. The standard curve for the DHP-Fe complex was linear between 0.01 and 400 microMin water as well as in plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage, brain tissue, and amniotic fluid. The detection limit was 0.01 muM for all biological fluids and brain tissue. The data show that reliable measurements of NPBI are possible in studies on oxidative stress under experimental and clinical conditions. The possibility of investigating NPBI involvement in free-radical injury might be useful in all human diseases in which oxidative stress occur.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/BTER:112:3:221DOI Listing
September 2006

Oxidative stress and autologous immunoglobulin G binding to band 3 dimers in newborn erythrocytes.

Free Radic Biol Med 2006 Mar 27;40(5):907-15. Epub 2005 Dec 27.

Department of Pathophysiology, Experimental Medicine and Public Health, University of Siena, Italy.

Since birth-induced oxidative stress (OS) results in the removal of erythrocytes from the blood stream, we studied the binding of autologous IgG to erythrocyte band 3 dimers (the 170-kDa band, which marks the erythrocytes for removal) in preterm and term newborns and in adults. The 170-kDa band was present in as much as 74% of preterm, in 21% of term newborns, and in 10% of adults. During erythrocyte ageing "in vitro" (0, 24, and 48 h aerobic incubation), the appearance of the band occurred much faster with erythrocytes from newborns (particularly preterm) than with those from adults. When the blots for the 170-kDa band were quantified by scanning densitometry, it was seen that the 0 time values were significantly higher in preterm compared to term and adult values. After aerobic incubation a progressive increase in the optical density was observed in each group and the densities were higher in preterm than in the other groups. The course of iron release during the various incubations was analogous to that of the 170-kDa band blots, and significant correlations were found at 0 and 48 h. Methemoglobin formation roughly paralleled iron release. Esterified F(2)-isoprostanes (markers of OS) and O(2)(-) production in the nonincubated (0 time) erythrocytes were much higher in newborn (preterm and term) than in adult erythrocytes. Plasma free F(2)-isoprostanes were significantly higher in preterms than in terms and in terms than in adults. Plasma non-protein-bound iron (NPBI) was higher in preterm than in term newborns and not detectable in adults. In conclusion dimers of band 3 with autologous IgG are found under conditions in which OS can be detected in erythrocytes or in plasma: namely in newborns or in aged erythrocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2005.11.021DOI Listing
March 2006

Transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity and histological chorioamnionitis.

J Perinat Med 2005 ;33(6):514-8

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Italy.

Background: Transient hypothyroxinaemia of prematurity (THOP) is a common condition of preterm infants whose causes remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that THOP is associated with histological chorioamnionitis (HCA).

Methods: Whole blood T4 and TSH concentrations on day 4 and at 40 weeks' postmenstrual age (rtx-T4 and rtx-TSH), placental histology and illness severity were prospectively evaluated in 155 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.

Results: HCA-positive infants showed significantly decreased blood total T4 concentrations on day 4, as compared to the HCA-negative population (P<0.0001), along with comparable TSH, rtx-T4, and rtx-TSH blood concentrations. None of the infants showed evidence of hypothyroidism during the study. A total T4 < or = 4.4 microg/dL on postnatal day 4 identified HCA-positive newborns with 90.8%, sensitivity, 94.7%, specificity, 96.7% positive predictive and 85.7% negative predictive values. HCA (OR: 32.19; 95% CI: 8.95-115.64), birth weight < or = 880 g (OR: 4.1; 1.15-14.64), and RDS (OR: 3.71, 95% CI: 1.13-12.25) were independently associated with evidence of hypothyroxinaemia on day 4.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate a previously un-recognized relationship between HCA and THOP, hence suggesting a predominant role for a fetal systemic inflammatory response syndrome in the pathogenesis of THOP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/JPM.2005.091DOI Listing
February 2006

Nonprotein-bound iron and plasma protein oxidative stress at birth.

Pediatr Res 2005 Dec;58(6):1295-9

Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics, and Reproductive Medicine, University of Siena, Italy.

We previously reported plasma nonprotein-bound iron (NPBI) as a reliable early indicator of intrauterine oxidative stress (OS) and brain injury. We tested the hypothesis that albumin, an NPBI serum carrier, is the major target of NPBI-induced OS. Twenty-four babies were randomly selected from 384 newborns constituting the final cohort of a prospective study undertaken to evaluate the predictive role of NPBI in cord blood for neurodevelopmental outcome. Twelve were selected in the group with lowest NPBI levels (0-1.16 microM) and good neurodevelopmental outcome and 12 in the group with highest NPBI levels (>or=15.2 microM) and poor neurodevelopmental outcome. Protein carbonyl groups were identified in cord blood samples by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and Western blotting with anti-2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) antibodies. Two series of immunoreactive spots, corresponding to serum albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, were found only in the group with highest NPBI levels. We found an association between NPBI and carbonylated proteins in babies with highest NPBI levels. Since NPBI may produce hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reaction, the major target of OS induced by NPBI is its carrier: albumin. Oxidation of albumin can be expected to decrease plasma antioxidant defenses and increase the likelihood of tissue damage due to OS in the newborns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1203/01.pdr.0000183658.17854.28DOI Listing
December 2005

Role of heme oxygenase and bilirubin in oxidative stress in preterm infants.

Pediatr Res 2004 Dec 6;56(6):873-7. Epub 2004 Oct 6.

Department of Surgical and Medical Critical Care, Section of Neonatology, Careggi University Hospital of Florence, 50134 Florence, Italy.

In a previous study, it was found that the decrease in the total plasma bilirubin level (Btot) in preterm infants was associated with the decrease in oxidative stress. We hypothesized that this occurs as a result of a pro-oxidant effect of heme oxygenase (HO), which outcompetes with the antioxidant properties of bilirubin. In this study we studied 12 preterm infants in whom the plasma levels of Btot, total hydroperoxide (TH), protein SH groups, HO activity, non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI), and erythrocyte CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZn SOD) activity were concurrently measured when the Btot was >220 microM and after a Btot drop of >34 microM. The Btot decrease was concurrent with the TH decrease, protein SH groups increase, and the HO and CuZn SOD activity increase and was not associated with an NTBI increase. We concluded that 1) Btot does not exert a meaningful antioxidant effect in vivo; 2) HO does not exert a pro-oxidant effect involving an NTBI increase and that, on the contrary, it could exert an antioxidant effect; and 3) the concurrent HO and CuZn SOD activity increase could indicate a synergic antioxidant effect of the two enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1203/01.PDR.0000145281.12853.9EDOI Listing
December 2004

Non protein bound iron as early predictive marker of neonatal brain damage.

Brain 2003 May;126(Pt 5):1224-30

Department of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Reproductive Medicine, University of Siena, Italy.

Of the approximately 130 million births worldwide each year, four million infants will suffer from birth asphyxia and, of these, one million will die and a similar number will develop serious sequelae. Before being able to develop effective interventions, a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to brain injury and an early identification of babies at high risk for brain injury are required. This study tests the predictivity of traditional and new markers of foetal oxidative stress in relation to neurodevelopmental outcome in 384 newborn infants. The results indicate plasma non protein bound iron as the best early predictive marker of neurodevelopmental outcome, with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for good neurodevelopmental outcome at 0-1.16 micro mol/l, and for poor neurodevelopmental outcome at values >15.2 micro mol/l. The number of children with values between 1.16 and 15.2 were 195. Common use of this predictive marker in neonatology units will improve the ability of clinicians to identify those newborn babies who will develop neurodisability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awg116DOI Listing
May 2003

Iron release in erythrocytes and plasma non protein-bound iron in hypoxic and non hypoxic newborns.

Free Radic Res 2003 Jan;37(1):51-8

Department of Pathophysiology and Experimental Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Iron is released in a desferrioxamine (DFO)-chelatable form (DCI) when erythrocytes are challenged by an oxidative stress. In beta-thalassemic erythrocytes, both DCI content and release (after aerobic incubation for 24h) are increased and correlated with the fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels. Since erythrocytes from newborns have an extremely high content of HbF and are exposed to conditions of oxidative stress, the release of iron in these erythrocytes was investigated. The erythrocyte DCI content was increased in preterm but not in term newborns as compared to adults, while the release was increased in both preterm and term erythrocytes. The level of plasma non protein-bound iron (NPBI), which was not detectable in adults, was much higher in preterm than in term newborns. When term plus preterm newborns were divided in two groups, normoxic and hypoxic, according to cord blood pH, it was found that both iron release and NBPI were markedly higher in the hypoxic newborns compared to normoxic ones. Similar results were also obtained when the preterm and term infants were considered separately on the basis of cord blood pH. Therefore, iron release and NPBI are higher when conditions of hypoxia occur. In fact, when the values for iron release and NPBI were separately plotted against cord blood pH values, significant negative correlations were seen in both cases. NPBI was correlated with iron release seen in all the newborns and a significant part of the released iron could be recovered into the incubation medium at the end of the incubation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1071576021000032122DOI Listing
January 2003

Oxidative stress in preterm neonates at birth and on the seventh day of life.

Pediatr Res 2002 Jul;52(1):46-9

Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Reproductive Medicine, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy.

Previous studies have demonstrated increased oxidative damage to proteins and increased lipid peroxidation products in the plasma of hypoxic newborns at birth. We tested the hypothesis that hypoxic preterm newborns are at increased risk for oxidative stress in the first week of life. Heparinized blood samples of 34 hypoxic and 15 control preterm newborns were obtained at birth from the umbilical vein immediately after delivery and from a peripheral vein on postnatal d 7. Plasma levels of hypoxanthine, total hydroperoxide (TH), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were measured in cord blood and blood drawn on d 7. Hypoxanthine, TH, and AOPP levels were significantly higher in cord and d 7 blood samples of hypoxic newborn than control infants. Statistically significant correlations were observed between AOPP and hypoxanthine and between AOPP and TH plasma levels on d 7. AOPP and TH plasma levels significantly increased from cord to d 7 blood in neonates without hypoxia. These findings show that the oxidative stress observed in cord blood of hypoxic preterm newborns is still higher than control infants on d 7. The significant increase in TH and AOPP levels in nonhypoxic preterm newborns at the end of the first postnatal week indicates that damage caused by free radicals also occurs in nonhypoxic babies with normal clinical course. In summary, TH and AOPP production is prolonged for several days after birth in hypoxic preterm babies. The risk of free radical damage is lower but still exists in preterm neonates with normal clinical course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1203/00006450-200207000-00010DOI Listing
July 2002