Publications by authors named "Patrizia Chiusolo"

123 Publications

ABO Mismatch in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: Effect on Short- and Long-term Outcomes.

Transplant Direct 2021 Aug 9;7(8):e724. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Dipartimento di Diagnostica per Immagini, Radioterapia Oncologica ed Ematologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "A. Gemelli" IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background: The impact of ABO incompatibility (ABO-I) on hematopoietic stem cell transplant outcomes is still debated.

Methods: We retrospectively investigated 432 consecutive transplants performed at our center (2012-2020). All patients but 6 were affected by hematologic malignancies. The effect of different ABO match combinations on engraftment rate, transfusion support, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease incidences, nonrelapse mortality (NRM), disease-free survival, and overall survival was assessed in univariate and multivariate analysis. Significance was set at  < 0.05.

Results: ABO match distribution among transplants was as follows: 223 ABO-compatible, 94 major ABO-I, 82 minor ABO-I, and 33 bidirectional ABO-I. At univariate analysis, major ABO-I delayed the engraftment of neutrophils, platelets, and erythroid cells. At multivariate analysis, major ABO-I transplants displayed delayed erythroid engraftment (odds ratio [OR], 0.51; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 0.38-0.70;  < 0.0001) and hindered transfusion independence for both red blood cells (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.37-0.72;  = 0.0001) and platelets (0.60; 95% CI, 0.45-0.86;  = 0.0048). Moreover, major ABO-I transplants received greater amounts of blood products ( < 0.0001 for red blood cells and  = 0.0447 for platelets). In comparison with other ABO matches, major ABO-I was associated with an increased NRM (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.01-2.75;  = 0.0427). No effects of ABO-mismatch were found on graft-versus-host disease, disease-free survival, and overall survival.

Conclusions: Major ABO mismatch delays multilineage engraftment hinders transfusion independence and increases NRM. The prognostic impact of transfusion burden in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation deserves to be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TXD.0000000000001179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274735PMC
August 2021

Use of DPB1 T-cell epitope algorithm among italian transplant centers: A survey on behalf of Associazione Italiana di Immunogenetica e Biologia dei Trapianti.

HLA 2021 Aug 29;98(2):114-121. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Laboratorio di Tipizzazione tissutale, Dipartimento di Medicina Trasfusionale, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Giuliano Isontina - ASUGI, Trieste, Italy.

The HLA-DPB1 locus has been demonstrated to have a significant role on patients' outcome after allogeneic HSCT, and the so-called T-cell epitope (TCE) algorithm has been incorporated in international guidelines for the selection of unrelated donors. The purpose of the present study is to measure, through a national survey conducted on behalf of the Associazione Italiana di Immunogenetica e Biologia dei Trapianti (AIBT), the extent of awareness and use of HLA-DPB1 TCE-based algorithms during the donor search. 89% of the HLA laboratories answered to a short questionnaire and the results showed a progressive increase of the laboratories typing DPB1 in patients and their potential donors during the search (from 44% to 79% during the 2010-2019 period) as well as the application of a TCE-based algorithm for the donor choice whenever possible (from 24% to 65% during the same period). The DP-permissiveness status is detailed in the official HLA typing report by 12%, 32% and 50% of laboratories in 2010, 2015 and 2019, respectively. The present data indicate an encouraging raise in the awareness of the HLA-DPB1 role in unrelated donor selection; noteworthy, mentioning the TCE-based permissiveness status in the HLA typing report of each potential unrelated donor represents a notable mean to raise awareness among transplant physicians and to support them in their task of choosing the best donor. Nonetheless, despite the compelling evidence of the predictive ability of TCE-based algorithms, further efforts are still needed to extend its application to all transplant centers in Italy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tan.14347DOI Listing
August 2021

Allogeneic Hemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Myelofibrosis: 2021.

Front Immunol 2021 4;12:637512. Epub 2021 May 4.

Dipartimento di Diagnostica per Immagini, Radioterapia Oncologica ed Ematologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma, Italy.

The aim of this review is to update the current status of allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) for patients with myelofibrosis (MF). We have first summarized the issue of an indication for allogeneic HSCT, discussing several prognostic scoring systems, developed to predict the outcome of MF, and therefore to identify patients who will benefit of an allogeneic HSCT. Patients with low risk MF are usually not selected for a transplant, whereas patients with intermediate or high risk MF are eligible. A separate issue, is how to predict the outcome of HSCT: we will outline a clinical molecular myelofibrosis transplant scoring system (MTSS), which predicts overall survival, ranging from 90% for low risk patients, to 20% for very high risk patients. We will also discuss transfusion burden and spleen size, as predictors of transplant outcome. The choice of a transplant platform including the conditioning regimen, the stem cell source and GvHD prophylaxis, are crucial for a successful program in MF, and will be outlined. Complications such as poor graft function, graft failure, GvHD and relapse of the disease, will also be reviewed. Finally we discuss monitoring the disease after HSCT with donor chimerism, driver mutations and hematologic data. We have made an effort to make this review as comprehensive and up to date as possible, and we hope it will provide some useful data for the clinicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.637512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129535PMC
May 2021

Extramedullary Involvement in Acute Myeloid Leukemia. A Single Center Ten Years' Experience.

Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2021 1;13(1):e2021030. Epub 2021 May 1.

Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche Radioterapiche ed Ematologiche - Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, IRCCS - Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.

The incidence, risk factors, and prognostic significance of extramedullary involvement (EMI) in adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have not been established yet. This study analyzed clinical and biological characteristics, the impact on prognosis, and the cumulative incidence of EMI in a monocentric retrospective series. All adult patients diagnosed with AML observed in our institution between January 2010 and December 2017 were included in the analysis. Overall, 346 AMLs were analyzed. The incidence of EMI was 11% (38 patients). The involved sites were: skin (66%), central nervous system (CNS) (23%), pleura (7%), lymph nodes (5%), peritoneum (2%), spleen (2%), pancreas (2%), breasts (2%) and bones (2%). Most patients (91%) had only one EMI site, while 9% had multiple sites affected at the same time. Twenty-four (63%) patients showed signs of EMI at presentation, while extramedullary relapse occurred in 10 patients (26%); 4 patients had EMI both at presentation and relapse. EMI had a significantly higher frequency in patients with monocytic and myelo-monocytic leukemia subtypes (p<0,0001), CD117-negative (p=0,03) at flow cytometry analysis, MLL rearrangements (p=0.001), trisomy 8 (p=0,02). An analysis regarding treatment, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) was performed only on the 28 patients who experienced EMI at the onset of their disease; one EMI patient receiving best supportive care was excluded from OS analysis. The other 27 patients were treated with: conventional chemotherapy (21 patients), hypomethylating agents (5 patients), and low dose cytarabine (1 patient); 8 patients only (28.5%) received an allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). After induction therapy, complete remission (CR) rate was 22%, with a median DFS of 7.4 months. The median OS of all 27 EMI patients was 11.6 months (range 2-79); this resulted significantly longer for the 8 EMI patients who undergone allo-HSCT than those (19 patients) who did not receive this procedure (16.7 vs. 8.2 months respectively, p=0.02). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that undergoing allo-HSCT and achieving CR were the main positive prognostic factors for our population's survival (p<0,0001). This study confirms the poor prognosis for EMI patients. Allo-HSCT, applicable however only in some cases, seems to have a crucial role in these patients' therapeutic approach, being associated with a better prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4084/MJHID.2021.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114885PMC
May 2021

Allelic HLA Matching and Pair Origin Are Favorable Prognostic Factors for Unrelated Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Neoplastic Hematologic Diseases: An Italian Analysis by the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Cellule Staminali e Terapie Cellulari, Italian Bone Marrow Donor Registry, and Associazione Italiana di Immunogenetica e Biologia dei Trapianti.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 05 16;27(5):406.e1-406.e11. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Stem Cell Transplant and Cellular Therapies Unit, Department of Hemato-Oncology and Radiotherapy, Grande Ospedale Metropolitano "Bianchi-Melacrino-Morelli", Reggio Calabria, Italy.

HLA molecules are important for immunoreactivity in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Cellule Staminali e Terapie Cellulari, Italian Bone Marrow Donor Registry, and Associazione Italiana di Immunogenetica e Biologia dei Trapianti promoted a retrospective observational study to evaluate HLA matching and the impact of allelic HLA mismatching and non-HLA factors on unrelated Italian HSCT outcomes. From 2012 to 2015, 1788 patients were enrolled in the study. The average donor age was 29 years and the average recipient age was 49 years. As a conditioning regimen, 71% of the patients received myeloablative conditioning. For GVHD prophylaxis, 76% received either antithymocyte or anti-T lymphocyte globulin, cyclosporine A, and methotrexate. Peripheral blood was the stem cell source in 80%. The median duration of follow-up was 53 months. Regarding HLA matching, 50% of donor-recipient pairs were 10/10 matched, 38% had 1 mismatch, and 12% had 2 or more mismatches. A total of 302 pairs shared Italian origin. Four-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, GVHD-free relapse-free survival, and relapse rates were 49%, 40%, 22%, and 34%, respectively. The 4-year NRM was 27%, and the 100-day cumulative incidence of grade ≥II acute GVHD (aGVHD) was 26%. In multivariate analysis, 9/10 and ≤8/10 HLA allele-matched pairs were associated with worse OS (P = .04 and .007, respectively), NRM (P = .007 and P < .0001, respectively), and grade III-IV aGVHD (P = .0001 and .01, respectively). Moreover, the incidences of grade II-IV aGVHD (P = .001) and chronic GVHD (P = .002) were significantly lower in Italian pairs. In conclusion, 10/10 HLA matching is a favorable prognostic factor for unrelated HSCT outcome in the Italian population. Moreover, the presence of 2 HLA-mismatched loci was associated with a higher NRM (P < .0001) and grade II-IV aGVHD (P = .006) and a poorer OS (P = .001) compared with 1 HLA-mismatched locus in early or intermediate disease phases. Finally, we found that Italian donor and recipient origin is a favorable prognostic factor for GVHD occurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.11.021DOI Listing
May 2021

Eltrombopag for the treatment of poor graft function following allogeneic stem cell transplant: a retrospective multicenter study.

Int J Hematol 2021 Aug 22;114(2):228-234. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Dipartimento di Diagnostica per Immagini, Radioterapia Oncologica ed Ematologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

This retrospective study assessed the effectiveness of eltrombopag (EPAG), a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, in the treatment of poor graft function (PGF) following an allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Complete response was defined as normalization of blood counts, whereas partial response was defined as transfusion independence. A total of 48 patients with full donor chimerism after HSCT, received EPAG for a median of 120 days (range 10-591). Patients with uni- bi- or tri-lineage cytopenia started treatment at a median of 95 days (range 17-877) after HSCT. The overall response rate was 75%: 24 patients had a complete response and 12 had a partial response. Positive predictors of response were an HLA-matched donor, a CD34 dose at transplant > 4 × 10/kg, and starting EPAG treatment at least 90 days after HSCT. Patients with more than one positive predictor had a response rate of 92% for the overall patient cohort and 94% for patients with tri-lineage cytopenia. One-year survival was 89% for complete responders, 60% for partial responders and 20% for non-responders (p = 0.0004). EPAG improves peripheral blood counts in patients with poor graft function following HSCT. Response to EPAG can be predicted and has a significant impact on survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-021-03153-3DOI Listing
August 2021

Blinatumomab as a successful and safe therapy in Down syndrome patients with relapsed/refractory b-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: Case reports and literature review.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Jul 12;68(7):e29044. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Dipartimento di Diagnostica per Immagini, Radioterapia Oncologica ed Ematologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.29044DOI Listing
July 2021

Outcome of T-cell-replete haploidentical stem cell transplantation improves with time in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Cancer 2021 Jul 19;127(14):2507-2514. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Acute Leukemia Working Party, St Anthony Hospital, Paris, France.

Background: The use of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (haplo-HCT) with posttransplantation cyclophosphamide prophylaxis is gaining traction in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Methods: The Acute Leukemia Working Party/European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry was used to evaluate the outcomes of adult patients with ALL who underwent haplo-HCT during 2011 through 2015 and compared them with the outcomes of those who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018.

Results: The analysis consisted of 195 patients, including 79 who underwent transplantation during 2011 through 2015 and 116 who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018. Overall, the 2-year leukemia-free survival and relapse incidence rates were 56.5% and 21%, respectively. The 100-day incidence of grade 2 through 4 acute graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) was 34.5%. The rates of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival (OS) were 22.5% and 64.7%, respectively. Patients who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018 experienced improved rates of leukemia-free survival (64.9% vs 47.3%; P = .019) and OS (75.5% vs 53.5%; P = .006). Patients who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018 developed more grade 2 through 4 acute GVHD (42% vs 26.4%; P = .047). The incidence of relapse, GVHD-free/relapse-free survival, grade 3 and 4 acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, and extensive chronic GVHD did not differ significantly between groups. In multivariate analysis, more recently transplanted patients had a significantly reduced risk of NRM (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.22-0.89; P = .022) and improved OS (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.26-0.86; P = .014). A comparable analysis of patients who had acute myeloid leukemia during the same timeframes did not reveal any statistically significant differences in any outcomes.

Conclusions: The outcome of adult patients with ALL who receive posttransplant cyclophosphamide has improved over time, with an impressive 2-year OS of 75% and, most recently, an NRM rate of only 17%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33522DOI Listing
July 2021

Prognostic factors for neutrophil engraftment after haploidentical cell transplantation with PT-Cy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission, on behalf of the ALWP-EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Haematology and EBMT Paris Study Office/CEREST-TC, Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.

The use of haplo-HCT with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) is a new standard in the treatment of hematological diseases. A paucity of data exists on risk factors for engraftment failure in haplo-HCT with PT-Cy. We analyzed 1939 adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who received a first haplo-HCT from 2010 to 2019. Status at haplo-HCT was first complete remission (CR1) in 72.5% of patients, secondary AML was reported in 9.9%. Median follow-up was 24.4 months and median age at haplo-HCT was 51 years. Stem cell source was bone marrow (BM) in 42% and peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) in 58%, and 64% of patients received a myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen. Cumulative incidence of primary graft failure (GF) was 6%; GF was reported in 110 patients and 54 died before day +30 with no sign of cell recovery. Overall, 33 patients underwent a second HCT in a median time of 45 days and 13 were alive at last follow-up, the 2-year overall survival (OS) after second HCT being 32.4%. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with the risk of nonengraftment were: secondary AML (HR 1.30, p = 0.003), use of RIC (HR 1.22, p < 0.001), and use of BM (HR 1.21, p < 0.001). At 2 years, leukemia-free survival (LFS) and OS for the entire population was 55.2% (95% CI: 52.6-57.6) and 60.9% (95% CI: 58.4-63.3), respectively. Incidence of GF after haplo-HCT with PT-Cy is lower than reported T-cell-depleted haplo-HCT. Optimization of conditioning regimen and graft source should be considered for reducing the risk of GF in haplo-HCT recipients using PT-Cy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01248-3DOI Listing
March 2021

Bone marrow megakaryocytic activation predicts fibrotic evolution of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

Haematologica 2020 11 19. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Life Sciences and Public Health, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo F. Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy; Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168, Rome.

Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) have been traditionally considered as indistinctly slowly progressing conditions; recent evidence proves that a subset of cases have a rapid evolution, so that MPNs' prognosis needs to be personalized. We identified a new morphological parameter, defined as Megakaryocytic Activation (M-ACT) based on the coexistence of megakaryocytic emperipolesis, megakaryocytes (MK) clusters formation and evidence of arrangement of collagen fibers around the perimeter of MK. We retrospectively analyzed the bone marrow biopsy of two MPNs cohorts of patients with polycythemia (PV) (n=64) and non-PV patients [including essential thrombocythemia (ET), and early/prefibrotic primary myelofibrosis (PMF)] (n=222). M-ACT showed a significant correlation with splenomegaly, white blood cell (WBC) count, and LDH serum levels in both groups, with JAK2 V617F allele burden in PV patients, and with CALR mutations, and platelet count in non-PV patients. Progression-free survival, defined as PV-to-secondary MF progression and non-PV-to-overt PMF, was worse in both PV and early/prefibrotic PMF patients with M-ACT in comparison to those without M-ACT (P<.0001). Interestingly, M-ACT was not found in the subgroup of ET patients. In conclusion, M-ACT can be helpful in the differential diagnosis of MPNs and can represent a new morphologic parameter with a predictive value for progression of MPNs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.264143DOI Listing
November 2020

Thiotepa-busulfan-fludarabine (TBF) conditioning regimen in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for myelofibrosis: an outcome analysis from the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 07 1;56(7):1593-1602. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

CHU de Lille, univ Lille, INSERM U1286, Infinite, 59000, Lille, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) remains the only curative option in MF. There is no consensus on the optimal conditioning regimen. We report outcomes of 187 patients with MF transplanted between 2010 and 2017 conditioned with TBF. Median age was 58 years. Median interval from diagnosis to allo-HCT was 44 months. Donors were haploidentical (41%), unrelated (36%) or HLA-identical siblings (23%). Stem cell source was PB in 60%. Conditioning was myeloablative in 48% of cases. Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) was used in 41% of patients. At 100 days, neutrophil and platelet engraftment were 91% and 63% after a median of 21 and 34 days, respectively. Grade II-IV and III-IV acute GVHD occurred in 24% and 12%, while at 3 years, all grade chronic GVHD and chronic extensive GVHD had been diagnosed in 38% and 11%. At 3 years, OS, RFS and GRFS were 55%, 49% and 43%, respectively. RI and NRM were 17% and 33%. On multivariate analysis, poor KPS and the use of unrelated donors were associated with worse GRFS and a higher grade II-IV acute GVHD, respectively. Neither donor type nor intensity of the conditioning regimen influenced survival outcomes. TBF is a feasible conditioning regimen in allo-HCT for MF in all donor settings although longer term outcomes are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01222-zDOI Listing
July 2021

Sudden death of a SARS-CoV-2 patient with NPM1 + acute myeloid leukemia mimicking acute promyelocytic leukemia.

Int J Lab Hematol 2021 06 26;43(3):341-342. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Dipartimento di Diagnostica per Immagini, Radioterapia Oncologica ed Ematologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijlh.13446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8013190PMC
June 2021

Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a single center reappraisal.

Cytotherapy 2021 07 11;23(7):635-640. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Dipartimento di Diagnostica per Immagini, Radioterapia Oncologica ed Ematologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy; Sezione di Ematologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche ed Ematologiche, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has deeply modified the complex logistical process underlying allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant practices.

Aim: In light of these changes, the authors compared data relative to allogeneic transplants carried out from 2018 at their center before (n = 167) and during the pandemic (n = 45).

Methods: The authors examined patient characteristics, donor and graft types, cell doses and main transplant outcomes. Moreover, the authors evaluated the rise of costs attributable to additional COVID-19-related procedures as well as the risk of adverse events these procedures conveyed to grafts or recipients.

Results: Overall, the number of transplants did not decrease during the pandemic, whereas patients at high relapse risk were prioritized. Transplants were mainly from matched unrelated donors, with a significant decrease in haploidentical related donors. Moreover, the use of bone marrow as a graft for haploidentical transplant was almost abandoned. Cryopreservation was introduced for all related and unrelated apheresis products, with a median storage time of 20 days. Notably, transplant outcomes (engraftment, acute graft-versus-host disease and non-relapse mortality) with cryopreserved products were comparable to those with fresh products.

Conclusions: Considering that the emergency situation may persist for months, cryopreserving allogeneic grafts can offer a lifesaving opportunity for patients whose allogeneic transplant cannot be postponed until after the end of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2020.12.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732233PMC
July 2021

Pre-Exposure to Defibrotide Prevents Endothelial Cell Activation by Lipopolysaccharide: An Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.

Front Immunol 2020 3;11:585519. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Image, Radiation therapy, Oncology and Hematology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Defibrotide (DFB) effects on different endothelial cell pathways have been investigated focusing on a limited number of genes or molecules. This study explored the modulation of the gene expression profile of steady-state or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated endothelial cells, following the DFB exposure. Starting from differentially regulated gene expression datasets, we utilized the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to infer novel information about the activity of this drug. We found that effects elicited by LPS deeply differ depending on cells were exposed to DFB and LPS at the same time, or if the DFB priming occurs before the LPS exposure. Only in the second case, we observed a significant down-regulation of various pathways activated by LPS. In IPA, the pathways most affected by DFB were leukocyte migration and activation, vasculogenesis, and inflammatory response. Furthermore, the activity of DFB seemed to be associated with the modulation of six key genes, including matrix-metalloproteinases 2 and 9, thrombin receptor, sphingosine-kinase1, alpha subunit of collagen XVIII, and endothelial-protein C receptor. Overall, our findings support a role for DFB in a wide range of diseases associated with an exaggerated inflammatory response of endothelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.585519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7744778PMC
June 2021

Second haploidentical stem cell transplantation for primary graft failure.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 06 16;56(6):1291-1296. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

IRCCS Policlinico San Martino IST, Genova, Italy.

We report the outcome of 19 patients who experienced primary graft failure (PrGF) after a haploidentical (HAPLO), unmanipulated bone marrow transplant. The median age of patients was 52 years; the conditioning regimen of the first HAPLO transplant was either full dose total body irradiation (TBI) or fludarabine, busulfan, and thiotepa (TBF); PTCY was given to all patients together with cyclosporine and mycophenolate. All 19 patients with PrGF received a second HAPLO graft, at a median interval of 42 days (34-82) after HSCT, using the Baltimore protocol and G-CSF mobilized PB from the same (n = 13) or another HAPLO family donor (n = 6). GvHD prophylaxis was again PTCY-based; 14/19 patients had trilineage recovery (74%) and 1-year survival was 66%. Engraftment at second HAPLO was seen in 7/8 patient with, and in 5/7 patients without donor-specific antibodies (DSA). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis on the original group of 503 patients, there was a trend for a reduced dose of busulfan, to increase the risk of PrGF (p = 0.1). In conclusion, patients with PrGF following a HAPLO transplant, can be rescued with a second early HAPLO transplant, using the same or a different donor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01183-9DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficacy of ibrutinib in late relapse chronic lymphocytic leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Hematol Oncol 2021 Apr 20;39(2):267-269. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Dipartimento di Diagnostica per Immagini, Radioterapia Oncologica ed Ematologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2826DOI Listing
April 2021

Full donor chimerism after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplant for myelofibrosis: The role of the conditioning regimen.

Am J Hematol 2021 02 30;96(2):234-240. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

UO Ematologia e Trapianto di Midollo Osseo, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino Genova, Genova, Italy.

The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the rate of full donor chimerism (F-DC) in patients with myelofibrosis, prepared for an allogeneic stem cell transplant, with one or two alkylating agents. We analyzed 120 patients with myelofibrosis, for whom chimerism data were available on day +30. There were two groups: 42 patients were conditioned with one alkylating agent (ONE-ALK), either thiotepa or busulfan or melphalan, in combination with fludarabine, whereas 78 patients were prepared with two alkylating agents, thiotepa busulfan and fludarabine (TBF). Patients receiving TBF were older (57 vs 52 years), were less frequently splenectomized pre-HSCT (31% vs 59%), had more frequently intermediate-2/high DIPSS scores (90% vs 74%), were grafted more frequently from alternative donors (83% vs 33%) and received more frequently ruxolitinib pre-HSCT (26% vs 7%). The proportion of patients with F-DC on day +30, in the TBF vs the ONE-ALK group, was respectively 87% vs 45% (P < .001). The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 9% in the TBF group, vs 43% for the ONE-ALK group (P < .001). The 5-year actuarial disease-free survival was 63% for TBF and 38% for the ONE-ALK group (P = .004). In conclusion, early full donor chimerism is a prerequisite for long term control of disease in patients with myelofibrosis, undergoing an allogeneic HSCT. The combination of two alkylating agents in the conditioning regimen, provides a higher chance of achieving full donor chimerism on day+30, and thus a higher chance of long term disease free survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26042DOI Listing
February 2021

Inline and offline extracorporeal photopheresis: Device performance, cell yields and clinical response.

J Clin Apher 2021 Feb 15;36(1):118-126. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Dipartimento di Diagnostica per Immagini, Radioterapia Oncologica ed Ematologia, Fondazione Policlinico A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background: Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is an effective treatment for graft-vs-host-disease (GvHD). Photopheresis can be performed in offline or inline method. The first uses a conventional cell separator for collection of mononuclear-cells that are photoactivated by a separate device and manually reinfused; the second one involves a dedicated device performing the entire procedure (collection, photoactivation and reinfusion).

Study Design And Methods: The objective was to compare the two methods and cell product features to highlight key process, devices performance, and to evaluate ECP clinical response. Patients developing steroid-resistant GvHD underwent ECP as second-line treatment using either inline (Therakos CellEx) or offline system (Terumo BCT Spectra or Optia and UVA PIT system). Data about patients' features, pre-apheresis blood-count, cell product characteristics and clinical response were collected for analysis.

Results: We evaluated 494 procedures performed on 28 patients from April 2018 to March 2019. The offline procedure allows to achieve greater cell yield, it is characterized by larger processed blood volume, longer runtime, and higher ACD consumption. The inline procedure shows shorter runtime, high mononuclear-cells percentage and low percentage of granulocytes in cell product. We observed a significant difference in cell yields between inline and offline system; furthermore we did not find a significant relationship between cell dose and clinical response.

Conclusion: Inline ECP is fast, highly automated and productive, making it particularly suitable for ECP treatments. Offline ECP collects high cell yields implying longer procedure and greater operator intervention. Our study did not find a significant relationship between cell dose and GVHD response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jca.21851DOI Listing
February 2021

Days Alive Outside Hospital and Readmissions in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Transplants from Identical Siblings or Alternative Donors.

Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2020 1;12(1):e2020055. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Dipartimento di Diagnostica per Immagini, Radioterapia Oncologica ed Ematologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma.

We have studied the number of days alive outside the Hospital (DAOH) and the number of readmissions within the first 100 days after transplant in 185 patients who received an allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The donors were matched siblings (SIB; n=61), or alternative donors (ALT; n=124). The median number of DAOH for SIB transplants (78 days, range 21-84) was significantly greater than DAOH for ALT donor grafts (73 days, range 2-87) (p=0.0003). Other positive predictors of DAOH were the use of reduced-intensity regimens (p=0.01), grade 0-I acute graft versus host disease (GvHD) (p=0.0006), and a comorbidity index equal or less than two (p=0.04). Fifty-one patients required readmission (22%), which was predicted by grade II-IV acute GvHD (p=0.009), higher comorbidity index (p=0.06), and ALT donors as compared to SIBS (p=0.08). The CI of readmission was 18% (95%CI 10-31) for SIB and 30% (95%CI 23-39) for ALT donor grafts. The non relapse mortality (NRM) for patients re-admitted was 25% (95%CI 15-43%), compared to 5% (95%CI 2-12%) for patients not readmitted (p=0.0001). In a multivariate analysis, readmission was the strongest predictor of non-relapse mortality (NRM) (HR 2.0) (p=0.0006) and survival (HR 3.4) (p<0.0001).

In Conclusion: ALT donor transplants have lower numbers of DAOH, as compared to SIB grafts, which implies longer stay in hospital and higher costs. Readmission to hospital within 100 days, is predicted by acute GvHD, comorbidity index, donor type, and has a significant strong impact on non-relapse mortality and survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4084/MJHID.2020.055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7485463PMC
September 2020

SARS CoV 2 infection in chronic myelogenous leukemia: Severe hematological presentation.

Transfus Apher Sci 2020 Dec 23;59(6):102881. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Istituto di Ematologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy; Universita' Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy; Clinica di Malattie Infettive, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Infection with SARS-CoV-2, the cause of coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19), has caused a pandemic. Few data are available about the risk of COVID-19 infection in persons with hematological cancer, but controversy whether these persons have the same clinical signs and outcomes. We describe a case of life-threatening COVID-19 infection complicated by severe anemia in patients affected also by chronic myelogenous leukemia. The screening for RBC antibodies and the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) turned positive. The identification of the antibodies, showed the presence of an alloantibody with anti-Lewis b specificity, which was reactive at room temperature, in the anti-human globulin phase (AGH) and with papain-treated red blood cells. At the same time hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), on the basis of major laboratory findings including hyperferritnemia, increase of triglicerides levels and according to the HLH score was suspected. Patients received antiviral therapy, steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins. Hemolysis resolved and ferritin dramatically decreased after administration of Ig and a Afull recovery was achieved after viral infection resolution.This case highlights the novel and multifaceted hematological findings during sever COVID 19 infection. COVID 19-related pneumonia is mediated by hyper activation of effector T cells and excessive production of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1, interferon-gamma, and TNF. This inflammatory process called "cytokine storm" is a life-threatening complication of COVID 19 infection. In this case severe immunohematological consequences are reported for the first time and recognition of this complications are probably underestimated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2020.102881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7377729PMC
December 2020

Impact of donor age and kinship on clinical outcomes after T-cell-replete haploidentical transplantation with PT-Cy.

Blood Adv 2020 08;4(16):3900-3912

Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Italy.

Donor selection contributes to improve clinical outcomes of T-cell-replete haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy). The impact of donor age and other non-HLA donor characteristics remains a matter of debate. We performed a multicenter retrospective analysis on 990 haplo-SCTs with PT-Cy. By multivariable analysis, after adjusting for donor/recipient kinship, increasing donor age and peripheral blood stem cell graft were associated with a higher risk of grade 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD), whereas 2-year cumulative incidence of moderate-to-severe chronic GVHD was higher for transplants from female donors into male recipients and after myeloablative conditioning. Increasing donor age was associated with a trend for higher nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (hazard ratio [HR], 1.05; P = .057) but with a significant reduced risk of disease relapse (HR, 0.92; P = .001) and improved progression-free survival (PFS) (HR, 0.97; P = .036). Increasing recipient age was a predictor of worse overall survival (OS). Risk of relapse was higher (HR, 1.39; P < .001) in patients aged ≤40 years receiving a transplant from a parent as compared with a sibling. Moreover, OS and PFS were lower when the donor was the mother rather than the father. Pretransplant active disease status was an invariably independent predictor of worse clinical outcomes, while recipient positive cytomegalovirus serostatus and hematopoietic cell transplant comorbidity index >3 were associated with worse OS and PFS. Our results suggest that younger donors may reduce the incidence of aGVHD and NRM, though at higher risk of relapse. A parent donor, particularly the mother, is not recommended in recipients ≤40 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7448598PMC
August 2020

Increased CD95 (Fas) and PD-1 expression in peripheral blood T lymphocytes in COVID-19 patients.

Br J Haematol 2020 10 18;191(2):207-211. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Dipartimento di Diagnostica per Immagini, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, IRCCS, Radioterapia Oncologica ed Ematologia, Rome, Italy.

A low count of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes is a hallmark laboratory finding in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Using flow cytometry, we observed significantly higher CD95 (Fas) and PD-1 expression on both CD4 T and CD8 T cells in 42 COVID-19 patients when compared to controls. Higher CD95 expression in CD4 cells correlated with lower CD4 counts. A higher expression of CD95 in CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes correlated with a lower percentage of naive events. Our results might suggest a shift to antigen-activated T cells, expressing molecules increasing their propensity to apoptosis and exhaustion during COVID-19 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7405050PMC
October 2020

Timing of Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide Administration in Haploidentical Transplantation: A Comparative Study on Behalf of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 10 6;26(10):1915-1922. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Hematology Department, Service d'Hématologie et Thérapie Cellulaire, Hôpital Saint Antoine, Paris, France; Sorbonne Universités, INSERM, Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Paris, France; European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Paris, France.

The timing of immunosuppressive therapy used in combination with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCY) in haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplant (haplo-HSCT) is not standardized. We evaluated the schedules of immunosuppression therapy after haplo-HSCT in 509 patients with acute leukemia receiving PTCY on days +3 and +4 along with tacrolimus (group 1; n = 215), with cyclosporine A (CSA) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) from day +5 (group 2; n = 170), or CSA + MMF from day 0 or 1 with PTCY on days +3 and +5 (group 3; n = 124). Compared with the other 2 groups, patients in group 3 were younger (median age, 46 years; P = .02) and more often received bone marrow (77%; P < .01) and a regimen containing thiotepa, fludarabine, and busulfan (84%; P< .01). At 2 years, overall survival was 44% was in group 1, 48% in group 2, and 59% in group 3 (P= .15); leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 43%, 46%, and 53% (P= .05); and refined graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival (rGRFS) was 33%, 39%, and 36% (P = .02). The incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 25% in group 1, 39% in group 2, and 18% in group 3 (P< .01); incidence of chronic GVHD was 25%, 21%, and 24% (P= .50); relapse incidence was 36%, 37%, and 26% (P= .02); and nonrelapse mortality was 26%, 20%, and 21% (P= .35). On multivariate analysis, early start of immunosuppression therapy at day +1 followed by PTCY was associated with a better LFS (hazard ratio [HR], .58; P= .02) and improved rGRFS (HR, .62; P = .02). In this study, the timing of immunosuppression influenced the outcomes of haplo-HSCT with PTCY. An early start of CSA + MMF with PTCY administered on days +3 and +5 improves LFS and rGRFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.06.026DOI Listing
October 2020

Allogeneic cord blood transfusions prevent fetal haemoglobin depletion in preterm neonates. Results of the CB-TrIP study.

Br J Haematol 2020 10 8;191(2):263-268. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Dipartimento di Diagnostica per Immagini, Radioterapia Oncologica, ed Ematologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma, Italy.

Repeated red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in preterm neonates are associated with poor outcome and increased risk for prematurity-associated diseases. RBC transfusions cause the progressive replacement of fetal haemoglobin (HbF) by adult haemoglobin (HbA). We monitored HbF levels in 25 preterm neonates until 36 weeks of post-menstrual age (PMA); patients received RBC units from allogeneic cord blood (cord-RBCs) or from adult donors (adult-RBCs), depending on whether cord-RBCs were available. Primary outcome was HbF level at PMA of 32 weeks. Twenty-three neonates survived until this age: 14 received no transfusions, two only cord-RBCs, three only adult-RBCs and four both RBC types. HbF levels in neonates transfused with cord-RBCs were significantly higher than in neonates receiving adult-RBCs (P < 0·0001) or both RBC types (P < 0·0001). Superimposable results were obtained at PMA of 36 weeks. Every adult-RBCs transfusion increased the risk for an HbF in the lowest quartile by about 10-fold, whereas this effect was not evident if combined adult- and cord-RBCs were evaluated. Overall, these data show that transfusing cord-RBCs can limit the HbF depletion caused by conventional RBC transfusions. Transfusing cord blood warrants investigation in randomised trials as a strategy to mitigate the severity of retinopathy of prematurity (NCT03764813).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16851DOI Listing
October 2020

Efficacy and safety of multiple doses of NEPA without dexamethasone in preventing nausea and vomiting induced by multiple-day and high-dose chemotherapy in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a phase IIa, multicenter study.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 11 28;55(11):2114-2120. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Hematology Unit, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Despite the availability of several antiemetics, clinical findings show that control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) continues to be a serious concern for hematological patients, mainly for those receiving multiple-day (MD) and high-dose (HD) chemotherapy (CT). For CINV prophylaxis, 5-hydroxytryptamine type-3 receptor antagonists (5HT-RAs) and neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists (NK-RAs) are usually administered together with dexamethasone, which may increase the risk of serious infections in patients undergoing myeloablative treatment. The rationale of this multicenter, open-label and phase IIa study was to explore the efficacy of multiple doses of NEPA (netupitant/palonosetron) given as an every-other-day regimen without dexamethasone in preventing CINV in patients with relapsed-refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (R/R-NHL), eligible for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and treated with MD-HD-CT. Seventy patients participated to the study. According to the adopted Fleming one-stage design, the primary endpoint of this study was achieved. The CR values were 87.1% (primary endpoint, overall phase: days 1-8), 88.6% (acute phase: days 1-6), and 98.6% (delayed phase: days 7-8), while complete control (CR with no more than mild nausea) was 85.7% (overall phase), 88.6% (acute phase), and 95.7% (delayed phase). Moderate and severe episodes of nausea were reported by less than 10% of patients in the overall phase and less than 5% in both the acute and delayed phases. Regarding safety, NEPA was well tolerated with only one adverse event (constipation) evaluated as possibly related to NEPA administration. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that multiple alternate dosing of NEPA without the addition of dexamethasone is highly effective for preventing nausea and vomiting in this difficult setting, with a good tolerability profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0909-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7588339PMC
November 2020

Impact of the type of anthracycline and of stem cell transplantation in younger patients with acute myeloid leukaemia: Long-term follow up of a phase III study.

Am J Hematol 2020 07 17;95(7):749-758. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

EORTC Headquarters, Brussels, Belgium.

We provide a long-term evaluation of patients enrolled in the EORTC/GIMEMA AML-10 trial which included a total of 2157 patients, 15-60 years old, randomized to receive either daunorubicin (DNR, 50 mg/m ), mitoxantrone (MXR, 12 mg/m ), or idarubicin (IDA, 10 mg/m ) in addition to standard-dose cytarabine and etoposide for induction chemotherapy and intermediate dose cytarabine for consolidation. Younger patients who reached complete remission with complete (CR) or incomplete (CRi) recovery were then scheduled to receive an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). That was if they had a HLA-identical sibling donor; in all other cases, an autologous HSCT had to be administered. At an 11-year median follow-up, the 5-year, 10-year and 15-year overall survival (OS) rates were 33.2%, 30.1% and 28.0%, respectively. No significant difference between the three randomized groups regarding OS was observed (P = .38). In young patients, 15-45 years old, no treatment difference (P = .89) regarding OS was observed, while in patients 46-60 years old, MXR and IDA groups had a trend for a longer OS as compared to the DNR group (P = .029). Among younger patients without a favorable MRC cytogenetic risk subgroup who achieved a CR/CRi after induction chemotherapy, those with a HLA-identical sibling donor had higher 10-year and 15-year OS rates than those without. In older patients who reached CR/CRi, the long-term outcomes of those with or without a donor was similar. In conclusion, long-term outcomes of the study confirmed similar OS in the three randomized groups in the whole cohort of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25795DOI Listing
July 2020

Treatment of steroid resistant acute graft versus host disease with an anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody-Begelomab.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 08 13;55(8):1580-1587. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Dipartimento di Oncoematologia Pediatrica, IRCCS, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesu', Sapienza, Università di Roma, Roma, Italy.

We have treated 69 patients with steroid refractory acute graft versus host disease (SR-aGvHD), with an anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody (Begelomab): 28 patients in two prospective studies (EudraCT No. 2007-005809-21; EudraCT No. 2012-001353-19), and 41 patients on a compassionate use study. The median age of patients was 42 and 44 years; the severity of GvHD was as follows: grade II in 8 patients, grade III in 33, and grade IV in 28 patients. There were no adverse events directly attributable to the antibody. Day 28 response was 75% in the prospective studies and 61% in the compassionate use patients, with complete response rates of 11 and 12%. Response for grade III GvHD was 83 and 73% in the two groups; response in grade IV GvHD was 66 and 56% in the two groups. Non relapse mortality (NRM) at 6 months was 28 and 38%. Overall there were 64, 56, 68% responses for skin, liver, and gut stage 3-4 GvHD. The overall survival at 1 year was 50% for the prospective studies and 33% for the compassionate use patients. In conclusion, Begelomab induces over 60% responses in SR-aGvHD, including patients with severe gut and liver GvHD, having failed one or more lines of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0855-zDOI Listing
August 2020

Bone marrow haploidentical transplant with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide: does graft cell content have an impact on main clinical outcomes?

Cytotherapy 2020 03 11;22(3):158-165. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Fondazione Policlinico A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma, Italy; Istituto di Ematologia, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italy.

We analyzed data relative to cell content in 88 consecutive patients receiving HLA haploidentical bone marrow (BM) transplants with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-CY). Median age was 54.5 (range, 17-72); diagnoses were acute leukemia (n = 46), lymphoproliferative disorders (n = 24), myelofibrosis (n = 11) and myelodysplastic syndromes (n = 5). Total nucleated cell (TNC) and CD34+, CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cell doses were stratified as higher than first, second and third quartile and the dose effect on various clinical outcomes was assessed. Median time to engraftment was 17 days for neutrophils and 24 days for platelets. To receive a dose of TNC ≥3.2 x 10/kg or CD34+ cells ≥2.7 x 10/kg significantly shortened the time to neutrophil and platelet engraftment and reduced the blood product requirements in the 30-day period after transplantation. Overall, TNC and CD34+ cell doses had no effect on acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) incidence, whereas patients receiving higher CD3+ and CD8+ cell doses seemed to have less chronic GVHD. No effect on non-relapse mortality, progression-free survival and overall survival was observed at different cell dose thresholds. These data suggest that in HLA haploidentical BM transplant with PT-CY, appropriate cell doses are relevant to the engraftment. The association between low CD3+/CD8+ cells and chronic GVHD deserves further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2020.01.007DOI Listing
March 2020

Antiemetic prophylaxis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a multicenter survey of the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto Midollo Osseo (GITMO) transplant programs.

Ann Hematol 2020 Apr 8;99(4):867-875. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

SODc Terapie Cellulari e Medicina Trasfusionale, AOU Careggi, Florence, Italy.

A survey within hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) centers of the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto Midollo Osseo (GITMO) was performed in order to describe current antiemetic prophylaxis in patients undergoing HSCT. The multicenter survey was performed by a questionnaire, covering the main areas on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV): antiemetic prophylaxis guidelines used, antiemetic prophylaxis in different conditioning regimens, and methods of CINV evaluation. The survey was carried out in November 2016, and it was repeated 6 months after the publication of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) specific guidelines on antiemetic prophylaxis in HSCT. The results show a remarkable heterogeneity of prophylaxis among the various centers and a significant difference between the guidelines and the clinical practice. In the main conditioning regimens, the combination of a serotonin receptor antagonist (5-HT-RA) with dexamethasone and neurokin receptor antagonist (NK1-RA), as recommended by MASCC/ESMO guidelines, increased from 0 to 15% (before the publication of the guidelines) to 9-30% (after the publication of the guidelines). This study shows a lack of compliance with specific antiemetic guidelines, resulting mainly in under-prophylaxis. Concerted strategies are required to improve the current CINV prophylaxis, to draft shared common guidelines, and to increase the knowledge and the adherence to the current recommendations for CINV prophylaxis in the specific field of HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-03945-3DOI Listing
April 2020

Allogeneic Hemopoietic Stem Cell Transplants in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Prepared with Busulfan and Fludarabine (BUFLU) or Thiotepa, Busulfan, and Fludarabine (TBF): A Retrospective Study.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 04 23;26(4):698-703. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Istituto di Ematologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy; Universita' Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

This is a multicenter retrospective comparison of 2 myeloablative conditioning regimens in 454 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in remission: busulfan (4 days) and fludarabine (BUFLU) versus thiotepa, busulfan, and fludarabine (TBF). Eligible for this study were patients allografted between January 2008 and December 2018 in 10 transplant centers, with AML in first or second remission: 201 patients received BUFLU, whereas 253 received TBF. The 2 groups (BUFLU and TBF) were comparable for age (P = .13) and adverse AML risk factors (P = .3). The TBF group had more second remissions and more haploidentical grafts. The donor type included HLA-identical siblings, unrelated donors, and family haploidentical donors. The 5-year cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 19% for BUFLU and 22% for TBF (P = .8), and the 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 30% and 15%, respectively (P = .0004). The 5-year actuarial survival was 51% for BUFLU and 68% for TBF (P = .002). In a multivariate Cox analysis, after correcting for confounding factors, the use of TBF reduced the risk of relapse compared with BUFLU (P = .03) and the risk of death (P = .03). In a matched pair analysis of 108 BUFLU patients matched with 108 TBF patients, with the exclusion of haploidentical grafts, TBF reduced the risk of relapse (P = .006) and there was a trend for improved survival (P = .07). Superior survival of patients receiving TBF as compared with BUFLU is due to a reduced risk of relapse, with comparable NRM. The survival advantage is independent of donor type and AML risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.12.725DOI Listing
April 2020
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