Publications by authors named "Patrizia Bergonzini"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A nationwide study on Sydenham's chorea: Clinical features, treatment and prognostic factors.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 Nov 6;36:1-6. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

Pediatric Rheumatology, Pediatric University Department, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Pisana, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Objectives: Sydenham's Chorea (SC) is a neuropsychiatric disorder and a major manifestation of acute rheumatic fever. The erroneous assumption that SC is a benign and self-limiting disease, has led to a lack of high-quality scientific evidence of the therapeutical and prognostic features of SC.

Study Design: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients <18-years old with SC in 17 Italian pediatric centers. Recorded data included clinical, instrumental and laboratory parameters. Prognostic risk factors including treatment regimens were assessed with univariate and multivariate sub-analysis.

Results: We included 171 patients with SC. 66% had generalized chorea, and 34% hemichorea. 81% had carditis (subclinical in 65%). Additional neurological symptoms were reported in 60% of the patients, mainly dysarthria and dysgraphia. 51% had neuropsychiatric symptoms at onset, which persisted after 12 months in 10%. Among psychiatric manifestations, the most common was anxiety disorder/depression (77%). Neurological remission was reached by 93% of the patients at 6 months; 9% relapsed. Patients were treated as follows: 11% penicillin alone, 37% immunomodulatory therapy, 16% symptomatic drugs (i.e. anti-seizure medication, dopamine antagonists) and 37% both symptomatic and immunomodulatory treatment. Neurological outcome did not differ between groups. Patients receiving symptomatic drugs had a higher risk of relapse on multivariate analysis (p = 0.045).

Conclusions: Treatment of SC was largely heterogeneous. Based on our results, immunomodulatory therapy did not show higher efficacy at medium term, although it was associated to a slightly lower risk of relapse compared to symptomatic therapy. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess specific risk factors and best treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2021.11.002DOI Listing
November 2021

Further delineation of PIGB-related early infantile epileptic encephalopathy.

Eur J Med Genet 2021 Oct 20;64(10):104268. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Child Neurology Unit, Azienda USL- IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy; Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Neurophysiology Laboratory, Azienda USL- IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Pathogenic variants in phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class B (PIGB) gene have been first described as the cause of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 80 (EIEE-80) in 2019. This disorder, an inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol deficiency, is associated with a complex neurologic phenotype, including developmental delay, early-onset epilepsy and peripheral neuropathy. We report on a 5 year-old girl born from consanguineous parents, manifesting severe global developmental delay with absent speech, mixed peripheral polyneuropathy, hypotonia, bilateral equino-varo-supinated-cavus foot, early-onset scoliosis, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and a single episode of febrile status epilepticus. Hypomyelination was documented on brain MRI. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) disclosed the likely pathogenic biallelic PIGB NM_004855.4: c.463G > C, p.(Asp155His) missense variant. In our patient, while other characteristic clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory findings (as described in the first research paper) were present, seizures were not a major clinical issue, thus contributing to our knowledge on this ultra-rare disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2021.104268DOI Listing
October 2021

Electroclinical features of MEF2C haploinsufficiency-related epilepsy: A multicenter European study.

Seizure 2021 May 30;88:60-72. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Maternal and Pediatric Department, Fondazione IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, Poliambulatorio "Giovanni Paolo II", Viale Padre Pio, snc, San Giovanni Rotondo (FG) 71013, Italy.

Purpose: Epilepsy is a main manifestation in the autosomal dominant mental retardation syndrome caused by heterozygous variants in MEF2C. We aimed to delineate the electro-clinical features and refine the genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with MEF2C haploinsufficiency.

Methods: We thoroughly investigated 25 patients with genetically confirmed MEF2C-syndrome across 12 different European Genetics and Epilepsy Centers, focusing on the epileptic phenotype. Clinical features (seizure types, onset, evolution, and response to therapy), EEG recordings during waking/sleep, and neuroimaging findings were analyzed. We also performed a detailed literature review using the terms "MEF2C", "seizures", and "epilepsy".

Results: Epilepsy was diagnosed in 19 out of 25 (~80%) subjects, with age at onset <30 months. Ten individuals (40%) presented with febrile seizures and myoclonic seizures occurred in ~50% of patients. Epileptiform abnormalities were observed in 20/25 patients (80%) and hypoplasia/partial agenesis of the corpus callosum was detected in 12/25 patients (~50%). Nine patients harbored a 5q14.3 deletion encompassing MEF2C and at least one other gene. In 7 out of 10 patients with myoclonic seizures, MIR9-2 and LINC00461 were also deleted, whereas ADGRV1 was involved in 3/4 patients with spasms.

Conclusion: The epileptic phenotype of MEF2C-syndrome is variable. Febrile and myoclonic seizures are the most frequent, usually associated with a slowing of the background activity and irregular diffuse discharges of frontally dominant, symmetric or asymmetric, slow theta waves with interposed spike-and-waves complexes. The haploinsufficiency of ADGRV1, MIR9-2, and LINC00461 likely contributes to myoclonic seizures and spasms in patients with MEF2C syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2021.03.025DOI Listing
May 2021

Grisel's Syndrome in Children: Two Case Reports and Systematic Review of the Literature.

Case Rep Pediatr 2020 12;2020:8819758. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Post-Graduated School of Pediatrics, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Mother Children and Adults, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Del Pozzo 71, Modena 41124, Italy.

. Grisel's syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by nontraumatic rotatory subluxation of the atlantoaxial joint. It usually affects children and typically presents with torticollis after ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgery or head and neck infections. In the pediatric literature, there is only a small amount of available data; moreover, no systematic review has been previously done with focus on the pediatric population. We report our experience of two cases, and we provide a systematic review on Grisel's syndrome in children in order to offer a deeper insight about its clinical presentation, its current diagnosis, and principles of treatment. . We describe two boys of 9 and 8 years old, who developed atlantoaxial subluxation after adenoidectomy. Considering the early diagnosis, a conservative treatment was chosen, with no recurrence and no sequelae at follow-up. We identified 114 case reports, of which 90 describe children, for a total of 171 pediatric patients. Of the 154 cases in which cause was reported, 59.7% presented a head and neck infection and 35.7% had previous head and neck surgery. There is no sex prevalence (49.7% males versus 50.2% females). Mean delay in diagnosis is 33 days. Eight % of the patients had neurological impairment of the 165 cases which mentioned treatment, 96% underwent a conservative treatment, of whom the 8.8% recurred with the need of surgery. As a whole, 12% underwent surgery as a first- or second-line treatment. 3 6% of the patients whose follow-up was reported developed a sequela, minor limitation of neck movement being the most frequent. . Grisel's syndrome should be suspected in children with painful unresponsive torticollis following ENT procedures or head and neck inflammation. CT scan with 3D reconstruction is the gold standard for diagnosis, allowing the identification of the subluxation and the classification according to the Fielding-Hawkins grading system. Surgical treatment is indicated in case of high-grade instability or failure of conservative treatment. Review of the literature shows how early diagnosis based on clinical and radiological evaluation is crucial in order to avoid surgical treatment and neurologic sequelae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8819758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676959PMC
November 2020

Mapping the Effect of Interictal Epileptic Activity Density During Wakefulness on Brain Functioning in Focal Childhood Epilepsies With Centrotemporal Spikes.

Front Neurol 2019 19;10:1316. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Neurology Unit, OCB Hospital, AOU Modena, Modena, Italy.

Childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (CECTS) is the most common type of "self-limited focal epilepsies." In its typical presentation, CECTS is a condition reflecting non-lesional cortical hyperexcitability of rolandic regions. The benign evolution of this disorder is challenged by the frequent observation of associated neuropsychological deficits and behavioral impairment. The abundance (or frequency) of interictal centrotemporal spikes (CTS) in CECTS is considered a risk factor for deficits in cognition. Herein, we captured the hemodynamic changes triggered by the CTS density measure (i.e., the number of CTS for time bin) obtained in a cohort of CECTS, studied by means of video electroencephalophy/functional MRI during quite wakefulness. We aim to demonstrate a direct influence of the diurnal CTS frequency on epileptogenic and cognitive networks of children with CECTS. A total number of 8,950 CTS (range between 27 and 801) were recorded in 23 CECTS (21 male), with a mean number of 255 CTS/patient and a mean density of CTS/30 s equal to 10,866 ± 11.46. Two independent general linear model models were created for each patient based on the effect of interest: "individual CTS" in model 1 and "CTS density" in model 2. Hemodynamic correlates of CTS density revealed the involvement of a widespread cortical-subcortical network encompassing the sensory-motor cortex, the Broca's area, the premotor cortex, the thalamus, the putamen, and red nucleus, while in the CTS event-related model, changes were limited to blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal increases in the sensory-motor cortices. A linear relationship was observed between the CTS density hemodynamic changes and both disease duration (positive correlation) and age (negative correlation) within the language network and the bilateral insular cortices. Our results strongly support the critical role of the CTS frequency, even during wakefulness, to interfere with the normal functioning of language brain networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.01316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6930928PMC
December 2019

Heart failure caused by VGAM: a lesson for diagnosis and treatment from a case and literature review.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jul 18;34(14):2384-2390. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Post-graduate School of Pediatrics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

We describe the case of a neonate with signs of heart failure. Echocardiography showed a structural normal heart shape with left ventricular dysfunction. At 2 months of age, a vein of Galen arteriovenous malformation was diagnosed through a brain magnetic resonance imaging. Embolization therapy was accomplished and a clinical and neurological follow-up was started. This clinical case highlights how important it is considering an intracranial cause in the differential diagnosis of neonatal congestive heart failure (CHF). We performed a narrative minireview of the literature about treatments and outcome of this malformation in association to CHF, to point out how complex the diagnosis of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) may be and how an early diagnosis is important for its management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2019.1665013DOI Listing
July 2021

Interdural cavernous sinus dermoid cyst in a child: case report.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2017 Mar 9;19(3):354-360. Epub 2016 Dec 9.

Department of Neurosurgery.

Interdural dermoid cysts (DCs) of the cavernous sinus (CS), located between the outer (dural) and inner layer (membranous) of the CS lateral wall, are rare lesions in children. The authors report on a 5-year-old boy with third cranial nerve palsy and exophthalmos who underwent gross-total removal of an interdural DC of the right CS via a frontotemporal approach. The patient had a good outcome and no recurrence at the 12-month follow-up. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the second pediatric case of interdural DC described in the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2016.9.PEDS1650DOI Listing
March 2017

Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy and PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration: An update for the diagnosis.

Brain Dev 2017 Feb 21;39(2):93-100. Epub 2016 Nov 21.

Child Neurology Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova Hospital - IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by infantile onset of rapid motor and cognitive regression and hypotonia evolving into spasticity. Recessively inherited mutations of the PLA2G6 gene are causative of infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy and other PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration, which includes conditions known as atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy, Karak syndrome and early-onset dystonia-parkinsonism with cognitive impairment. Phenotypic spectrum continues to evolve and genotype-phenotype correlations are currently limited. Due to the overlapping phenotypes and heterogeneity of clinical findings characterization of the syndrome is not always achievable. We reviewed the most recent clinical and neuroradiological information in the way to make easier differential diagnosis with other degenerative disorders in the paediatric age. Recognizing subtle signs and symptoms is a fascinating challenge to drive towards better diagnostic and genetic investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2016.08.012DOI Listing
February 2017

Extrastriate visual cortex in idiopathic occipital epilepsies: The contribution of retinotopic areas to spike generation.

Epilepsia 2016 06 19;57(6):896-906. Epub 2016 Apr 19.

Department of Biomedical, Metabolic, and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Objectives: To provide insight into the pathophysiology of idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsies (ICOEs), by mapping the contribution of retinotopic visual areas to the generation and sustainment of epileptic activity.

Methods: Thirteen patients affected by ICOEs (mean age = 10.9 years) underwent a video electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) study. A flexible-related fMRI analysis was applied to estimate the shape of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in each patient. Second-level analysis was performed using the interictal EEG discharge (IED)-specific response shape for the ICOE group. The resulting fMRI t-maps were warped to the Population-Average, Landmark- and Surface-based (PALS)-B12 atlas in Caret. For localization purposes, functional results were plotted and compared against 19 retinotopic areas for each hemisphere. A correlation analysis was performed between the hemodynamic maps and electroclinical variables.

Results: The shape of the group-averaged hemodynamic response in ICOE patients showed an earlier time-to-peak and a more pronounced undershoot than the canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF). The random-effect analysis showed positive hemodynamic changes in the bilateral temporooccipital network. With regard to the retinotopic subdivision of the visual cortex, the primary visual area was consistently spared. Conversely, an extensive involvement of the occipitotemporal cortex, including the fusiform gyrus, and the occipitoparietal areas was observed. Moreover, a linear relationship was detected between the occipital spike-density and BOLD increases at the postcentral gyrus and temporooccipital cortex.

Significance: Our data indicate that both the ventral and dorsal visual pathways are involved in spike generation in ICOEs, to extents that vary between patients, and reinforce the concept of benign childhood seizure susceptibility syndrome as a substrate for ICOEs. Finally, these results underscore the need for appropriate neuropsychological testing in these children, aimed at revealing selective impairments in functions subserved by both visual pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.13385DOI Listing
June 2016

Paraplegia by spinal cord compression as the initial manifestation of Hodgkin's disease: a case report.

Acta Biomed 2014 08 20;85(2):171-4. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

Post-graduate School of Paediatrics University of Modena and Reggio Emilia.

The 90% of Hodgkin's disease (HD) cases are originated by lymphnodes whereas 10% by extranodal regions as epidural space. Neurologic complications of HD can be classified as directly resulting from the disease or indirectly originated from the disease or from its treatment. Patients very rarely present with spinal cord compression (SCC)  due to epidural HD. Few cases of HD with such presentation have been reported in the literature. Primary spinal extradural HD with no further organ involvement is extremely rare. We report a case of a child with SCC as initial and unique presentation of HD.
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August 2014

Predictive diagnostic value for the clinical features accompanying intellectual disability in children with pathogenic copy number variations: a multivariate analysis.

Ital J Pediatr 2014 Apr 28;40:39. Epub 2014 Apr 28.

Medical Genetics Unit, Department of Mother & Child, University Hospital of Modena, Via del Pozzo, 71, 41124 Modena, Italy.

Background: Array comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) has become the first-tier investigation in patients with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID). Although the costs are progressively decreasing, a-CGH is still an expensive and labour-intensive technique: for this reason a definition of the categories of patients that can benefit the most of the analysis is needed. Aim of the study was to retrospectively analyze the clinical features of children with DD/ID attending the outpatient clinic of the Mother & Child Department of the University Hospital of Modena subjected to a-CGH, to verify by uni- and multivariate analysis the independent predictors of pathogenic CNVs.

Methods: 116 patients were included in the study. Data relative to the CNVs and to the patients' clinical features were analyzed for genotype/phenotype correlations.

Results And Conclusions: 27 patients (23.3%) presented pathogenic CNVs (21 deletions, 3 duplications and 3 cases with both duplications and deletions). Univariate analysis showed a significant association of the pathogenic CNVs with the early onset of symptoms (before 1 yr of age) and the presence of malformations and dysmorphisms. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant independent predictive value for diagnosing a pathogenic CNV for malformations (P = 0.002) and dysmorphisms (P = 0.023), suggesting that those features should address a-CGH analysis as a high-priority test for diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1824-7288-40-39DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4014206PMC
April 2014

Case of stroke in a 7-year-old male after parvovirus B19 infection.

Pediatr Neurol 2003 Jan;28(1):69-71

Centre of Neuroradiology, Hospital Ramazzini-Carpi (MO), Italy.

A 7-year-old male presented sudden-onset left hemiparesis, left-sided paresthesia, central paralysis of the left VII cranial nerve, and subsequent headache. Magnetic resonance scans were obtained 24 hours after admission. T(2)-weighted images disclosed hyperintensities located mainly in the posterior portion of the lenticular nucleus and in the head and body of the right caudate nucleus. A diagnosis of ischaemic stroke was made on the basis of neuroradiologic findings. Laboratory tests undertaken to establish the cause of stroke revealed parvovirus B19 infection preceding the neurologic abnormalities. In the absence of other known risk factors for stroke the possibility of parvovirus B19's being correlated with stroke onset is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0887-8994(02)00504-0DOI Listing
January 2003
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