Publications by authors named "Patrik Kutilek"

18 Publications

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The timed up & go test sit-to-stand transition: Which signals measured by inertial sensors are a viable route for continuous analysis?

Gait Posture 2021 02 12;84:8-10. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Neurology and Centre of Clinical Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Background: The Timed Up and Go test is a well-known clinical test for assessing of mobility and fall risk. It has been shown that the IMU which use an accelerometer and gyroscope are capable of analysing the quantitative parameters of the sit-to-stand transition.

Research Question: Which signals obtained by the inertial sensors are suitable for continuous Timed Up & Go test sit-to-stand transition analysis?

Methods: In the study we included 29 older adult volunteers and 31 de-novo Parkinson disease (PD) patients. All subjects performed an instrumented extended TUG wearing a gyro-accelerometer. The sit-to-stand transition was detected from an angular velocity signal. The sit-to-stand signal pattern within the subject group was analyzed via an intra-class correlation between curves. Inter-subjects' variability was visualized using prediction bands.

Results: The angular velocity about the pitch axis exhibited the best signal match across subjects in both groups (0.50 < ICC < 0.75). When analysing acceleration, the acceleration along the antero-posterior axis showed moderate inter-subjects signal pattern match (0.50 < ICC < 0.75) in the reference group. The analysis of other signals revealed a poor signal pattern in both subject groups.

Significance: For optimal interpretation of the analysis of continuous curves, the signal pattern must be considered. Also, the inter-subject variability along this pattern can be informative and useful.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2020.11.006DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of Robot-Assisted Gait Training on Selective Voluntary Motor Control in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy.

Indian Pediatr 2020 10;57(10):964-966

Department of Nursing Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Primorska, Polje, Izola, Republic of Slovenia.

This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a four week robot-assisted gait training in twelve children with spastic diparesis. Short-term results and a 3-month follow-up showed statistically significantly increased selective motor control, walking farther distances, gross motor score, and decreased joint contractures.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7605485PMC
October 2020

Evaluation of Postural Stability Differences in the Elderly Through Recurrent Analysis.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2020 Sep;273:197-202

Faculty of Physical Culture, Palacky University Olomouc, trida Miru 117, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Measuring the center of pressure (CoP) for a subject positioned on a force plate is one of the most commonly used tools to investigate balance. Several studies have proven a significant degradation of the body's stability after the age of 60. The conclusions, however, are based on a limited number of indicators and without systematic nonlinear analysis methods being used to evaluate the progression of CoP parameter values. Neither the change in CoP movement in subjects over 60 years of age nor the considerations of their body mass index (BMI) has been systematically evaluated by nonlinear methods so far. This study is based on one of the frequent methods for nonlinear evaluation - the Recurrent Quantification analysis. This article discusses the applicability of this method with regards to the evaluation of changes in postural stability of subjects over 60 years of age. Postural stability changes were evaluated using CoP motion and tested by the nonlinear method. For this research purpose, a group of 103 elderly women were selected and divided into age-respective groups of 60-69 years and 70-79 years old. Each age group was further divided into a subgroup of normal and overweight subjects according to their BMI. The following recurrent analysis parameters were employed in the evaluation of CoP motion in medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions: determinism (DET), laminarity (LAM) and trapping time (TT). The results of the Wilcoxon test revealed a statistically significant difference between the values in parameters for the different age groups of overweight subjects almost in all the cases. Conversely, statistically significant differences between age groups rarely occurred in a subgroup of subjects with a normal BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/SHTI200639DOI Listing
September 2020

Automatic Telerehabilitation System in a Home Environment Using Computer Vision.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2020 Sep;273:142-148

Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.

In this paper, we follow up on research dealing with body tracking and motor rehabilitation. We describe the current situation in telerehabilitation in the home environment. Existing solutions do not allow wide adoption due to hardware requirements and complicated setup. We come with the possibility of telerehabilitation using only laptop or mobile web camera. Together with physiotherapists, we have compiled a set of complex motor exercises to show that the system can be practically used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/SHTI200629DOI Listing
September 2020

Control System of a Lower-Extremity Exoskeleton Based on the Artificial Neural Network.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2020 Sep;273:91-96

Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Sitna sq. 3105 Kladno, Czech Republic.

A lower-extremity exoskeleton can facilitate the lower limbs' rehabilitation by providing additional structural support and strength. This article discusses the design and implementation of a functional prototype of lower extremity brace actuation and its wireless communication control system. The design provides supportive torque and increases the range of motion after complications reducing muscular strength. The control system prototype facilitates elevating a leg, gradually followed by standing and slow walking. The main control modalities are based on an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The prototype's functionality was tested by time-angle graphs. The final prototype demonstrates the potential application of the ANN in the control system of exoskeletons for joint impairment therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/SHTI200620DOI Listing
September 2020

Effect of Robot-Assisted Gait Training on Selective Voluntary Motor Control in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy.

Indian Pediatr 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Nursing Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Primorska, Polje, Izola, Republic of Slovenia.

This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a four week robot-assisted gait training in twelve childrenwith spastic diparesis. Short-term results and a 3-month follow-up showed statistically significantly increased selective motor control, walking farther distances, gross motor score, and decreased joint contractures.
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May 2020

Extended Timed Up & Go test: Is walking forward and returning back to the chair equivalent gait?

J Biomech 2019 May 10;89:110-114. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Neurology and Centre of Clinical Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

The Timed Up & Go test (TUG) is functional test and is a part of routine clinical examinations. The instrumented Timed Up & Go test enables its segmentation to sub-tasks: sit-to-stand, walking forward, turning, walking back, stand-to-sit, and consequently the computation of task-specific parameters and sub-tasks separately. However, there are no data on whether walking forward parameters differ from the walking back parameters. This study tested the differences between walking forward and walking back in the TUG extended to 10 m for 17 spatio-temporal gait parameters. All parameters were obtained from a GAITRite® pressure sensitive walkway (CIR Systems, Inc.). The differences were assessed for healthy controls and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. None of investigated parameters exhibited a difference between both gait subtasks for healthy subjects group. Five parameters of interest, namely velocity, step length, stride length, stride velocity, and the proportion of the double support phase with respect to gait cycle duration, showed a statistically significant difference between gait for walking forward and walking back in PD patients. Therefore, we recommend a separate assessment for walking forward and walking back rather than averaging both gaits together.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2019.04.001DOI Listing
May 2019

A gyroscopic advantage: phylogenetic patterns of compensatory movements in frogs.

J Exp Biol 2019 01 18;222(Pt 2). Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, CZ-12843 Prague, Czech Republic.

Head and eye compensatory movements known as vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-cervical reflexes are essential to stay orientated in space while moving. We have used a previously developed methodology focused on the detailed mathematical description of head compensatory movements in frogs without the need for any surgical procedures on the examined specimens. Our comparative study comprising 35 species of frogs from different phylogenetic backgrounds revealed species-specific head compensatory abilities ensuring gaze stabilization. Moreover, we found a strong phylogenetic signal highlighting the great ability of compensatory head movements in families of Pyxicephalidae and Rhacophoridae from the Natatanura group. By contrast, families of Dendrobatidae and Microhylidae exhibited only poor or no head compensatory movements. Contrary to our expectation, the results did not corroborate an ecomorphological hypothesis anticipating a close relationship between ecological parameters and the head compensatory movements. We did not find any positive association between more complex (3D structured, arboreal or aquatic) habitats or more saltatory behavior and elevated abilities of head compensatory movements. Moreover, we found compensatory movements in most basal Archeobatrachia, giving an indication of common ancestry of these abilities in frogs that are variously pronounced in particular families. We hypothesize that the uncovered proper gaze stabilization during locomotion provided by the higher head compensatory abilities can improve or even enable visual perception of the prey. We interpret this completely novel finding as a possible gyroscopic advantage in a foraging context. We discuss putative consequences of such advanced neuromotor skills for diversification and ecological success of the Natatanura group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.186544DOI Listing
January 2019

Postural Stability Evaluation of Patients Undergoing Vestibular Schwannoma Microsurgery Employing the Inertial Measurement Unit.

J Healthc Eng 2018 18;2018:2818063. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Ruská 2411/87, Prague, Czech Republic.

The article focuses on a noninvasive method and system of quantifying postural stability of patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma microsurgery. Recent alternatives quantifying human postural stability are rather limited. The major drawback is that the posturography system can evaluate only two physical quantities of body movement and can be measured only on a transverse plane. A complex movement pattern can be, however, described more precisely while using three physical quantities of 3-D movement. This is the reason why an inertial measurement unit (Xsens MTx unit), through which we obtained 3-D data (three Euler angles or three orthogonal accelerations), was placed on the patient's trunk. Having employed this novel method based on the volume of irregular polyhedron of 3-D body movement during quiet standing, it was possible to evaluate postural stability. To identify and evaluate pathological balance control of patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma microsurgery, it was necessary to calculate the volume polyhedron using the 3-D Leibniz method and to plot three variables against each other. For the needs of this study, measurements and statistical analysis were made on nine patients. The results obtained by the inertial measurement unit showed no evidence of improvement in postural stability shortly after surgery (4 days). The results were consistent with the results obtained by the posturography system. The evaluated translation variables (acceleration) and rotary variables (angles) measured by the inertial measurement unit correlate strongly with the results of the posturography system. The proposed method and application of the inertial measurement unit for the purpose of measuring patients with vestibular schwannoma appear to be suitable for medical practice. Moreover, the inertial measurement unit is portable and, when compared to other traditional posturography systems, economically affordable. Inertial measurement units can alternatively be implemented in mobile phones or watches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/2818063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5932418PMC
November 2019

Evaluation of the effect of heel lift on postural stability and symmetry of muscle activity.

J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2017 Sep;30(5):1037-1044

The Rehabilitation Center Kladruby, Kladruby, Czech Republic.

Background: Although a leg length inequality (LLI) has the effect on the performed movement, more complex indices for the evaluation of kinematic variables of postural stability and a symmetry of a muscle activity during standing in subjects with the LLI were never used before.

Objective: The objective is to present appropriate parameters for an evaluation of kinematic variables of postural stability and muscle activity during standing, i.e. to consider EMG signals, in patients with LLI.

Methods: New indices are offered, such as a sway velocity (i.e. the mCTSIB method) and a modified symmetry index (SI), for a quantitative evaluation of EMG signals. The set of data for evaluating the effect of a heel lift was measured on patients with the LLI and healthy volunteers.

Results: Prior to the heel lift application, significant statistic differences were found between the mCTSIB of patients and the CG. These differences were no longer statistically significant after the heel lift was applied. As for the SI, the lowest values were found in the CG, while the greatest values were collected among patients before applying the heel lift.

Conclusions: The results point out the benefits of using the newly applied indices in patients with the LLI. Both methods may become useful tools for the evaluation of the physical state of patients with the LLI in a medical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BMR-169616DOI Listing
September 2017

Relationships between movements of the lower limb joints and the pelvis in open and closed kinematic chains during a gait cycle.

J Hum Kinet 2016 Jun 2;51:37-43. Epub 2016 Jul 2.

Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic.

Lots of athletic skills performed during practice or competition are initiated by the legs, where athletes either walk or run prior to executing specific skills. Kinematic chains are used to describe the relationships between body segments and joints during movement. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between movements of lower limb segments and the pelvis in open and closed kinematic chains while walking. The experimental group consisted of 32 males (age 23.3 ± 2.5 years, body mass 78.1 ± 8.7 kg, body height 182 ± 6 cm). For 3D analysis, an optoelectronic system Vicon MX (7 cameras, frequency 200 Hz) was used. Positioning of the segments was determined by the PlugInGait Model. Each participant executed five trials at speeds ranging from 1.38 to 1.52 m·s. The relationships between angle variables of the lower limbs and the pelvis in selected gait cycle phases were evaluated using STATISTICA software (version 10.0) and the Spearman correlation. The highest numbers of moderate and large correlations were found at opposite toe off, heel rise and initial contact for the sagittal and transversal planes in comparison to the frontal plane. The closed kinematic chain had a stronger impact on determining the movement pattern. The instructions or interventions focusing on closed kinematic chain alternation are more effective for changes in a movement pattern. The preferred limb initiates kinematics in the direction of propulsion, while the non-preferred limb in internal and external rotation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2015-0168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5260548PMC
June 2016

Quantification of Trunk Postural Stability Using Convex Polyhedron of the Time-Series Accelerometer Data.

J Healthc Eng 2016 ;2016

Palacky University of Olomouc, Faculty of Physical Culture, 771 11 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Techniques to quantify postural stability usually rely on the evaluation of only two variables, that is, two coordinates of COP. However, by using three variables, that is, three components of acceleration vector, it is possible to describe human movement more precisely. For this purpose, a single three-axis accelerometer was used, making it possible to evaluate 3D movement by use of a novel method, convex polyhedron (CP), together with a traditional method, based on area of the confidence ellipse (ACE). Ten patients (Pts) with cerebellar ataxia and eleven healthy individuals of control group (CG) participated in the study. The results show a significant increase of volume of the CP (CPV) in Pts or CG standing on foam surface with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) after the EC phase. Significant difference between Pts and CG was found in all cases as well. Correlation coefficient indicates strong correlation between the CPV and ACE in most cases of patient examinations, thus confirming the possibility of quantification of postural instability by the introduced method of CPV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1621562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5058576PMC
September 2018

Assessment of postural stability in patients with cerebellar disease using gyroscope data.

J Bodyw Mov Ther 2015 Jul 18;19(3):421-8. Epub 2014 Sep 18.

Palacky University of Olomouc, Faculty of Physical Culture, Tr. Miru 115, 771 11, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

This study examines a relatively new method of studying and quantifying human postural stability in patients with degenerative cerebellar disease. Trunk sway and feet sway were measured during quiet stance. To test the method, ten patients and eleven healthy subjects performed two different stance tasks: standing with eyes open on a firm surface and standing with eyes closed on a foam support surface. Data were recorded using three body-worn gyroscopes (Xsens Technologies B.V.) to measure roll and pitch angular movements of the lower trunk, and left and right foot. The pitch versus roll plots of the trunk and feet were created, and the areas of the convex hull shapes were calculated. It was found that the area of the convex hull of the pitch versus roll plots is suitable for the identification of postural instability disorders caused by degenerative cerebellar disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2014.09.005DOI Listing
July 2015

Volume of confidence ellipsoid: a technique for quantifying trunk sway during stance.

Biomed Tech (Berl) 2015 Apr;60(2):171-6

The position of the trunk can be negatively affected by many diseases. This work focuses on a noninvasive method of quantifying human postural stability and identifying defects in balance and coordination as a result of the nervous system pathology. We used a three-degree-of-freedom orientation tracker (Xsens MTx unit) placed on a patient's trunk and measured three-dimensional (3-D) data (pitch, roll, and yaw) during quiet stance. The principal component analysis was used to analyze the data and to determine the volume of 3-D 95% confidence ellipsoid. Using this method, we were able to model the distribution of the measured 3-D data (pitch, roll, and yaw). Eight patients with degenerative cerebellar disease and eight healthy subjects in this study were measured during stance, with eyes open and eyes closed, and statistical analysis was performed. The results of the new method based on the 3-D confidence ellipsoid show that the volumes related to the patients are significantly larger than the volumes related to the healthy subjects. The concept of confidence ellipsoid volume, although known to the biomechanics community, has not been used before to study the postural balance problems. The method can also be used to study, for example, head and pelvis movements or alignments during stance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2014-0012DOI Listing
April 2015

Differences in evaluation methods of trunk sway using different MoCap systems.

Acta Bioeng Biomech 2014 ;16(2):85-94

Palacky University of Olomouc, Faculty of Physical Culture, the Czech Republic.

The position of the trunk can be negatively influenced by many diseases. Several methods can be used for identifying defects in balance and coordination as a result of pathology of the musculoskeletal or nervous system. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between the three methods used for analysis of trunk sway and compare two fundamentally different MoCap systems. We used a camera system and a 3DOF orientation tracker placed on subject's trunk, and measured inclination (roll) and flexion (pitch) during quiet stance. Ten healthy participants in the study were measured with eyes open and closed. The pitch versus roll plots of trunk were formed, and the area of the convex hull, area of confidence ellipse and total length of the trajectory of the pitch versus roll plot were calculated. The statistical analysis was performed and strong correlation between the area of the convex hull and area of the confidence ellipse was found. Also, the results show moderate correlation between the area of the confidence ellipse and total length of the trace, and moderate correlation between the area of the convex hull and total length of the trace. In general, the different MoCap systems show different areas and lengths but lead to the same conclusions. Statistical analysis of the participants with eyes open and eye closed did not show significant difference in the areas and total lengths of the pitch versus roll plots.
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March 2015

Variability of centre of pressure movement during gait in young and middle-aged women.

Gait Posture 2014 Jul 11;40(3):399-402. Epub 2014 Jun 11.

Department of Natural Sciences in Kinanthropology, Faculty of Physical Culture, Palacky University Olomouc, Trida Miru 115, 771 11, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

The variability of the centre of pressure (COP) movement is a tool that is often used for stability assessments during standing; however, this variable can provide relevant findings during dynamic conditions, which are more related to fall risks. The aim of this study was to investigate age-related differences in the variability of COP movement. Healthy young (younger group - 25 subjects, age 22.2 ± 1.8 years) and middle-aged (elder group - 25 subjects, age 56.6 ± 4.9 years) females participated in this study. The ground reaction forces and COP movement during walking at a self-selected speed were recorded using two force platforms. Each stance phase was divided into four subphases: loading response (LR), mid-stance (MSt), terminal stance (TSt) and preswing (PS). Standard deviations of the medial-lateral, anterior-posterior and total COP displacements were assessed. For statistical comparisons, one-way ANOVA and the Bonferroni post-hoc test were used. These results showed significantly higher COP movement variability in selected variables in the PS, LR and MSt subphases in the elder group (p < 0.05) compared with the younger group; no differences were found in the TSt subphase. A comparison of the subphases within the groups revealed significant differences (p < 0.001 for all cases and both groups) between the parameters in the LR × MSt, LR × TSt, MSt × PS and TSt×PS subphases. The LR and PS subphases showed significantly higher values for the variability parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.05.065DOI Listing
July 2014

The procedure of evaluating the practical adhesion strength of new biocompatible nano- and micro-thin films in accordance with international standards.

Acta Bioeng Biomech 2011 ;13(3):87-94

Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Kladno, Czech Republic.

The possibilities of using newly developed nano- and micro-thin films in biomedicine are intensively studied at the present time. Many research institutions are looking for ways to evaluate mechanical properties of these films. One of the most important and frequently studied characteristics is practical adhesion. A very important method for evaluating the practical adhesion strength is scratch test. Often, however, the research teams use a method based on the disunity evaluation of adhesion of biocompatible surface layer. This makes the quantitative comparison of research results impossible. We designed and tested new evaluation method and procedure based on international standards in order to eliminate these problems. This article is aimed at showing the new possibility of using established standards for evaluating adhesion of nano- and micro-thin biocompatible films and at showing the application of the standards to evaluate the often studied DLC biocompatible layers. The thickness of the film was 470 nm. As a substrate a titanium alloy Ti6Al4V was used.
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March 2012

Prediction of lower extremities' movement by angle-angle diagrams and neural networks.

Acta Bioeng Biomech 2011 ;13(2):57-65

Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.

In contemporary science, the analysis of human walking is extensively used. The prediction of leg motion, as well as rehabilitation, can be usable for orthosis and prosthesis programing. Our work is focused on predicting of human walking by angle-angle diagrams, also called cyclograms. The applications of cyclograms in conjunction with artificial intelligence offers wide area of applications in medicine. But until now, this approach has not been studied or applied in practice.
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May 2012
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