Publications by authors named "Patrick W Okanya"

6 Publications

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South-to-south mentoring as a vehicle for implementing sustainable health security in Africa.

One Health Outlook 2021 Oct 6;3(1):20. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

International Federation of Biosafety Associations (IFBA), Ottawa, Canada.

Background: While sustainability has become a universal precept in the development of global health security systems, supporting policies often lack mechanisms to drive policies into regular practice. 'On-paper' norms and regulations are to a great extent upheld by frontline workers who often lack the opportunity to communicate their first-hand experiences to decisionmakers; their role is an often overlooked, yet crucial, aspect of a sustainable global health security landscape. Initiatives and programs developing transdisciplinary professional skills support the increased bidirectional dialogue between these frontline workers and key policy- and decisionmakers which may sustainably narrow the gap between global health security policy design and implementation.

Methods: The International Federation of Biosafety Associations' (IFBA) Global Mentorship Program recruits biosafety and biosecurity champions across Africa to provide local peer mentorship to developing professionals in their geographic region. Mentors and mentees complete structured one year program cycles, where they are provided with written overviews of monthly discussion topics, and attend optional virtual interactive activities. Feedback from African participants of the 2019-2020 program cycle was collected using a virtual Exit Survey, where aspects of program impact and structure were assessed.

Results: Following its initial call for applications, the IFBA Global Mentorship Program received considerable interest from professionals across the African continent, particularly in East and North Africa. The pilot program cycle matched a total of 62 individuals from an array of professional disciplines across several regions, 40 of which were located on the African continent. The resulting mentorship pairs shared knowledge, skills, and experiences towards translating policy objectives to action on the front lines. Mentorship pairs embraced multidisciplinary approaches to harmonize health security strategies across the human and animal health sectors. South-to-South mentorship therefore provided mentees with locally relevant support critical to translation of best technical practices to local capacity and work.

Conclusion: The IFBA's South-to-South Global Mentorship Program has demonstrated its ability to form crucial links between frontline biosafety professionals, laboratory workers, and policy- and decision-makers across several implicated sectors. By supporting regionally relevant peer mentorship programs, the gap between health security policy development and implementation may be narrowed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42522-021-00050-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8492092PMC
October 2021

Post-vaccine rotavirus genotype distribution in Nairobi County, Kenya.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Nov 6;100:434-440. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), PO Box 43640-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. Electronic address:

Background: Rotaviruses are primary etiological agents of gastroenteritis in young children. In Kenya, G1P8 monovalent vaccine (Rotarix) was introduced in July 2014 for mandatory vaccination of all newborns at 6 and 10 weeks of age. Since then, no studies have been done to identify the rotavirus genotypes circulating in Nairobi County, Kenya, following the vaccine introduction, hence the post-vaccine genotype distribution is not known.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the post-vaccine occurrence of rotavirus genotypes in children <5 years of age in Nairobi County, Kenya.

Methods: Stool samples were collected from children presenting with diarrhea for whom the vaccination status was card-confirmed. Fecal samples were analyzed for rotavirus antigen using a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit, followed by characterization by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, RT-PCR, and nested PCR genotyping, targeting the most medically important genotypes.

Results: The strains observed included G1P[8] (38.8%), G9P[8] (20.4%), G2P[4] (12.2%), G3[P4] (6.1%), G2P[6] (4.1%), and G9P[6] (4.1%). Mixed genotype constellations G3P[4][8] were also detected (4.1%). Remarkably, an increased prevalence of G2 genotypes was observed, revealing a change in genetic diversity of rotavirus strains. While the dominance of G1P[8] decreased after vaccination, an upsurge in G2P[4] (12.2%) and G9P[8] (20.4%) was observed. Additionally, G3[P4] (6.1%) and G2P[6] (4.1%) prevalence increased over the 3 years of study.

Conclusions: The results inform the need for robust longitudinal surveillance and epidemiological studies to assess the long-term interaction between rotavirus vaccine and strain ecology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7670220PMC
November 2020

Lanyamycin, a macrolide antibiotic from , strain Soce 481 (Myxobacteria).

Beilstein J Org Chem 2018 26;14:1554-1562. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Department of Microbial Drugs, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research and German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), partner site Hannover/Braunschweig, Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.

Lanyamycin (/), a secondary metabolite occurring as two epimers, was isolated from the myxobacterium , strain Soce 481. The structures of both epimers were elucidated from HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR data and the relative configuration of their macrolactone ring was assigned based on NOE and vicinal H NMR coupling constants and by calculation of a 3D model. Lanyamycin inhibited HCV infection into mammalian liver cells with an IC value of 11.8 µM, and exhibited a moderate cytotoxic activity against the mouse fibroblast cell line L929 and the human nasopharyngeal cell line KB3 with IC values of 3.1 and 1.5 μM, respectively, and also suppressed the growth of the Gram-positive bacterium .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3762/bjoc.14.132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6037015PMC
June 2018

Hyafurones, hyapyrrolines, and hyapyrones: polyketides from Hyalangium minutum.

J Nat Prod 2014 Jun 21;77(6):1420-9. Epub 2014 May 21.

Department Microbial Drugs, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research , Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.

Seven new polyketides, for which the trivial names hyafurones A1-B (1-3), hyapyrrolines A (4) and B (5), and hyapyrones A (6) and B (7) are proposed, were isolated from the fermentation broth of the myxobacteria Hyalangium minutum, strains NOCB-2(T) and Hym-3. Their structures were elucidated from NMR and HRESIMS data, and their geometric configuration was assigned based on NOE and vicinal (1)H coupling data. Both hyafurone B (3) and hyapyrone B (7) inhibited growth of the Gram-positive bacterium Nocardia flava, while 7 showed antifungal activity against Mucor hiemalis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np500145fDOI Listing
June 2014

Hyaladione, an S-methyl cyclohexadiene-dione from Hyalangium minutum.

J Nat Prod 2012 Apr 12;75(4):768-70. Epub 2012 Apr 12.

Work Group Microbial Drugs, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.

A bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of the myxobacterium Hyalangium minutum, strain NOCB-2(T) (DSM 14724(T)), led to the isolation of hyaladione (1), a novel S-methyl cyclohexadiene-dione. The structure of 1 was established by HRESIMS, NMR, and IR spectroscopy as well as X-ray crystallography. Compound 1 was active against growing mammalian cell lines, with IC(50) values ranging from 1.23 to 3.93 μM, in addition to a broad spectrum of antibacterial and antifungal activities, including inhibition of pathogenic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with an MIC of 0.83 and 8.5 μg mL(-1), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np200776vDOI Listing
April 2012

Marinoquinolines A-F, pyrroloquinolines from Ohtaekwangia kribbensis (Bacteroidetes).

J Nat Prod 2011 Apr 1;74(4):603-8. Epub 2011 Apr 1.

Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Work Group Microbial Drugs, Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.

Marinoquinoline A (1) was isolated from the gliding bacterium Ohtaekwangia kribbensis together with the novel marinoquinolines B-F (2-6). Their structures were elucidated from NMR and HRESIMS data. The pyrroloquinolines showed weak antibacterial and antifungal activities and moderate cytotoxicity against four growing mammalian cell lines with IC(50) values ranging from 0.3 to 8.0 μg/mL. In a screening against tropical parasites marinoquinolines A-F (1-6) showed activity against Plasmodium falciparum K1 with IC(50) values between 1.7 and 15 μM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np100625aDOI Listing
April 2011
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