Publications by authors named "Patrick Pasquina"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of Confinement in Patients under Long-Term Noninvasive Ventilation during the First Wave of the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic: A Remarkable Resilience.

Respiration 2021 Jun 15:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Pulmonary Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: During the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Switzerland, confinement was imposed to limit transmission and protect vulnerable persons. These measures may have had a negative impact on perceived quality of care and symptoms in patients with chronic disorders.

Objectives: To determine whether patients under long-term home noninvasive ventilation (LTHNIV) for chronic respiratory failure (CRF) were negatively affected by the 56-day confinement (March-April 2020).

Methods: A questionnaire-based survey exploring mood disturbances (HAD), symptom scores related to NIV (S3-NIV), and perception of health-care providers during confinement was sent to all patients under LTHNIV followed up by our center. Symptom scores and data obtained by ventilator software were compared between confinement and the 56 days prior to confinement.

Results: Of a total of 100 eligible patients, 66 were included (median age: 66 years [IQR: 53-74]): 35 (53%) with restrictive lung disorders, 20 (30%) with OHS or SRBD, and 11 (17%) with COPD or overlap syndrome. Prevalence of anxiety (n = 7; 11%) and depressive (n = 2; 3%) disorders was remarkably low. Symptom scores were slightly higher during confinement although this difference was not clinically relevant. Technical data regarding ventilation, including compliance, did not change. Patients complained of isolation and lack of social contact. They felt supported by their relatives and caregivers but complained of the lack of regular contact and information by health-care professionals.

Conclusions: Patients under LTHNIV for CRF showed a remarkable resilience during the SARS-CoV-2 confinement period. Comments provided may be helpful for managing similar future health-care crises.
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June 2021

Long-Term Non-invasive Ventilation: Do Patients Aged Over 75 Years Differ From Younger Adults?

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 11;7:556218. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Division of Pulmonary Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals (HUG), Geneva, Switzerland.

Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is accepted as standard of care for chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure (CHRF) and is being increasingly implemented in older subjects. However, little is known regarding the use of NIV on a long-term basis in the very old. The outcomes of this study were: 1/to report the proportion of patients ≥ 75 years old (elderly) among a large group of long-term NIV users and its trend since 2000; 2/to compare this population to a younger population (<75 years old) under long-term NIV in terms of diagnoses, comorbidities, anthropometric data, technical aspects, adherence to and efficiency of NIV. In a cross-sectional analysis of a multicenter cohort study on patients with CHRF under NIV, diagnoses, comorbidities, technical aspects, adherence to and efficiency of NIV were compared between patients ≥ 75 and <75 years old (chi-square or Welch Student tests). Of a total of 489 patients under NIV, 151 patients (31%) were ≥ 75 years of age. Comorbidities such as systemic hypertension (86 vs. 60%, < 0.001), chronic heart failure (30 vs. 18%, = 0.005), and pulmonary hypertension (25 vs. 14%, = 0.005) were more frequent in older subjects. In the older group, there was a trend for a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (46 vs. 36%, = 0.151) and a lower prevalence of neuromuscular diseases (NMD) (19 vs. 11%, = 0.151), although not significant. Adherence to and efficacy of NIV were similar in both groups (daily use of ventilator: 437 vs. 419 min, = 0.76; PaCO: 5.8 vs. 5.9 kPa, = 0.968). Unintentional leaks were slightly higher in the older group (1.8 vs. 0.6 L/min, = 0.018). In this cross-sectional study, one third of the population under NIV was ≥ 75 years old. Markers of efficacy of NIV, and adherence to treatment were similar when compared to younger subjects, confirming the feasibility of long-term NIV in the very old. Health-related quality of life was not assessed in this study and further research is needed to address this issue.
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November 2020

Multidisciplinary care in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a 4-year longitudinal observational study.

Swiss Med Wkly 2020 Jun 9;150:w20258. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Division of Pulmonary Diseases, Department of Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland / Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland.

Over a four-year period, ALS patients complied with the modalities of the multidisciplinary management follow-up without any drop-outs. The multidisciplinary management structure also contributes to increasing the experience and knowledge of the clinicians involved in managing patients suffering from this rare disease.
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June 2020

Adaptive Servo-Ventilation: A Comprehensive Descriptive Study in the Geneva Lake Area.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 3;7:105. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Use of adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) has been questioned in patients with central sleep apnea (CSA) and chronic heart failure (CHF). This study aims to detail the present use of ASV in clinical practice. Descriptive, cross-sectional, multicentric study of patients undergoing long term (≥3 months) ASV in the Cantons of Geneva or Vaud (1,288,378 inhabitants) followed by public or private hospitals, private practitioners and/or home care providers. Patients included (458) were mostly male (392; 85.6%), overweight [BMI (median, IQR): 29 kg/m (26; 33)], comorbid, with a median age of 71 years (59-77); 84% had been treated by CPAP before starting ASV. Indications for ASV were: emergent sleep apnea (ESA; 337; 73.6%), central sleep apnea (CSA; 108; 23.6%), obstructive sleep apnea (7; 1.5%), and overlap syndrome (6; 1.3%). Origin of CSA was cardiac ( = 30), neurological ( = 26), idiopathic ( = 28), or drug-related ( = 22). Among CSA cases, 60 (56%) patients had an echocardiography within the preceding 12 months; median left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 62.5% (54-65); 11 (18%) had a LVEF ≤45%. Average daily use of ASV was [mean (SD)] 368 (140) min; 13% used their device <3:30 h. Based on ventilator software, apnea-hypopnea index was normalized in 94% of subjects with data available (94% of 428). Use of ASV has evolved from its original indication (CSA in CHF) to a heterogeneous predominantly male, aged, comorbid, and overweight population with mainly ESA or CSA. CSA in CHF represented only 6.5% of this population. Compliance and correction of respiratory events were satisfactory., identifier: NCT04054570.
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April 2020

Long-Term Noninvasive Ventilation in the Geneva Lake Area: Indications, Prevalence, and Modalities.

Chest 2020 07 31;158(1):279-291. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Division of Pulmonary Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals (HUG), Geneva, Switzerland; Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is standard of care for chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure, but indications, devices, and ventilatory modes are in constant evolution.

Research Question: To describe changes in prevalence and indications for NIV over a 15-year period; to provide a comprehensive report of characteristics of the population treated (age, comorbidities, and anthropometric data), mode of implementation and follow-up, devices, modes and settings used, physiological data, compliance, and data from ventilator software.

Study Design And Methods: Cross-sectional observational study designed to include all subjects under NIV followed by all structures involved in NIV in the Cantons of Geneva and Vaud (1,288,378 inhabitants).

Results: A total of 489 patients under NIV were included. Prevalence increased 2.5-fold since 2000 reaching 38 per 100,000 inhabitants. Median age was 71 years, with 31% being > 75 years of age. Patients had been under NIV for a median of 39 months and had an average of 3 ± 1.8 comorbidities; 55% were obese. COPD (including overlap syndrome) was the most important patient group, followed by obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) (26%). Daytime Paco was most often normalized. Adherence to treatment was satisfactory, with 8% only using their device < 3.5 h/d. Bilevel positive pressure ventilators in spontaneous/timed mode was the default mode (86%), with a low use of autotitrating modes. NIV was initiated electively in 50% of the population, in a hospital setting in 82%, and as outpatients in 15%.

Interpretation: Use of NIV is increasing rapidly in this area, and the population treated is aging, comorbid, and frequently obese. COPD is presently the leading indication followed by OHS.

Trial Registry:; No.: NCT04054570; URL:
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July 2020

Development and validation of a simple tool for the assessment of home noninvasive ventilation: the S-NIV questionnaire.

Eur Respir J 2018 11 22;52(5). Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Division of Lung Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

Patient-centred outcomes are significantly modified by long-term home noninvasive ventilation (NIV), but a short, self-administered, specific tool for routine clinical assessment is lacking. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the S-NIV questionnaire, a short questionnaire to measure respiratory ymptoms, leep quality and NIV-related ide effects.Patients with stable disease who were under long-term home NIV were recruited from three outpatient NIV services. Questionnaire development consisted of a selection of core items for analysis, followed by item reduction, validation and test-retest reliability.338 patients completed a 22-item questionnaire. 11 items were removed because of non-scalability (n=2), redundancy (n=8) and lack of fit (n=1). The final version of the S-NIV questionnaire consisted of 11 items covering two dimensions: "respiratory symptoms" (Cronbach's α=0.84) and "sleep & NIV-related side effects" (Cronbach's α=0.77). Convergent validity was high between the "respiratory symptoms" subscale of the S-NIV questionnaire and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (rho= -0.76, p<0.001), and between the "sleep & NIV-related side effects" subscale and the Quebec Sleep Questionnaire (rho=0.51, p<0.001). The S-NIV questionnaire had good test--retest reliability after 4 weeks (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.72).The S-NIV questionnaire is a short, valid and repeatable self-completed tool for the routine clinical assessment of patients undergoing home NIV.
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November 2018

Perception of chronic respiratory impairment in patients' drawings.

J Rehabil Med 2013 Jul;45(7):694-700

Division of General Medical Rehabilitation, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

Objective: To explore the perception of dyspnoea in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Design: Cross-sectional study using mixed methods.

Methods: Thirty-two patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were included. Data collected included 3 health-related quality of life questionnaires (SF-36, St George and Maugeri respiratory questionnaires) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) to assess the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on quality of life and psychological functioning. Patients were then asked to draw their body and represent difficulties related to breathing. Drawings were coded and categorized. Patients' comments were transcribed.

Results: HADS showed scores of depression and anxiety as high as 12.3 ± 2.6 and 9.3 ± 2.2, respectively; SF-36 subscales were severely affected, and the St Georges and Maugeri questionnaires indicated a high impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (79 ± 13 and 60 ± 18, respectively). Drawings illustrated the pervasiveness of dyspnoea; patients' comments stressed breathlessness. Obstruction and tightening were salient, with a prominent representation of the head and internal structures, e.g. the lungs and the airways.

Conclusion: Patients' drawings capture a global expression of illness experience. They provide insight into the heterogeneity of patients' perceptions, and allow acknowledgement of patients' representations and experiences. This may, in turn, help in gaining patients' participation in rehabilitation programmes or adherence to new medications.
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July 2013

What does built-in software of home ventilators tell us? An observational study of 150 patients on home ventilation.

Respiration 2012 27;83(4):293-9. Epub 2011 Sep 27.

Division of Pulmonary Diseases, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Recent home ventilators are equipped with built-in software which provides data such as compliance, estimations of leaks, tidal volume, minute ventilation, respiratory rate, apnea and apnea-hypopnea indexes, and percentage of inspirations triggered by the patient (or ventilator). However, for many of these variables, there is neither consensus nor documentation as to what is to be expected in a population of stable patients under noninvasive ventilation (NIV).

Objectives: To document the values and distribution of specific items downloaded from ventilator monitoring software, by diagnostic category.

Methods: Analysis of data downloaded from home ventilators in clinically stable patients under long-term NIV, during elective home visits by specialized nurses.

Results: Data were collected from home ventilators of 150 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 32), overlap syndrome (n = 29), obesity-hypoventilation (n = 38), neuromuscular disorders (n = 19), restrictive disorders (n = 21), and central sleep apnea syndrome (n = 11). On average, leaks were low, being lowest in patients with facial masks (vs. nasal masks), and increased with older age. Compliance was excellent in all groups. Patients with neuromuscular diseases triggered their ventilators less and tended to be 'captured', while other groups triggered at least half of inspiratory cycles. Most patients had a respiratory rate just slightly above the back-up rate. Residual apneas and hypopneas were highest in patients with central apneas.

Conclusions: Built-in software of home ventilators provides the clinician with new parameters, some of which are a useful adjunct to recommended tools for monitoring NIV and may contribute to a better understanding of residual hypoventilation and/or desaturations. However, an independent validation of the accuracy of this information is mandatory.
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August 2012

[Follow-up of patients with home mechanical ventilation: experience in Geneva, Switzerland].

Rev Med Suisse 2008 Nov;4(180):2518-20, 2522-4

Service de pneumologie, HUG, 1211 Genève 14.

Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is the treatment of choice for patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. Since the middle of the 1980's, the number of cases under HMV has markedly increased. Presently, at our centre (n=176 patients), obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (36%), and COPD (21%) are the most frequent indications for HMV. Classical indications such as sequellae of tuberculosis, or poliomyelitis, kyphoscoliosis, or neuro-muscular diseases, represent 25% only of our HMV population. Bi-level pressure support ventilators have replaced the volumetric ventilators used in the 80's in most situations. A specialized team of nurses monitors closely at home clinical evolution, and compliance, gathering an important amount of clinical data, and allowing the early detection of clinical deterioration.
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November 2008

Respiratory physiotherapy to prevent pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery: a systematic review.

Chest 2006 Dec;130(6):1887-99

Division of Intensive Care, Geneva University Hospitals, 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland.

Objectives: To examine the efficacy of respiratory physiotherapy for prevention of pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery.

Methods: We searched in databases and bibliographies for articles in all languages through November 2005. Randomized trials were included if they investigated prophylactic respiratory physiotherapy and pulmonary outcomes, and if the follow-up was at least 2 days. Efficacy data were expressed as risk differences (RDs) and number needed to treat (NNT), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: Thirty-five trials tested respiratory physiotherapy treatments. Of 13 trials with a "no intervention" control group, 9 studies (n = 883) did not report on significant differences, and 4 studies (n = 528) did: in 1 study, the incidence of pneumonia was decreased from 37.3 to 13.7% with deep breathing, directed cough, and postural drainage (RD, 23.6%; 95% CI, 7 to 40%; NNT, 4.3; 95% CI, 2.5 to 14); in 1 study, the incidence of atelectasis was decreased from 39 to 15% with deep breathing and directed cough (RD, 24%; 95% CI, 5 to 43%; NNT, 4.2; 95% CI, 2.4 to 18); in 1 study, the incidence of atelectasis was decreased from 77 to 59% with deep breathing, directed cough, and postural drainage (RD, 18%; 95% CI, 5 to 31%; NNT, 5.6; 95% CI, 3.3 to 19); in 1 study, the incidence of unspecified pulmonary complications was decreased from 47.7% to 21.4 to 22.2% with intermittent positive pressure breathing, or incentive spirometry, or deep breathing with directed cough (RD, 25.5 to 26.3%; NNT, 3.8 to 3.9). Twenty-two trials (n = 2,734) compared physiotherapy treatments without no intervention control subjects; no conclusions could be drawn.

Conclusions: There are only a few trials that support the usefulness of prophylactic respiratory physiotherapy. The routine use of respiratory physiotherapy after abdominal surgery does not seem to be justified.
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December 2006

Factors associated with failure of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in the emergency department.

Acad Emerg Med 2005 Dec 17;12(12):1206-15. Epub 2005 Nov 17.

Division of Surgical Intensive Care, Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology, and Surgical Intensive Care, University of Geneva Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland.

Objectives: To determine the factors associated with failure of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients presenting with acute respiratory failure to the emergency department (ED).

Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed patients admitted to the ED for acute respiratory failure (defined as a PaCO2 level >45 mm Hg, and pH < or = 7.35 or a PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 250 mm Hg) and who were treated with NPPV. NPPV was delivered routinely according to an institutional protocol. Failure of NPPV was defined as the requirement of endotracheal intubation at any time.

Results: A total of 104 patients were included. NPPV failed in 31% (32/104), and the mortality was significantly higher in this group (12/32 [44%]) compared with patients who were not intubated (2/72 [3%]) (p < 0.0001). Factors associated with failure of NPPV were Glasgow Coma Scale score < 13 at ED admission (odds ratio [OR], 3.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33 to 10.07), pH < or = 7.35 (OR, 3.23; 95% CI = 1.25 to 8.31), and respiratory rate (RR) > or =20 min(-1) (OR, 3.86; 95% CI = 1.33 to 11.17) after one hour of NPPV. The negative predictive value for NPPV failure was 86% (95% CI = 70% to 95%) for RR > or =20 min(-1). In the multivariate analysis, pH < or = 7.35 and RR > or =20 min(-1) after one hour of NPPV were independently associated with NPPV failure (adjusted ORs, 3.51; 95% CI = 1.29 to 9.62 and 3.55; 95% CI = 1.13 to 11.20, respectively).

Conclusions: Patients with pH < or = 7.35 and an RR > or =20 min(-1) after one hour of NPPV had an increased risk of subsequent endotracheal intubation.
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December 2005

Continuous positive airway pressure versus noninvasive pressure support ventilation to treat atelectasis after cardiac surgery.

Anesth Analg 2004 Oct;99(4):1001-8, table of contents

Respiratory Therapy Unit of the Division of Surgical Intensive Care, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland.

Atelectasis is common after cardiac surgery and may result in impaired gas exchange. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is often used to prevent or treat postoperative atelectasis. We hypothesized that noninvasive pressure support ventilation (NIPSV) by increasing tidal volume could improve the evolution of atelectasis more than CPAP. One-hundred-fifty patients admitted to our surgical intensive care unit (SICU) with a Radiological Atelectasis Score >or=2 after cardiac surgery were randomly assigned to receive either CPAP or NIPSV four times a day for 30 min. Positive end-expiratory pressure was set at 5 cm H(2)O in both groups. In the NIPSV group, pressure support was set to provide a tidal volume of 8-10 mL/kg. At SICU discharge, we observed an improvement of the Radiological Atelectasis Score in 60% of the patients with NIPSV versus 40% of those receiving CPAP (P = 0.02). There was no difference in oxygenation (Pao(2)/fraction of inspired oxygen at SICU discharge: 280 +/- 38 in the CPAP group versus 301 +/- 40 in the NIPSV group), pulmonary function tests, or length of stay. Minor complications, such as gastric distensions, were similar in the two groups. NIPSV was superior to CPAP regarding the improvement of atelectasis based on radiological score but did not confer any additional clinical benefit, raising the question of its usefulness for altering outcome.
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October 2004

Prophylactic respiratory physiotherapy after cardiac surgery: systematic review.

BMJ 2003 Dec;327(7428):1379

Division of Surgical Intensive Care, Department of Anaesthesiology, Pharmacology and Surgical Intensive Care, Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland.

Objective: To assess whether respiratory physiotherapy prevents pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery.

Data Sources: Searches through Medline, Embase, Cinahl, the Cochrane library, and bibliographies, for randomised trials comparing any type of prophylactic respiratory physiotherapy with another type or no intervention after cardiac surgery, with a follow up of at least two days, and reporting on respiratory outcomes.

Review Methods: Investigators assessed trial validity independently. Information on study design, population, interventions, and end points was abstracted by one investigator and checked by the others.

Results: 18 trials (1457 patients) were identified. Most were of low quality. They tested physical therapy (13 trials), incentive spirometry (eight), continuous positive airway pressure (five), and intermittent positive pressure breathing (three). The maximum follow up was six days. Four trials only had a no intervention control; none showed any significant benefit of physiotherapy. Across all trials and interventions, average values postoperatively were: incidence of atelectasis, 15-98%; incidence of pneumonia, 0-20%; partial pressure of arterial oxygen per inspired oxygen fraction, 212-329 mm Hg; vital capacity, 37-72% of preoperative values; and forced expiratory volume in one second, 34-72%. No intervention showed superiority for any end point. For the most labour intensive intervention, continuous positive airway pressure, the average cost of labour for each patient day was 27 euro (pound 19; 32 dollars).

Conclusions: The usefulness of respiratory physiotherapy for the prevention of pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery remains unproved. Large randomised trials are needed with no intervention controls, clinically relevant end points, and reasonable follow up periods.
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December 2003