Publications by authors named "Patrick J Stiff"

79 Publications

Effect of time to relapse on overall survival in patients with mantle cell lymphoma following autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation.

Br J Haematol 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Section of Hematology/Oncology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

In young and fit patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), intensive induction therapy followed by a consolidative autologous haematopoietic cell transplant (autoHCT) is the standard of care in the front-line setting. Recently, time-to-event analysis has emerged as an important risk assessment tool in lymphoma, though its impact in MCL is not well defined. We utilized the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database to evaluate the effect of post-autoHCT time to relapse on overall survival (OS) over time in 461 patients who underwent autoHCT within 12 months of MCL diagnosis. On multivariate analysis, the impact of relapse on OS was greatest at the six-month [hazard ratio (HR) = 7·68], 12-month (HR = 6·68), and 18-month (HR = 5·81) landmark timepoints. Using a dynamic landmark model we demonstrate that adjusted OS at five years following each landmark timepoint improved with time for relapsing and non-relapsing patients. Furthermore, early relapse (<18 months) following autoHCT defines a high-risk group with inferior post-relapse OS. This retrospective analysis highlights the impact of time to relapse on OS in MCL patients undergoing up-front autoHCT and emphasizes the need to consider novel therapeutic approaches for patients suffering early relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17865DOI Listing
September 2021

Outcomes and Utilization Trends of Front-Line Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Mantle Cell Lymphoma.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Although autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) has become a common practice for eligible patients in the front-line setting with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), there are limited data regarding trends in auto-HCT utilization and associated outcomes. This study used the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) database to evaluate survival outcomes and auto-HCT utilization in adults age ≥18 years who underwent auto-HCT within 12 months of diagnosis of MCL between January 2000 and December 2018. The 19-year period from 2000 to 2018 was divided into 4 separate intervals-2000 to 2004, 2005 to 2009, 2010 to 2014, and 2015 to 2018-and encompassed 5082 patients. To evaluate transplantation utilization patterns, we combined MCL incidence derived from the SEER 21 database with CIBMTR- reported auto-HCT activity within 12 months of diagnosis of MCL. Primary outcomes included overall survival (OS) along with the auto-HCT utilization rate. The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality at 1 year decreased from 7% in the earliest cohort (2000 to 2004) to 2% in the latest cohort (2015 to 2018). Mirroring this trend, OS outcomes improved continually with time, with a 3-year OS of 72% in the earliest cohort improving to 86% in the latest cohort. In addition, we noted an increase in auto-HCT utilization from 2001 to 2018, particularly in patients age ≤65 years. This large retrospective analysis highlights trends in auto-HCT utilization and outcomes in patients with MCL and emphasizes the need to optimize pretransplantation and post-transplantation treatment strategies to enhance survival outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.08.014DOI Listing
August 2021

Ovarian Cancer: Therapeutic Strategies to Overcome Immune Suppression.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1330:33-54

Department of Medicine, Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA.

Ovarian cancer generally escapes diagnosis until the advanced stages. High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the most frequently occurring form of this malaise and is a disease which has the highest mortality rate of gynecologic cancers. Over recent years it has been revealed that the course of such cancers can be significantly influenced by the nature of immune cells in tumors at the time of diagnosis and by immune cells induced by therapy. Numerous investigators have since focused on disease biology to identify biomarkers or therapeutic targets. Yet, while over the past decade there have been significant improvements in state-of-the-art surgery for ovarian cancer as frontline therapy, there have been limited advancements in the development of novel curative or management drugs for this disease. This chapter discusses the major elements of immune suppression in HGSOC from a biological viewpoint, mechanisms of overcoming resistance to therapies, and recent therapy aimed at improving patient care and survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-73359-9_3DOI Listing
August 2021

Lymphoid and myeloid immune cell reconstitution after nicotinamide-expanded cord blood transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Omidubicel (nicotinamide-expanded cord blood) is a potential alternative source for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) when an HLA-identical donor is lacking. A phase I/II trial with standalone omidubicel HCT showed rapid and robust neutrophil and platelet engraftment. In this study, we evaluated the immune reconstitution (IR) of patients receiving omidubicel grafts during the first 6 months post-transplant, as IR is critical for favorable outcomes of the procedure. Data was collected from the omidubicel phase I-II international, multicenter trial. The primary endpoint was the probability of achieving adequate CD4+ T-cell IR (CD4IR: > 50 × 10/L within 100 days). Secondary endpoints were the recovery of T-cells, natural killer (NK)-cells, B-cells, dendritic cells (DC), and monocytes as determined with multicolor flow cytometry. LOESS-regression curves and cumulative incidence plots were used for data description. Thirty-six omidubicel recipients (median 44; 13-63 years) were included, and IR data was available from 28 recipients. Of these patients, 90% achieved adequate CD4IR. Overall, IR was complete and consisted of T-cell, monocyte, DC, and notably fast NK- and B-cell reconstitution, compared to conventional grafts. Our data show that transplantation of adolescent and adult patients with omidubicel results in full and broad IR, which is comparable with IR after HCT with conventional graft sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01417-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Open-Label Phase II Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study of Romyelocel-L Myeloid Progenitor Cells to Reduce Infection During Induction Chemotherapy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Oct 22;39(29):3261-3272. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Cellerant Therapeutics, San Carlos, CA.

Purpose: Standard cytotoxic induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) results in prolonged neutropenia and risk of infection. Romyelocel-L is a universal, allogeneic myeloid progenitor cell product being studied to reduce infection during induction chemotherapy.

Patients And Methods: One hundred sixty-three patients with de novo AML (age ≥ 55 years) receiving induction chemotherapy were randomly assigned on day 0 (d0), of whom 120 were evaluable. Subjects received either romyelocel-L infusion on d9 with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) starting daily d14 (treatment group) or G-CSF daily alone on d14 (control) until absolute neutrophil count recovery to 500/µL. End points included days in febrile episode, microbiologically defined infections, clinically diagnosed infection, and days in hospital.

Results: Mean days in febrile episode was shorter in the treatment arm from d15 through d28 (2.36 3.90; = .02). Similarly, a trend toward decreased microbiologically defined infections and clinically diagnosed infection in the treatment arm was observed from d9 to d28 (35.6% 47.5%; = .09), reaching a statistically significant difference from d15 to d28 (6.8% 27.9%; = .002). Because of this, antibacterial or antifungal use for treatment of an infection was significantly less in the treatment group (d9-d28: 44.1% 63.9%; = .01). Significantly fewer patients in the treatment arm received empiric antifungals from d9 tod28 (42.4% 63.9%; = .02) and d15-d28 (42.4% 62.3%; = .02). Patients in the treatment arm also had 3.2 fewer hospital days compared with control (25.5 28.7; = .001). Remission rates and days to absolute neutrophil count recovery were similar in the two groups. No patients in the romyelocel-L plus G-CSF group died because of infection compared with two patients in the control arm. No graft-versus-host disease was observed.

Conclusion: Subjects receiving romyelocel-L showed a decreased incidence of infections, antimicrobial use, and hospitalization, suggesting that romyelocel-L may provide a new option to reduce infections in patients with AML undergoing induction therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500663PMC
October 2021

Expanding the Toolbox of Adoptive Cell Immunotherapy.

J Clin Oncol 2021 05 25;39(13):1479-1482. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00295DOI Listing
May 2021

Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Gynecologic Cancers: State of Affairs.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Nov 9;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Medicine, Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Loyola University Chicago, Building 112, 2160 South First Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153, USA.

This review provides an update on the current use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in female gynecologic cancers, and it addresses the potential of these agents to provide therapy options for disease management and long-term remission in advanced disease patients, where surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation fail to meet this goal. The topic of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) blocking cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) and the programmed death-1 (PD-1) axis has come to the forefront of translational medicine over the last decade for several malignancies. The text will focus primarily on a discussion of ovarian cancer, which is the most frequent cause of death of gynecologic cancers; endometrial cancer, which is the most often diagnosed gynecologic cancer; and cervical cancer, which is the third most common female gynecologic malignancy, all of which unfavorably alter the lives of many women. We will address the critical factors that regulate the outcome of these cancer types to ICI therapy, the ongoing clinical trials in this area, as well as the adverse immune responses that impact the outcome of patients given ICI regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7695253PMC
November 2020

Flotetuzumab as salvage immunotherapy for refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

Blood 2021 02;137(6):751-762

Notable Labs, Foster City, CA.

Approximately 50% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients do not respond to induction therapy (primary induction failure [PIF]) or relapse after <6 months (early relapse [ER]). We have recently shown an association between an immune-infiltrated tumor microenvironment (TME) and resistance to cytarabine-based chemotherapy but responsiveness to flotetuzumab, a bispecific DART antibody-based molecule to CD3ε and CD123. This paper reports the results of a multicenter, open-label, phase 1/2 study of flotetuzumab in 88 adults with relapsed/refractory AML: 42 in a dose-finding segment and 46 at the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of 500 ng/kg per day. The most frequent adverse events were infusion-related reactions (IRRs)/cytokine release syndrome (CRS), largely grade 1-2. Stepwise dosing during week 1, pretreatment dexamethasone, prompt use of tocilizumab, and temporary dose reductions/interruptions successfully prevented severe IRR/CRS. Clinical benefit accrued to PIF/ER patients showing an immune-infiltrated TME. Among 30 PIF/ER patients treated at the RP2D, the complete remission (CR)/CR with partial hematological recovery (CRh) rate was 26.7%, with an overall response rate (CR/CRh/CR with incomplete hematological recovery) of 30.0%. In PIF/ER patients who achieved CR/CRh, median overall survival was 10.2 months (range, 1.87-27.27), with 6- and 12-month survival rates of 75% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.450-1.05) and 50% (95% CI, 0.154-0.846). Bone marrow transcriptomic analysis showed that a parsimonious 10-gene signature predicted CRs to flotetuzumab (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.904 vs 0.672 for the European LeukemiaNet classifier). Flotetuzumab represents an innovative experimental approach associated with acceptable safety and encouraging evidence of activity in PIF/ER patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02152956.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020007732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885824PMC
February 2021

Busulfan, melphalan, and bortezomib compared to melphalan as a high dose regimen for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma: long term follow up of a novel high dose regimen.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 12 31;61(14):3484-3492. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA.

Melphalan at a dose of 200 mg/m (MEL200) remains the standard high dose therapy before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for multiple myeloma (MM). Intensifying the high dose regimen has shown promising results. We report here 7-year follow up of our novel high dose regimen of busulfan and melphalan followed by bortezomib (BuMelVel). Forty-three MM patients received BuMelVel high dose therapy with pharmacokinetic adjusted busulfan. Outcomes were compared to a matched control cohort from the CIBMTR database ( = 162) receiving MEL200. The primary endpoint was progression free survival. Five year PFS was 47% v 30% (95% CI; 32-62) in favor or the BuMelVel group (95% CI; 23-37) ( = 0.05). In multivariate analysis for PFS, BuMelVel (HR 0.65; 95% CI 0.44-0.97)( = 0.036) was predictive. Similar to recent reports of double alkylator therapy, although depth of response was similar between the BuMelVel group and MEL200, the BUMELVEL group experienced an improved PFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1811275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786301PMC
December 2020

A Phase 2, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Presatovir for the Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in Hematopoietic-Cell Transplant Recipients.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 12;71(11):2777-2786

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: Hematopoietic-cell transplant (HCT) recipients are at risk for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. We evaluated the RSV fusion inhibitor presatovir in a randomized, double-blind, Phase II trial in HCT recipients with RSV upper respiratory tract infections.

Methods: Patients were stratified by lymphopenia (<200/µL) and ribavirin use; were randomized, stratified by lymphopenia (<200/μL) and ribavirin use, to receive oral presatovir at 200 mg or a placebo on Days 1, 5, 9, 13, and 17, and were followed through Day 28. The coprimary efficacy endpoints were the time-weighted average change in the nasal RSV viral load between Days 1 and 9 and the proportion of patients developing lower respiratory tract complications (LRTCs) through Day 28.

Results: From 23 January 2015 to 16 June 2017, 189 patients were randomly assigned to treatment (96 to presatovir and 93 to the placebo). Presatovir treatment, compared with the placebo treatment, did not significantly affect (prespecified α = 0.01) a time-weighted average decline in the RSV viral load from Day 1 to 9 (treatment difference, -0.33 log10 copies/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI] -.64 to -.02 log10 copies/mL; P = .040) or the progression to LRTC (11.2% vs 19.5%, respectively; odds ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, .22-1.18; P = .11). In a post hoc analysis among patients with lymphopenia, presatovir decreased LRTC development by Day 28 (2/15 [13.3%] vs 9/14 [64.3%], respectively; P = .008), compared with the placebo. Adverse events were similar for patients receiving presatovir and the placebo.

Conclusions: Presatovir had a favorable safety profile in adult HCT recipients with RSV but did not achieve the coprimary endpoints. Exploratory analyses suggest an antiviral effect among patients with lymphopenia.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02254408; EUDRA-CT#2014-002474-36.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz1166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7108134PMC
December 2020

Impact of cytogenetic abnormalities on outcomes of adult Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a study by the Acute Leukemia Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.

Haematologica 2020 05 26;105(5):1329-1338. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Oncology Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Cytogenetic risk stratification at diagnosis has long been one of the most useful tools to assess prognosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To examine the prognostic impact of cytogenetic abnormalities on outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, we studied 1731 adults with Philadelphia-negative ALL in complete remission who underwent myeloablative or reduced intensity/non-myeloablative conditioning transplant from unrelated or matched sibling donors reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. A total of 632 patients had abnormal conventional metaphase cytogenetics. The leukemia-free survival and overall survival rates at 5 years after transplantation in patients with abnormal cytogenetics were 40% and 42%, respectively, which were similar to those in patients with a normal karyotype. Of the previously established cytogenetic risk classifications, modified Medical Research Council-Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score was the only independent prognosticator of leukemia-free survival (=0.03). In the multivariable analysis, monosomy 7 predicted post-transplant relapse [hazard ratio (HR)=2.11; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.04-4.27] and treatment failure (HR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.20-3.24). Complex karyotype was prognostic for relapse (HR=1.69; 95% CI: 1.06-2.69), whereas t(8;14) predicted treatment failure (HR=2.85; 95% CI: 1.35-6.02) and overall mortality (HR=3.03; 95% CI: 1.44-6.41). This large study suggested a novel transplant-specific cytogenetic scheme with adverse [monosomy 7, complex karyotype, del(7q), t(8;14), t(11;19), del(11q), tetraploidy/near triploidy], intermediate (normal karyotype and all other abnormalities), and favorable (high hyperdiploidy) risks to prognosticate leukemia-free survival (=0.02). Although some previously established high-risk Philadelphia-negative cytogenetic abnormalities in ALL can be overcome by transplantation, monosomy 7, complex karyotype, and t(8;14) continue to pose significant risks and yield inferior outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.220756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193485PMC
May 2020

Autologous transplantation as consolidation for high risk aggressive T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a SWOG 9704 intergroup trial subgroup analysis.

Leuk Lymphoma 2019 08 10;60(8):1934-1941. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

a Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Loyola University Medical Center , Maywood , IL , USA.

Phase II data suggest a benefit to autotransplantation for aggressive T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (T-NHL) in first remission; randomized trials have yet to validate this. We performed a retrospective analysis of aggressive T-NHL patients in the intergroup randomized consolidative autotransplant trial (SWOG 9704). Of the 370 enrolled, 40 had T-NHL: 12 were not randomized due to ineligibility ( = 1), choice ( = 2), or progression ( = 9), leaving 13 randomized to control and 15 to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Two ASCT patients refused transplant and one failed mobilization. The 5-year landmark PFS/OS estimates for ASCT vs. control groups were 40% vs. 38% ( = .56), and 40% vs. 45% ( = .98), respectively. No difference was seen based on IPI, or histologic subtype. Only 1/7 receiving BCNU-based therapy survived vs. 4/5 receiving TBI. Aggressive T-NHL autotransplanted in first remission did not appear to benefit from consolidative ASCT. This and the 30% who dropped out pre-randomization mostly to progression, suggests that improved induction regimens be developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2018.1563691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6620162PMC
August 2019

Phase I/II Study of Stem-Cell Transplantation Using a Single Cord Blood Unit Expanded Ex Vivo With Nicotinamide.

J Clin Oncol 2019 02 4;37(5):367-374. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

3 University Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: Increasing the number of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells within an umbilical cord blood (UCB) graft shortens the time to hematopoietic recovery after UCB transplantation. In this study, we assessed the safety and efficacy of a UCB graft that was expanded ex vivo in the presence of nicotinamide and transplanted after myeloablative conditioning as a stand-alone hematopoietic stem-cell graft.

Methods: Thirty-six patients with hematologic malignancies underwent transplantation at 11 sites.

Results: The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment at day 42 was 94%. Two patients experienced secondary graft failure attributable to viral infections. Hematopoietic recovery was compared with that observed in recipients of standard UCB transplantation as reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (n = 146). The median time to neutrophil recovery was 11.5 days (95% CI, 9 to 14 days) for recipients of nicotinamide-expanded UCB and 21 days (95% CI, 20 to 23 days) for the comparator ( P < .001). The median time to platelet recovery was 34 days (95% CI, 32 to 42 days) and 46 days (95% CI, 42 to 50 days) for the expanded and the comparator cohorts, respectively ( P < .001). The cumulative incidence of grade 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at day 100 was 44%, and grade 3 and 4 acute GVHD at day 100 was 11%. The cumulative incidence at 2 years of all chronic GVHD was 40%, and moderate/severe chronic GVHD was 10%. The 2-year cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality and relapse were 24% and 33%, respectively. The 2-year probabilities of overall and disease-free survival were 51% and 43%, respectively.

Conclusion: UCB expanded ex vivo with nicotinamide shortens median neutrophil recovery by 9.5 days (95% CI, 7 to 12 days) and median platelet recovery by 12 days (95% CI, 3 to 16.5 days). This trial establishes feasibility, safety, and efficacy of an ex vivo expanded UCB unit as a stand-alone graft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.00053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368416PMC
February 2019

Regulation of Ovarian Cancer Prognosis by Immune Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Sep 1;10(9). Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Building 112, 2160 South First Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153, USA.

It is estimated that in the United States in 2018 there will be 22,240 new cases of ovarian cancer and 14,070 deaths due to this malignancy. The most common subgroup of this disease is high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), which is known for its aggressiveness, high recurrence rate, metastasis to other sites, and the development of resistance to conventional therapy. It is important to understand the ovarian cancer tumor microenvironment (TME) from the viewpoint of the function of pre-existing immune cells, as immunocompetent cells are crucial to mounting robust antitumor responses to prevent visible tumor lesions, disease progression, or recurrence. Networks consisting of innate and adaptive immune cells, metabolic pathways, intracellular signaling molecules, and a vast array of soluble factors, shape the pathogenic nature of the TME and are useful prognostic indicators of responses to conventional therapy and immunotherapy, and subsequent survival rates. This review highlights key immune cells and soluble molecules in the TME of ovarian cancer, which are important in the development of effective antitumor immunity, as well as those that impair effector T cell activity. A more insightful knowledge of the HGSOC TME will reveal potential immune biomarkers to aid in the early detection of this disease, as well as biomarkers that may be targeted to advance the design of novel therapies that induce potent antitumor immunity and survival benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6162424PMC
September 2018

Stratification of ovarian tumor pathology by expression of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and PD-ligand- 1 (PD-L1) in ovarian cancer.

J Ovarian Res 2018 May 30;11(1):43. Epub 2018 May 30.

Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Oncology Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Bldg. 112, Room 232, 2160 South First Avenue, Maywood, IL, 60153, USA.

Background: Ovarian cancer is the major cause of death among gynecologic cancers with 75% of patients diagnosed with advanced disease, and only 20% of these patients having a survival duration of five years. Treatments blocking immune checkpoint molecules, programmed cell death (PD-1) or its ligand PD-ligand- I (PD-L1) have produced a beneficial and prolonged effect in a subgroup of these patients. However, there is debate in the literature concerning the prognostic value of the expression of these molecules in tumors, with immunotherapy responsiveness, and survival. We evaluated the immune landscape of the ovarian tumor microenvironment of patients, by measuring the impact of the expression of tumor PD-1, PD-L1 and infiltrating lymphocytes on stage and grade of tumors and survival, in a cohort of 55 patients with gynecologic malignancies. Most patients under study were diagnosed with advanced disease ovarian cancer.

Results: Our studies revealed that a low density of PD-1 and of PD-L1 expressing cells in tumor tissue were significantly associated with advanced disease (P = 0.028 and P = 0.033, respectively). Moreover, PD-L1 was expressed significantly more often in high grade tumors (41.5%) than in low grade tumors of patients (7.7%) (P = 0.040). The presence of CD3 or of FoxP3 infiltrating cells with PD-L1 in patient tumors did not impact the significance of the association of PD-L1 with high grade tumors (P = 0.040), and our analyses did not show an association between the presence of PD-1 or PD-L1 and survival.

Conclusions: We conclude that a subgroup of advanced disease ovarian cancer patients with high grade tumors, expressing PD-L1, may be prime candidates for immunotherapy targeting PD-1 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13048-018-0414-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5975524PMC
May 2018

Cohort-Controlled Comparison of Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation Using Carlecortemcel-L, a Single Progenitor-Enriched Cord Blood, to Double Cord Blood Unit Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 07 1;24(7):1463-1470. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Hematology Department, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation has a high early mortality rate primarily related to transplanted stem cell dose. To decrease early mortality and enhance engraftment, a portion of selected cord blood units (20% to 50%) was expanded with cytokines and the copper chelator tetraethylenepentamine (carlecortemcel-L) and transplanted with the unmanipulated fraction after myeloablative conditioning. The primary endpoint was 100-day survival, which was compared with a contemporaneous double-unit cord blood transplantation (DUCBT) group. We enrolled 101 patients at 25 sites; the DUCBT comparison (n = 295) was selected from international registries using study eligibility criteria. Baseline carlecortemcel-L study group unit nucleated cell (NC) and CD34 were 3.06 × 10 cell dose/kg and 1.64 × 10 cell dose/kg. Median NC and CD34 fold expansion were 400 and 77, with a mean total CD34 infused of 9.7 × 10/kg. The 100-day survival was 84.2% for the carlecortemcel-L study group versus 74.6% for the DUCBT group (odds ratio, .50; 95% CI, .26 to .95; P = .035). Survival at day 180 was similar for the 2 groups; the major cause of death after day 100 was opportunistic infections. Faster median neutrophil (21 days versus 28 days; P < .0001), and platelet (54 days versus 105 days; P = .008) engraftment was seen in the carlecortemcel-L study group; acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease rates were similar. In this multinational comparative study, transplanting expanded CD34 stem cells from a portion of a single UCB unit, with the remaining unmanipulated fraction improved 100-day survival compared with DUCBT control patients while facilitating myeloid and platelet engraftment. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00469729.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.02.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6045964PMC
July 2018

Plerixafor Plus Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor for Patients with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma: Long-Term Follow-Up Report.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 06 2;24(6):1187-1195. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Division of Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. Electronic address:

The purpose of this report is to analyze long-term clinical outcomes of patients exposed to plerixafor plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for stem cell mobilization. This was a study of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; n = 167) and multiple myeloma (MM; n = 163) who were enrolled in the long-term follow-up of 2 pivotal phase III studies (NCT00741325 and NCT00741780) of 240 µg/kg plerixafor plus 10 µg/kg G-CSF, or placebo plus 10 µg/kg G-CSF to mobilize and collect CD34 cells for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated over a 5-year period following the first dose of plerixafor or placebo. The probability of OS was not significantly different in patients with NHL or MM treated with plerixafor or placebo (NHL: 64%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 56% to 71% versus 56%; 95% CI, 44% to 67%, respectively; MM: 64%; 95% CI, 54% to 72% versus 64%; 95% CI, 53% to 73%, respectively). In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the probability of PFS over 5 years between treatment groups in patients with NHL (50%; 95% CI, 44% to 67% for plerixafor versus 43%; 95% CI, 31% to 54% for placebo) or those with MM (17%; 95% CI, 10% to 24% for plerixafor versus 30%; 95% CI, 21% to 40% for placebo). In this long-term follow-up study, the addition of plerixafor to G-CSF for stem cell mobilization did not affect 5-year survival in patients with NHL or patients with MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.01.039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6091693PMC
June 2018

Tandem Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Patients with Primary Progressive or Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma: A SWOG and Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network Phase II Trial (SWOG S0410/BMT CTN 0703).

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 04 28;24(4):700-707. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

Hematology/Oncology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois.

Based on promising pilot data a phase II tandem autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (AHSCT) trial for relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) was performed in the US intergroup setting to determine if long-term progression-free survival (PFS) could be improved. Patients were enrolled after salvage therapy and stem cell collection. Sensitivity to salvage was defined by 1999 Standardized Response Criteria and did not include fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. Cycle 1 consisted of melphalan 150 mg/m with half of the stem cells. For stable disease or better, patients received cycle 2 consisting of single doses of etoposide 60 mg/kg and cyclophosphamide 100 mg/kg and either total body radiation 12 Gy in 8 fractions over 4 days or BCNU 150 mg/m/day for 3 days with the remaining stem cells. Of 98 enrolled patients, 89 were eligible and treated: 82 completed both cycles of AHSCT, 47 (53%) had primary refractory HL, and 72 (81%) were resistant to salvage therapy. There were no treatment-related deaths in the first year after AHSCT. With a median follow-up of 6.2 years (range, 2 to 7.7) for eligible patients who remained alive, the 2-year and 5-year PFS were 63% (95% CI, 52% to 72%) and 55% (95% CI, 44% to 64%) respectively; the 2-year and 5-year overall survival were 91% (95% CI, 83% to 95%) and 84% (95% CI, 74% to 90%), respectively. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed Zubrod performance status and lactate dehydrogenase levels > 1 times upper limit of normal at the time of enrollment were significantly associated with PFS. The observed 5-year PFS of 55% suggests the tandem approach appears to be effective in treating HL patients demonstrated to have poor prognosis in prior single AHSCT trials. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00233987.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.12.798DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5965270PMC
April 2018

Axicabtagene Ciloleucel CAR T-Cell Therapy in Refractory Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

N Engl J Med 2017 12 10;377(26):2531-2544. Epub 2017 Dec 10.

From the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (S.S.N., J.R.W.); H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (F.L.L., J.C.C.); Washington University and Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis (N.L.B., A. Ghobadi); University of Miami, Miami (L.J.L., K.V.K.); Stanford University, Stanford (D.B.M., R.L.), City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte (T.S.), University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles (J.M.T.), University of California at San Diego, San Diego (J.E.C.), and Kite Pharma, Santa Monica (A.B., J.R., L.N., Y.J., J.A., M.E., D.C., J.W., W.Y.G.) - all in California; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (C.A.J., E.D.J.); Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx (I.B.), and the University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester (J.W.F., P.R.) - both in New York; Vanderbilt University Medical Center (O.O.O.) and the Sarah Cannon Research Institute and Tennessee Oncology (I.W.F.), Nashville; Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (Y.L., T.E.W.); Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL (P.J.S.); John Theurer Cancer Center, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ (A. Goy); Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland (B.T.H., M.R.S.); Karmanos Cancer Center, Wayne State University, Detroit (A.D.); University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City (U.F.); Colorado Blood Cancer Institute, Denver (P.M.S.); Banner M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Gilbert, AZ (J.M.); and Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel (I.A.).

Background: In a phase 1 trial, axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel), an autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, showed efficacy in patients with refractory large B-cell lymphoma after the failure of conventional therapy.

Methods: In this multicenter, phase 2 trial, we enrolled 111 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, or transformed follicular lymphoma who had refractory disease despite undergoing recommended prior therapy. Patients received a target dose of 2×10 anti-CD19 CAR T cells per kilogram of body weight after receiving a conditioning regimen of low-dose cyclophosphamide and fludarabine. The primary end point was the rate of objective response (calculated as the combined rates of complete response and partial response). Secondary end points included overall survival, safety, and biomarker assessments.

Results: Among the 111 patients who were enrolled, axi-cel was successfully manufactured for 110 (99%) and administered to 101 (91%). The objective response rate was 82%, and the complete response rate was 54%.With a median follow-up of 15.4 months, 42% of the patients continued to have a response, with 40% continuing to have a complete response. The overall rate of survival at 18 months was 52%. The most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher during treatment were neutropenia (in 78% of the patients), anemia (in 43%), and thrombocytopenia (in 38%). Grade 3 or higher cytokine release syndrome and neurologic events occurred in 13% and 28% of the patients, respectively. Three of the patients died during treatment. Higher CAR T-cell levels in blood were associated with response.

Conclusions: In this multicenter study, patients with refractory large B-cell lymphoma who received CAR T-cell therapy with axi-cel had high levels of durable response, with a safety profile that included myelosuppression, the cytokine release syndrome, and neurologic events. (Funded by Kite Pharma and the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society Therapy Acceleration Program; ZUMA-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02348216 .).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1707447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5882485PMC
December 2017

Clinical and immunologic evaluation of three metastatic melanoma patients treated with autologous melanoma-reactive TCR-transduced T cells.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Feb 20;67(2):311-325. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Department of Surgery, Loyola University Chicago, 2160 S. 1st Avenue, Maywood, IL, 60153, USA.

Malignant melanoma incidence has been increasing for over 30 years, and despite promising new therapies, metastatic disease remains difficult to treat. We describe preliminary results from a Phase I clinical trial (NCT01586403) of adoptive cell therapy in which three patients received autologous CD4 and CD8 T cells transduced with a lentivirus carrying a tyrosinase-specific TCR and a marker protein, truncated CD34 (CD34t). This unusual MHC Class I-restricted TCR produces functional responses in both CD4 and CD8 T cells. Parameters monitored on transduced T cells included activation (CD25, CD69), inhibitory (PD-1, TIM-3, CTLA-4), costimulatory (OX40), and memory (CCR7) markers. For the clinical trial, T cells were activated, transduced, selected for CD34t cells, then re-activated, and expanded in IL-2 and IL-15. After lymphodepleting chemotherapy, patients were given transduced T cells and IL-2, and were followed for clinical and biological responses. Transduced T cells were detected in the circulation of three treated patients for the duration of observation (42, 523, and 255 days). Patient 1 tolerated the infusion well but died from progressive disease after 6 weeks. Patient 2 had a partial response by RECIST criteria then progressed. After progressing, Patient 2 was given high-dose IL-2 and subsequently achieved complete remission, coinciding with the development of vitiligo. Patient 3 had a mixed response that did not meet RECIST criteria for a clinical response and developed vitiligo. In two of these three patients, adoptive transfer of tyrosinase-reactive TCR-transduced T cells into metastatic melanoma patients had clinical and/or biological activity without serious adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-017-2073-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5935006PMC
February 2018

Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III Clinical Trial of Anti-T-Lymphocyte Globulin to Assess Impact on Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease-Free Survival in Patients Undergoing HLA-Matched Unrelated Myeloablative Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

J Clin Oncol 2017 Dec 17;35(36):4003-4011. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

Robert J. Soiffer, Haesook T. Kim, Vincent T. Ho, Edwin P. Alyea, and Jerome Ritz, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; James D. Levine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School; Yi-Bin Chen, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Frank Glavin, Neovii Biotech, Lexington, MA; Joseph McGuirk, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS; Mitchell E. Horwitz, Duke University Medical Center, Durham; Thomas C. Shea, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC; Laura Johnston, Stanford University, Stanford, CA; Mrinal M. Patnaik, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Witold Rybka, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey; David L. Porter, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; Andrew Artz, University of Chicago, Chicago; Patrick J. Stiff, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL; Michael W. Boyer, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT; Richard T. Maziarz, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR; Paul J. Shaughnessy, Texas Transplant Institute, San Antonio; Madhuri Vusirikala, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; Usama Gergis, Weill Cornell Medical College; Ran Reshef, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY; Hana Safah, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA; John F. DiPersio and Peter Westervelt, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO; Jeff Szer, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria; Ian D. Lewis, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; Jennifer Holter, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK; Paul J. Martin, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; Joseph A. Pidala, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL; and Madan H. Jagasia, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.

Purpose Several open-label randomized studies have suggested that in vivo T-cell depletion with anti-T-lymphocyte globulin (ATLG; formerly antithymocyte globulin-Fresenius) reduces chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) without compromising survival. We report a prospective, double-blind phase III trial to investigate the effect of ATLG (Neovii Biotech, Lexington, MA) on cGVHD-free survival. Patients and Methods Two hundred fifty-four patients 18 to 65 years of age with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who underwent myeloablative HLA-matched unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) were randomly assigned one to one to placebo (n =128 placebo) or ATLG (n = 126) treatment at 27 sites. Patients received either ATLG or placebo 20 mg/kg per day on days -3, -2, -1 in addition to tacrolimus and methotrexate as GVHD prophylaxis. The primary study end point was moderate-severe cGVHD-free survival. Results Despite a reduction in grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD (23% v 40%; P = .004) and moderate-severe cGVHD (12% v 33%; P < .001) in ATLG recipients, no difference in moderate-severe cGVHD-free survival between ATLG and placebo was found (2-year estimate: 48% v 44%, respectively; P = .47). Both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were lower with ATLG (2-year estimate: 47% v 65% [ P = .04] and 59% v 74% [ P = .034], respectively). Multivariable analysis confirmed that ATLG was associated with inferior PFS (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.28; P = .026) and OS (hazard ratio, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.71; P = .01). Conclusion In this prospective, randomized, double-blind trial of ATLG in unrelated myeloablative HCT, the incorporation of ATLG did not improve moderate-severe cGVHD-free survival. Moderate-severe cGVHD was significantly lower with ATLG, but PFS and OS also were lower. Additional analyses are needed to understand the appropriate role for ATLG in HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2017.75.8177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8462523PMC
December 2017

Allografts for Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Why Never Is No Longer an Acceptable Answer.

Authors:
Patrick J Stiff

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2016 08 2;22(8):1346-1347. Epub 2016 Jun 2.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Loyola University Medical Center, Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2016.05.025DOI Listing
August 2016

Busulfan, Melphalan, and Bortezomib versus High-Dose Melphalan as a Conditioning Regimen for Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2016 08 7;22(8):1391-1396. Epub 2016 May 7.

Multiple Myeloma Division, John Theurer Cancer Center, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, New Jersey; Multiple Myeloma Program, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC.

High-dose melphalan 200 mg/m(2) (MEL 200) is the standard of care as a conditioning regimen for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) for multiple myeloma (MM). We compared a novel conditioning combination incorporating busulfan, melphalan, and bortezomib (BUMELVEL) versus standard MEL 200 in newly diagnosed patients undergoing AHSCT for MM. Between July 2009 and May 2012, 43 eligible patients received BUMELVEL conditioning followed by AHSCT. BU was administered i.v. daily for 4 days to achieve a target area under the concentration-time curve total of 20,000 mM·min based on pharmacokinetic analysis after the first dose. MEL 140 mg/m(2) (MEL 140) and VEL 1.6 mg/m(2) were administered i.v. on days -2 and -1, respectively. Outcomes were compared with a contemporaneous North American cohort (n = 162) receiving MEL 200 matched for age, sex, performance status, stage, interval from diagnosis to AHSCT, and disease status before AHSCT. Multivariate analysis of relapse, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) was performed. The median follow-up was 25 months. No transplant-related mortality was observed in the study cohort at 1 year. PFS at 1 year was superior in the BUMELVEL cohort (90%) in comparison with 77% in MEL 200 historical control subjects (P = .02). Cumulative incidence of relapse was lower in the BUMELVEL group versus the MEL 200 group (10% at 1 year versus 21%; P = .047). OS at 1 year was similar between cohorts (93% versus 93%; P = .89). BU can be safely combined with MEL 140 and VEL without an increase in toxicities or transplant-related mortality. We observed a superior PFS in the BUMELVEL cohort without maintenance therapy, warranting further trials.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5075527PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2016.03.021DOI Listing
August 2016

Understanding dendritic cell immunotherapy in ovarian cancer.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2016 Jun 13;16(6):643-52. Epub 2016 May 13.

a Department of Medicine, Stritch School of Medicine, Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Oncology Institute , Loyola University Chicago , Maywood , IL , USA.

Introduction: Approximately eighty percent of patients with ovarian cancer are diagnosed with advanced disease. Even with cutting edge surgical techniques and the best regimens of standard therapies most patients relapse and die of drug resistant disease within five years of diagnosis. Dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy can induce anti-tumor T cell immunity in patients and holds great potential in the era of modern anti-cancer treatment.

Areas Covered: This review outlines critical factors regulating the outcome of DC immunotherapy in ovarian cancer, summarizes the important findings in ovarian cancer DC clinical trials, and discusses new directions which may improve the effectiveness of DC immunotherapy. Expert Commentary: Administration of DC vaccines with other forms of immunotherapy may enhance the efficacy of these treatments, ultimately increasing cures for this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737140.2016.1178576DOI Listing
June 2016

Outcomes of MYC-associated lymphomas after R-CHOP with and without consolidative autologous stem cell transplant: subset analysis of randomized trial intergroup SWOG S9704.

Br J Haematol 2016 Sep 13;174(5):686-91. Epub 2016 Apr 13.

University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Double hit lymphoma (DHL) and double protein-expressing (MYC, BCL2) lymphomas (DPL) fare poorly with R-CHOP (rituximab + cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone); consolidative autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) may improve outcomes. S9704, a phase III randomized study of CHOP +/-R with or without ASCT enabled evaluation of intensive consolidation. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) identified 27 of 198 patients (13·6%) with MYC overexpression; 20 (74%) harboured concurrent BCL2 overexpression. Four had DHL and 16 had DPL only. With median 127 months follow-up, there is a trend favouring outcomes after ASCT in DPL and MYC protein overexpressing patients, whereas all DHL patients have died irrespective of ASCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.14100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5125530PMC
September 2016

Evaluation of the International Prognostic Score (IPS-7) and a Simpler Prognostic Score (IPS-3) for advanced Hodgkin lymphoma in the modern era.

Br J Haematol 2015 Nov 7;171(4):530-8. Epub 2015 Sep 7.

Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

The International Prognostic Score (IPS-7) is the most commonly used risk stratification tool for advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), however recent studies suggest the IPS-7 is less discriminating due to improved outcomes with contemporary therapy. We evaluated the seven variables for IPS-7 recorded at study entry for 854 patients enrolled on Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 2496 trial. Univariate and multivariate Cox models were used to assess their prognostic ability for freedom from progression (FFP) and overall survival (OS). The IPS-7 remained prognostic however its prognostic range has narrowed. On multivariate analysis, two factors (age, stage) remained significant for FFP and three factors (age, stage, haemoglobin level) for OS. An alternative prognostic index, the IPS-3, was constructed using age, stage and haemoglobin level, which provided four distinct risk groups [FFP (P = 0·0001) and OS (P < 0·0001)]. IPS-3 outperformed the IPS-7 on risk prediction for both FFP and OS by model fit and discrimination criteria. Using reclassification calibration, 18% of IPS-7 low risk patients were re-classified as intermediate risk and 13% of IPS-7 intermediate risk patients as low risk. For patients with advanced HL, the IPS-3 may provide a simpler and more accurate framework for risk assessment in the modern era. Validation of these findings in other large data sets is planned.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.13634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4881845PMC
November 2015

Long-Term Safety Outcomes in Patients with Hematological Malignancies Undergoing Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Treated with Palifermin to Prevent Oral Mucositis.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2016 Jan 22;22(1):164-9. Epub 2015 Aug 22.

City of Hope Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Los Angeles, California; Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Los Angeles, California.

The purpose of our study was to compare long-term safety outcomes (overall survival, disease progression, and incidence of secondary malignancies) between palifermin and placebo in the prevention of oral mucositis in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients were enrolled between 1997 and 2005 into 4 phase I to III studies (3 double-blind placebo-controlled and 1 open-label) conducted at 31 sites in Australia, Europe, and the United States. Survival outcomes (overall survival, progression-free survival) were compared using hazard ratios (HRs) estimated with a Cox model that included treatment group, baseline age, disease type, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, country, and presence of prior radiotherapy as covariates. The incidence of secondary malignancies was compared with a chi-square test. A total of 672 patients were randomized into the studies (428 palifermin and 244 placebo). The median follow-up time for subjects alive at last visit was 7.9 years (range, .1 to 14.9) for palifermin and 8.8 years (range, .1 to 14.8) for placebo. Palifermin-treated patients had overall survival (HR, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], .78 to 1.31; P = .921) and progression-free survival times (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, .83 to 1.31; P = .733) that were comparable with placebo-treated patients. Secondary malignancies were reported by 13% of palifermin-treated patients versus 11% of placebo patients (P = .477). Breakdown into secondary hematological malignancies (7% versus 6%) or solid tumors (6% versus 6%) did not suggest any differences between the treatment groups. After a follow-up of up to 15 years, comparable long-term safety outcomes (overall survival, progression-free survival, and incidence of secondary malignancies) were observed for palifermin- and placebo-treated patients undergoing autologous HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2015.08.018DOI Listing
January 2016

Impact of Pretransplantation (18)F-fluorodeoxy Glucose-Positron Emission Tomography Status on Outcomes after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2015 Sep 14;21(9):1605-11. Epub 2015 May 14.

Department of Hematology Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California.

Assessment with (18)F-fluorodeoxy glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for lymphoma may be prognostic for outcomes. Patients with chemotherapy-sensitive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) undergoing allogeneic HCT reported to the Center of International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry between 2007 and 2012 were included. Pre-HCT PET status (positive versus negative) was determined by the reporting transplantation centers. We analyzed 336 patients; median age was 55 years and 60% were males. Follicular lymphoma (n = 104) was more common than large cell (n = 85), mantle cell (n = 69), and mature natural killer or T cell lymphoma (n = 78); two thirds of the cohort received reduced-intensity conditioning; one half had unrelated donor grafts. Patients underwent PET scanning a median of 1 month (range, .07 to 2.83 months) before HCT; 159 were PET positive and 177 were PET negative. At 3 years, relapse/progression, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) in PET-positive versus PET-negative groups were 40% versus 26%; P = .007; 43% versus 47%; P = .47; and 58% versus 60%; P = .73, respectively. On multivariate analysis, a positive pretransplantation PET was associated with an increased risk of relapse/progression (risk ratio [RR], 1.86; P = .001) but was not associated with increased mortality (RR, 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI], .96 to 1.7; P = .08), therapy failure (RR, 1.32; 95% CI, .95 to 1.84; P = .10), or nonrelapse mortality (RR, .75; 95% CI, .48 to 1.18; P = .22). PET status conferred no influence on graft-versus-host disease. A positive PET scan before HCT is associated with increased relapse risk but should not be interpreted as a barrier to a successful allograft. PET status does not appear to predict survival after allogeneic HCT for NHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2015.05.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4558181PMC
September 2015
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