Publications by authors named "Patrick Drogui"

85 Publications

Corrigendum to Ciprofloxacin removal via sequential electro-oxidation and enzymatic oxidation [J. Hazard. Mater. 389 (2020) 121890].

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 18;419:126412. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, N104 SEC PO Box 886105, Lincoln, NE 68588-6105, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126412DOI Listing
June 2021

Concomitant production of value-added products with polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis: A review.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Oct 16;337:125419. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

INRS Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec G1K 9A9, Canada.

The concern over the damaging effects of petrochemical plastics has inspired innumerable researchers to synthesize green plastics. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are promising candidates as they are biodegradable and possess characteristics similar to conventional plastics. However, their large-scale production and market application still have a long way to go due to the high production cost associated. Approaches like using industrial wastes as substrates and developing green strategies for PHA extraction during downstream processing have been investigated to make the process more economical. Recently, PHA production cost was minimized by concomitant synthesis of other valuable bioproducts with PHA. Investigating these co-products and recovering them can also make the process circular bioeconomic. Therefore, the paper attempts to review the recent strategies for the simultaneous synthesis of value-added bioproducts with PHA together with the challenges and opportunities for their large-scale production and applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125419DOI Listing
October 2021

Bivalve shells () as a new adsorbent for the defluoridation of groundwater by adsorption-precipitation.

J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2021 13;56(6):694-704. Epub 2021 May 13.

Laboratoire des Procédés Industriels de Synthèse, de l'Environnement et des Energies Nouvelles (LAPISEN); Institut National Polytechnique Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire.

Defluoridation of groundwater was performed in a batch reactor using bivalve shell powder (BSP) as adsorbent. The physicochemical characteristics of BSP, studied by Fourier Transform Infrared, X-ray Diffraction and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry after dissolution, have shown that BSP was mainly composed of crystalline CaCO (∼97.8%). The effects of pH, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent dose and contact time on the adsorption capacity of BSP were investigated. For an initial fluoride concentration of 2.2 mg/L and with 16 g/L of BSP, after 8 hours of treatment, 27.3% were eliminated at pH 7.5 versus 68% at pH 3, highlighting the efficiency of the adsorption process. The difference in adsorption capacity as a function of pH was correlated to the pHpzc of the BSP, which was equal to 8.2. Thus, at pH below pHpzc, electrostatic attraction between the fluoride anions and the positively charged adsorbent could justify the adsorption mechanism. Fittings of experimental data have evidenced that the adsorption kinetics were of pseudo-second order whereas the adsorption isotherms were of Langmuir type. The chemical precipitation of calcium fluoride was also revealed to occur upon release of Ca from partial dissolution of CaCO in acidic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2021.1917937DOI Listing
July 2021

Treatment processes for microplastics and nanoplastics in waters: State-of-the-art review.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Jul 22;168:112374. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Distinguished Prof, School of Technology, Huzhou University, China; BOSK Bioproducts, 100-399 rue Jacquard, Québec G1N 4J6, Canada.

In this work, established treatment processes for microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) in water as well as developed analytical techniques for evaluation of the operation of these processes were reviewed. In this regard, the strengths and limitations of different qualitative and quantitative techniques for the analysis of MPs and NPs in water treatment processes were first discussed. Afterward, the MPs and NPs treatment processes were categorized into the separation and degradation processes and the challenges and opportunities in their performance were analyzed. The evaluation of these processes revealed that the MPs or NPs removal efficiency of the separation and degradation processes could reach up to 99% and 90%, respectively. It can be concluded from this work that the combination of separation and degradation processes could be a promising approach to mineralize MPs and NPs in water with high efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112374DOI Listing
July 2021

Physicochemical assessment of urban wastewater of Cotonou (Benin).

Water Sci Technol 2021 Mar;83(6):1499-1510

Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS Eau Terre et Environnement), Université du Québec, Québec, Canada.

The present study aims to fill the data gap analysis in urban wastewaters characteristics in Benin and its statistical analysis. Physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Total Phosphorus (TP) and UV Absorbance at 254 nm, were determined on domestic (greywater and blackwater) and industrial (hospital, pharmaceutical and commercial laundry) wastewater in Cotonou city. Analysis of variance showed a strong significant difference in the physico-chemistry of the various effluents. The pharmaceutical wastewater has the highest concentration of organic pollution (COD = 5,912 ± 1,026 mg/L, Abs.UV254 = 2.667 ± 0.327 cm). The organic load of blackwater is mainly in particulate and biodegradable form. Besides, the correlation study showed the limits of pH and EC as an indicator of organic load. Furthermore, the choice of COD or BOD as the main design parameter would be limited to blackwater treatment. Abs.UV254 was found to be the parameter having a strong relationship with other parameters of all effluents except blackwater. It then takes priority over COD for the treatment of greywater and industrial wastewater. For future wastewater treatment plant design, we recommend to consider Abs.UV254 as an important parameter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2021.073DOI Listing
March 2021

Identifying economical route for crude glycerol valorization: Biodiesel versus polyhydroxy-butyrate (PHB).

Bioresour Technol 2021 Mar 28;323:124565. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

INRS-ETE, Université du Québec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Québec G1K 9A9, Canada.

Crude glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel industry, has been used for production of biodiesel and polyhydroxy-alkanoates. But question is: which product is economically favorable using crude glycerol as substrate? In this study, energy balance and economic assessment has been carried out for crude glycerol valorization for B10 biodiesel and polyhydroxy-butyrate (PHB) production. For same quantity of crude glycerol utilized, energy ratio for B10 production was higher than PHB production while unit production cost for B10 was lower than that of PHB. For 50 million L plant capacity of biodiesel, unit production cost was 0.77 $/L B10 while for 2 million kg plant capacity of PHB, unit production cost was 4.88 $/kg PHB. Thus, in present scenario production of biodiesel seems economically better than production of PHA with crude glycerol as raw material. This study is useful for researchers, environmental scientists and industries in identifying effective route for crude glycerol valorization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124565DOI Listing
March 2021

Treatment of microplastics in water by anodic oxidation: A case study for polystyrene.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 1;269:116168. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Institut National de la recherche scientifique (INRS) - Centre Eau Terre Environnement (ETE), 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec (QC), Canada, G1K 9A9.

Water pollution by microplastics (MPs) is a contemporary issue which has recently gained lots of attentions. Despite this, very limited studies were conducted on the degradation of MPs. In this paper, we reported the treatment of synthetic mono-dispersed suspension of MPs by using electrooxidation (EO) process. MPs synthetic solution was prepared with distilled water and a commercial polystyrene solution containing a surfactant. In addition to anode material, different operating parameters were investigated such as current intensity, anode surface, electrolyte type, electrolyte concentration, and reaction time. The obtained results revealed that the EO process can degrade 58 ± 21% of MPs in 1 h. Analysis of the operating parameters showed that the current intensity, anode material, electrolyte type, and electrolyte concentration substantially affected the MPs removal efficiency, whereas anode surface area had a negligible effect. In addition, dynamic light scattering analysis was performed to evaluate the size distribution of MPs during the degradation. The combination of dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, total organic carbon, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy results suggested that the MPs did not break into smaller particles and they degrade directly into gaseous products. This work demonstrated that EO is a promising process for degradation of MPs in water without production of any wastes or by-products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116168DOI Listing
January 2021

Acclimatization of microbial community of submerged membrane bioreactor treating hospital wastewater.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jan 8;319:124223. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Investissement Québec - CRIQ, 333, rue Franquet, Quebec, QC G1P 4C7, Canada.

This study was performed to understand the dynamics of the microbial community of submerged membrane bioreactor during the acclimatization process to treat the hospital wastewater. In this regard, three acclimatization phases were examined using a mixture of synthetic wastewater (SWW) and real hospital wastewater (HWW) in the following proportions; In Phase 1: 75:25 v/v (SWW: HWW); Phase 2: 50:50 v/v (SWW: HWW); and Phase 3: 25:75 v/v (SWW: HWW) of wastewater. The microbial community was analyzed using Illumina high throughput sequencing to identify the bacterial and micro-eukaryotes community in SMBR. The acclimatization study clearly demonstrated that shift in microbial community composition with time. The dominance of pathogenic and degrading bacterial communities such as Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Zoogloea was observed at the phase 3 of acclimatization. This study witnessed the major shift in the micro-eukaryotes community, and the proliferation of fungi Basidiomycota was observed in phase 3 of acclimatization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124223DOI Listing
January 2021

A review on recovery of proteins from industrial wastewaters with special emphasis on PHA production process: Sustainable circular bioeconomy process development.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Dec 12;317:124006. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

INRS Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec G1K 9A9, Canada.

The economy of the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production process could be supported by utilising the different by-products released simultaneously during its production. Among these, proteins are present in high concentrations in liquid stream which are released after the cell disruption along with PHA granules. These microbial proteins can be used as animal feed, adhesive material and in manufacturing of bioplastics. The recycling of the protein containing liquid stream also serves as a promising approach to maintain circular bioeconomy in the route. For this aim, it is important to obtain good yield and limit the drawbacks of protein recovery processes and associated costs. The review focuses on recycling of the liquid stream generated during acid/thermal-alkali treatment for PHA production that would close the gap in linear economy and attain circularity in the process. Examples to recover proteins from other industrial waste streams along with their applications have also been discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124006DOI Listing
December 2020

Electro-oxidation of secondary effluents from various wastewater plants for the removal of acetaminophen and dissolved organic matter.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Oct 18;738:140352. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Institut Européen des Membranes, IEM, Université Montpellier, CNRS, ENSCM, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5, France. Electronic address:

Electro-oxidation of acetaminophen (ACT) in three different doped secondary effluents collected from a conventional Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plant (MWWTP), a MWWTP using a membrane bioreactor (WWTP MBR) and a lab-scale MBR treating source-separated urine (Urine MBR) was investigated by electro-Fenton (EF) coupled with anodic oxidation (AO) using sub-stoichiometric titanium oxide anode (TiO). After 8 h of treatment, 90 ± 15%, 76 ± 3.8% and 46 ± 1.3% of total organic carbon removal was obtained for MWWTP, MWWTP-MBR and Urine-MBR respectively, at a current intensity of 250 mA, pH of 3 and [Fe] = 0.2 mM. Faster degradation of ACT was observed in the WWTP MBR because of the lower amount of competitive organic matter, however, >99% degradation of ACT was obtained after 20 min for all effluents. The acute toxicity of the treated effluent was measured using Microtox® tests. Results showed an initial increase in toxicity, which could be assigned to formation of more toxic by-products than parent compounds. From 3D excitation and emission matrix fluorescence (3DEEM), different reactivity was observed according to the nature of the organic matter. Particularly, an increase of low molecular weight organic compounds fluorescence was observed during Urine MBR treatment. This could be linked to the slow decrease of the acute toxicity during Urine MBR treatment and ascribed to the formation and recalcitrance of toxic organic nitrogen and chlorinated organic by-products. By comparison, the acute toxicity of other effluents decreased much more rapidly. Finally, energy consumption was calculated according to the objective to achieve (degradation, absence of toxicity, mineralization).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140352DOI Listing
October 2020

Effect of cathode material and charge loading on the nitrification performance and bacterial community in leachate treating Electro-MBRs.

Water Res 2020 Sep 5;182:115990. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

INRS, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Qc, G1K 9A9, Canada.

Electro-MBR technology, which combines an electrocoagulation process inside the mixed liquor of a membrane bioreactor, was studied for the treatment of a high-strength ammonia leachate (124 ± 4 mg NH-N L). A lab-scale aerobic Electro-MBR was operated with a solid retention time of 45 days, hydraulic retention times of 24h and 12h, and charge loading ranging from 100 to 400 mAh L. At 400 mAh L, with a combination of a Ti/Pt cathode and a sacrificial iron anode, removal percentages for ammonia nitrogen, total organic carbon, and total phosphorus were 99.8%, 38%, and 99.0%, respectively. At 400 mAh L, the estimated ferric ion dosage was 325 mg Fe L. Experiments conducted with different cathode materials showed that previously reported inhibition phenomena may result from a cathodic nitrate reduction into ammonia nitrogen. Conventional cathode materials, such as graphite, have electrochemical nitrate reduction rates of -0.03 mg NO-N mAh. By comparison, when using Ti/Pt, the rate was -0.0045 mg NO-N mAh(85% lower than graphite due to its low hydrogen overpotential). Charge loading tested in this study had no significant impact on both nitrification performance and microbial population diversity. However, the relative abundance of the mixed liquor's Nitrosomonas increased from 4.8% to 8.2% when the charge loading increased from 0 to 400 mAh L. Results from this study are promising for future applications of the Ti/Pt - Iron Electro-MBR in various high-strength ammonia wastewater treatment applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115990DOI Listing
September 2020

Photocatalytic Degradation of Myclobutanil and Its Commercial Formulation with TiO₂ P25 in Slurry and TiO₂/-SiC Foams.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2020 09;20(9):5938-5943

Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, UFR Sciences des Structures de la Matière et de la Technologie (SSMT), Université Félix Houphouët Boigny d'Abidjan, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d'Ivoire.

Viticulture is one of the crops most subject to pest control by fungicides. Their drainage towards the fresh water affects the aquatic environment, the fauna, the flora and especially the human health. It is therefore necessary to find an adequate solution to solve this problem. Heterogeneous photocatalysis is an advanced oxidation method for the degradation and mineralization of organic pollutants in water and air using semi-conductor (e.g., TiO²). TiO₂ P25 in suspension (0.75 g·L) is used to treat Myclobutanil contaminated water and a commercial formulation Systhane™ 20EW, a fungicide produced by BASF. After 120 min of batch treatment under our conditions (pH = 6.7, Co = 10 mg ·L), 96% and 98% of Myclobutanil and Systhane were removed with 94% and 92% mineralization, respectively. In order to avoid the recovery of nanoparticles of TiO² P25 after treatment, we have taken care of -SiC foam cells. Under the same experimental conditions, 45% and 56% of Myclobutanil and Systhane degraded after 4 h with mineralization of 29% and 27%, respectively in recirculation in a fixed-light photoreactor by UV-A lamps. These results are very encouraging: filtering is not necessary to separate the catalyst from the treated water, it is very important for large-scale use of this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2020.18547DOI Listing
September 2020

Statistical optimization of arsenic removal from synthetic water by electrocoagulation system and its application with real arsenic-polluted groundwater.

Environ Technol 2020 Mar 2:1-12. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Departamento de Biotecnología y Ciencias Alimentarias, Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora (Centro de Investigación e Innovación Biotecnológica, agropecuaria y ambiental), Ciudad Obregón, México.

Arsenic presence in the water has become one of the most concerning environmental problems. Electrocoagulation is a technology that offers several advantages over conventional treatments such as chemical coagulation. In the present work, an electrocoagulation system was optimized for arsenic removal at initial concentrations of 100 µg/L using response surface methodology. The effects of studied parameters were determined by a 2 factorial design, whereas treatment time had a positive effect and current intensity had a negative effect on arsenic removal efficiency. With a -value of 0.1629 and a confidence of level 99%, the type of electrode material did not have a significant effect on arsenic removal. Efficiency over 90% was reached at optimal operating conditions of 0.2 A of current intensity, and 7 min of treatment time using iron as the electrode material. However, the time necessary to accomplish with OMS arsenic guideline of 10 µg/L increased from 7 to 30 min when real arsenic-contaminated groundwater with an initial concentration of 80.2 ± 3.24 µg/L was used. The design of a pilot-scale electrocoagulation reactor was determined with the capacity to meet the water requirement of a 6417 population community in Sonora, Mexico. To provide the 1.0 L/s required, an electrocoagulation reactor with a working volume of 1.79 m, a total electrode effective surface of 701 m, operating at a current intensity of 180 A and an operating cost of 0.0208 US$/day was proposed. Based on these results, electrocoagulation can be considered an efficient technology to treat arsenic-contaminated water and meet the drinking water quality standards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2020.1732472DOI Listing
March 2020

Techno-economic analysis for extracellular-polymeric substances (EPS) production using activated sludge fortified with crude glycerol as substrate and its application in leachate treatment.

Bioresour Technol 2020 May 4;303:122954. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

INRS Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec G1K 9A9, Canada.

Economic assessment of bio-flocculant production process has been carried out by SuperPro Designer where extracellular-polymeric substances (EPS) were produced using activated sludge fortified with crude glycerol in fermenter followed by centrifugation. Considering EPS concentration of 60 g/L in production fermenter at 96 h, the unit production cost for slime EPS was estimated to be $ 0.95/L. The unit price of S-EPS was sensitive to inoculum size and EPS productivity (EPS concentration and fermentation time) in the fermented broth. Economic analysis was also conducted for EPS aided leachate treatment. The unit leachate treatment cost was 7.78 $/m and was sensitive to S-EPS unit production cost. To get same leachate treatment cost as current industrial practice (4 $/m), S-EPS unit production cost should lower down to $ 0.5/L. The process has several advantages: 1) sludge and crude glycerol valorization for bio-flocculant production 2) Leachate treatment using environment friendly bio-flocculant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.122954DOI Listing
May 2020

Identifying the link between MBRs' key operating parameters and bacterial community: A step towards optimized leachate treatment.

Water Res 2020 Apr 17;172:115509. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

CNETE, 2263, Avenue du Collège, Qc, G9N 6V8, Canada.

A MBR treating compost leachate was studied in order to link the operating parameters (solid and hydraulic retention time) to contaminant's specific bacterial catabolic activity. In this context, a lab-scale aerobic membrane bioreactor was operated for 200 days, at solid retention times (SRT) of 30 and 45 days and four different contaminant load rates. Results showed that increasing the food to microorganism ratio (F/M) by increasing the contaminant load rates lessened the selectivity pressure, which allowed the proliferation of subdominant operational taxonomic units (OTU) (relative abundance >3%) that were otherwise inhibited by highly adapted dominant OTUs (relative abundance >10%). Subsequently, increasing the SRT resulted in a lower species richness and the selection of two dominant types of bacteria: 1) genera with low growth rates that feed on non-limiting substrates or substrates with few competitors, and 2) genera with metabolisms that are highly specific to the available substrates and that can outcompete the other genera by using the substrate more efficiently. The bacterial population evolution observed during this study suggests that the mixed liquor population diversity and structure can be modulated with the operating conditions for the bioenhancement of contaminant specific catabolic activity. Identified dominant and subdominant genera were linked to the MBR's NH and COD removal performances. Interestingly, nitrification performances were unaffected by the organic load rate and the Nitrosomonas relative abundance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115509DOI Listing
April 2020

MBR treatment of leachates originating from waste management facilities: A reference study of the design parameters for efficient treatment.

J Environ Manage 2020 Apr 9;259:110057. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

CNETE, 5230, Boul. Royal, Shawinigan, Qc, G9N 4R6, Canada.

The main objective of the study was to define the interaction between the solid retention time (SRT) and the contaminant loading rate on a membrane bioreactor's efficacy in removing contaminants frequently detected (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH, total phosphorus and metals) above the discharge criteria in waste-originating leachates. The rates and coefficient calculated from this study's experimental data can be used for the design of membrane bioreactor treating wastewaters, even beyond the scope of this experiment. Over a period of 152 days, SRTs of 28 and 47 days and HRTs of 13, 25, 36 and 52 h were studied using a real leachate with a constant composition. Results showed that membrane bioreactors can efficiently treat >1850 mg COD L d of highly to moderately biodegradable COD, with the SRT having no significant impact on the removal of recalcitrant COD. Overall ammonium removal rates of >740 mg NH-N L d can be achieved as long as a residual alkalinity of 200 mg CaCO L-1 and an adequate dissolved oxygen concentration (6-7 mg L) are both maintained. Overall phosphorus removal rates are independent of the phosphorus loading rate. However, the highest overall phosphorus removal rate (39 ± 2 mg P per g of total suspended solids) was obtained at the lowest SRT (28 days) due to an increased extracellular polymeric substance production. Finally, membrane bioreactor's metal removal capacity is mostly dependent on the metals' affinity to both the leachate's recalcitrant COD as well as sludge concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.110057DOI Listing
April 2020

Ciprofloxacin removal via sequential electro-oxidation and enzymatic oxidation.

J Hazard Mater 2020 05 12;389:121890. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, N104 SEC PO Box 886105, Lincoln, NE 68588-6105, USA.

The combination of electro-oxidation and enzymatic oxidation was tested to evaluate the potency of this system to remove ciprofloxacin (CIP), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, from water. For the electro-oxidation boron-doped diamond (BDD) and mixed metal oxides anodes were tested, at three current densities (4.42, 17.7 and 35.4 A/cm). BDD anode at 35.4 A/cm exhibited the highest removal efficiency in the shortest time (>90 % removal in 6 min). For the enzymatic oxidation, laccase from Trametes versicolor was chosen. Laccase alone was not able to remove CIP; hence the influence of redox mediators was investigated. The addition of syringaldehyde (SA) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) resulted in enhanced CIP transformation. About 48.9±4.0 % of CIP remained after 4 h of treatment when SA-mediated laccase was applied and 87.8±6.6 % in the case of ABTS-mediated laccase. The coupling of enzymatic oxidation followed by electro-oxidation led to 73 % removal of the antibiotic. Additionally, the antimicrobial activity increased up to its original efficiency after the treatment. The combination of electro-oxidation followed by enzymatic oxidation led to 97-99 % removal of CIP. There was no antimicrobial activity of the solution after the treatment. The tests with wastewater confirmed the efficacy of the system to remove CIP from the complex matrix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121890DOI Listing
May 2020

Cost, energy and GHG emission assessment for microbial biodiesel production through valorization of municipal sludge and crude glycerol.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Feb 11;297:122404. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

INRS Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec G1K 9A9, Canada.

In this study, cost simulations were made based on 20 million L blended biodiesel B-10 production per year using INRS and conventional process. In case of INRS process, microbial lipid was produced by T. oleaginosus using washed municipal secondary sludge fortified with crude glycerol while lipid was extracted from wet biomass using biodegradable surfactant and petroleum-diesel (PD). The conventional process uses commercial substrates for lipid production and organic solvents for lipid extraction from dry biomass. The unit B-10 production cost of INRS process was estimated to be $ 0.72/L for an annual capacity of 20 million L, which is 9.5 times more economical than conventional biodiesel production process. For INRS process, the unit B-10 biodiesel production cost was sensitive to plant capacity and lipid productivity during the fermentation. INRS process exhibited positive net energy gain and positive GHG capture, which proves to be energetically and environmentally viable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122404DOI Listing
February 2020

Appearance of ciprofloxacin/chlortetracycline-resistant bacteria in waters of Québec City in Canada.

J Infect Public Health 2019 Nov - Dec;12(6):897-899. Epub 2019 May 9.

INRS-ETE, Université du Québec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Québec City, QC, G1K 9A9, Canada.

Most of the waterborne fecal pathogens belong to the family of Gram-negative bacteria. Hence, minimal inhibitory concentrations of chlortetracycline and ciprofloxacin antibiotics towards Gram-negative representative, Enterobacter aerogenes were estimated, which were 7 μg/ml and 0.125 μg/ml, respectively. The combined antimicrobial effect of chlortetracycline and ciprofloxacin against E. aerogenes was also investigated to establish their potential interaction towards the pathogens present in water. Eventually, the water samples obtained from various drinking water treatment plants from Québec municipality were tested for the occurrence of chlortetracycline-, ciprofloxacin- and chlortetracycline/ciprofloxacin-resistant strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2019.04.012DOI Listing
March 2020

The bacterial community structure of submerged membrane bioreactor treating synthetic hospital wastewater.

Bioresour Technol 2019 Aug 18;286:121362. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Centre de Recherche Industrielle du Québec (CRIQ), Quebec, QC, Canada.

The pharmaceuticals are biologically active compounds used to prevent and treat diseases. These pharmaceutical compounds were not fully metabolized by the human body and thus excreted out in the wastewater stream. Thus, the study on the treatment of synthetic hospital wastewater containing pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, carbamazepine, estradiol and venlafaxine) was conducted to understand the variation of the bacterial community in a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) at varying hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6, 12 and 18 h. The variation in bacterial community dynamics of SMBR was studied using high throughput sequencing. The removal of pharmaceuticals was uniform at varying HRT. The removal of both ibuprofen and estradiol was accounted for 90%, whereas a lower removal of venlafaxine (<10%) and carbamazepine (>5%) in SMBR was observed. The addition of pharmaceuticals alters the bacterial community structure and result in increased abundance of bacteria (e.g., Flavobacterium, Pedobacter, and Methylibium) reported to degrade toxic pollutant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121362DOI Listing
August 2019

Electro-generation of hydrogen peroxide using a graphite cathode from exhausted batteries: study of influential parameters on electro-Fenton process.

Environ Technol 2020 Apr 25;41(11):1434-1445. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Laboratoire d'Electrochimie et des Procédés Membranaires, Ecole Supérieure Polytechnique, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar-Fann, Senegal.

In this work, the study of hydrogen peroxide (HO) electro-generation using graphite from exhausted batteries (Gr-Bat) was conducted. Linear sweep voltammetry and electrolysis experiments were carried out in a single compartment electrochemical cell. Study of the possibility to use this electrode revealed that it presents, as vitreous carbon (VC) electrode, a reduction of oxygen with two successive waves (bi-electronic reduction). The first wave corresponds to the reduction of O to HO, while the second one corresponds to the reduction of HO to HO. The cathodic potentials for electro-generation of HO appeared at -600 and -700 mV vs. Ag/AgCl for Gr-Bat and VC electrodes, respectively. Subsequently, electrolysis experiments were conducted by imposing the potentials required for HO formation. The effect of several operating parameters on HO production, such as the nature and concentration of the electrolyte, the pH, the presence of ferrous ions and O injection were studied using Gr-Bat and VC electrodes, respectively. For both electrodes, the acidic medium was more favorable for HO electro-generation. The oxygen injection in solution promoted an increase of HO concentration, but its effect was more pronounced in the case of VC electrode. Application for crystal violet degradation by electro-Fenton revealed that Gr-Bat had the best purification performance. A removal rate of 73.18% was obtained with Gr-Bat electrode against 62.27% with VC electrode for an electrolysis time of 120 min. This study has demonstrated the possibility of recycling Gr-Bat by using them as cathode materials in the electro-Fenton process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2018.1537309DOI Listing
April 2020

Acute Impact of Chlortetracycline on Nitrifying and Denitrifying Processes.

Water Environ Res 2018 Jul;90(7):604-614

INRS-ETE, Université du Québec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Québec, Canada G1K 9A9.

  In the current study, sequential nitrification and anoxic experiments in synthetic municipal wastewater were exposed to 0.5 to 100 mg/L of chlortetracycline for 24 h to evaluate acute impact on the nitrification, and denitrification processes of biological treatment. Both processes were significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited at >50 mg/L of chlortetracycline, and the results revealed that nitrification was adversely affected by chlortetracycline compared with the anoxic process. In nitrification, chemical oxygen removal (COD) and ammonia oxidation kinetics were 50% inhibited at 10 mg chlortetracycline/L, and nitrite oxidation kinetics at 0.5 mg chlortetracycline/L. Likewise, in the anoxic process, 14 and 10 mg/L of chlortetracycline inhibited 50% of COD removal and nitrate reduction kinetics, respectively. In nitrification and denitrification, 90% of chlortetracycline was removed by adsorbing onto sludge suspended solids. In addition, a higher chlortetracycline concentration in anoxic effluent, compared with aerobic effluents, indicated a dissimilarity in the composition of sludge solids, pH, and biomass production for both processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/106143017X15131012153095DOI Listing
July 2018

Optimization process of organic matter removal from wastewater by using Eichhornia crassipes.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Oct 16;25(29):29219-29226. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS-Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Université du Québec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec, QC, G1K 9A9, Canada.

This study aimed to determine the optimal conditions for organic matter removal from wastewater by Eichhornia crassipes (E.C). As a matter of fact, a complete factorial design was used to determine the effect of residence time (X), plant density (X) and initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration (X) on the phytoremediation process. The process's performance was measured on COD (Y), NH (Y) and PO (Y), with the results indicating a reduction of 8.59-81.71% of COD (Y); 22.53-95.81% of NH (Y) and 0.54-99.35% of PO (Y). Then, the first-order models obtained for COD, NH and PO removal were validated using different statistical approaches such as statistical and experimental validation. Moreover, multi-response optimization was carried out through different scenarios. On the whole, the results obtained indicated that two serial ponds are required for an optimum organic matter removal by Eichhornia crassipes. Indeed, for the first pond, a residence time of 15 days is needed with a plant density of 60 ft/m and an initial concentration of about 944 mg/L. The second was the same residence time as the first with similar plant density of 60 ft/m and an initial load 192 mg/L (> 200 mg/L). Optimal organic matter removal from wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes requires two ponds arranged in chain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2771-yDOI Listing
October 2018

Microwave-assisted one-pot conversion of agro-industrial wastes into levulinic acid: An alternate approach.

Bioresour Technol 2018 Oct 7;265:471-479. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Université Laval, Department of Civil Engineering and Water Engineering, Pavilion Adrien-Pouliot, 1065, avenue de la Médecine, Quebec G1V 0A6, Canada.

Brewery liquid waste (BLW), brewery spent grain (BSG), apple pomace solid wastes (APS), apple pomace ultrafiltration sludge (APUS) and starch industry waste (SIW) were evaluated as alternative feedstocks for levulinic acid (LA) production via microwave-assisted acid-catalyzed thermal hydrolysis. LA production of 204, 160, 66, 49 and 12 g/kg was observed for BLW, BSG, APS, APUS, and SIW, respectively, at 140 °C, 40 g/L substrate concentration (SC), 60 min and 2 N HCl (acid concentration). Based on the screening studies, BLW and BSG were selected for optimization studies using response surface methodology. Maximum LA production of 409 and 341 g/kg for BLW and BSG, respectively were obtained at 160 °C, 4.5 M HCl, 85 g/L SC and 27.5 min. Results demonstrated the possibility of using brewery wastes as promising substrates for economical and higher yield production of LA, a renewable platform chemical and versatile precursor for fuels and chemicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.06.012DOI Listing
October 2018

Kinetics and mechanism of Paraquat's degradation: UV-C photolysis vs UV-C photocatalysis with TiO/SiC foams.

J Hazard Mater 2019 05 4;370:164-171. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Institut de Chimie et Procédés pour l'Energie, l'Environnement et la Santé (ICPEES), CNRS-UMR7515-University of Strasbourg, Saint-Avold Antenna, Université de Lorraine, 12 rue Victor Demange, 57500, Saint-Avold, France. Electronic address:

In this study, the photolytic and photocatalytic removal of the herbicide paraquat is investigated under UV-C (254 nm). For photocatalytic experiments, SiC foams were used with P25-TiO nanoparticles deposited by dip-coating. The foams were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and paraquat's degradation under UV-C photolysis or photocatalysis, followed by UV-vis spectroscopy, total organic carbon analyzer, LC-MS and ion chromatography. After 3 h of reactions by photolysis and photocatalysis, 4% and 91% of TOC removal were observed. An analysis of degradation by-products showed a similar degradation pathway with pyridinium ions observed by LC/MS and carboxylic acids (succinate, acetate, oxalate and formate) detected by ion chromatography. In conclusion, these two different photo-degradation processes are able to remove paraquat and produce similar by-products. However, the kinetics of degradation is rather slow during photolysis and it is recommended to combine the UV-C lightning with a TiO photocatalyst to improve the mineralization rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.06.009DOI Listing
May 2019

Activation of persulfate by homogeneous and heterogeneous iron catalyst to degrade chlortetracycline in aqueous solution.

Chemosphere 2018 Sep 24;207:543-551. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, N104 SEC PO Box 886105, Lincoln, NE 68588-6105, USA.

This study investigates the removal of chlortetracycline (CTC) antibiotic using sulfate radical-based oxidation process. Sodium persulfate (PS) was used as a source to generate sulfate radicals by homogeneous (Fe) and heterogeneous (zero valent iron, ZVI) iron as a catalyst. Increased EDTA concentration was used to break the CTC-Fe metal complexes during CTC estimation. The influence of various parameters, such as PS concentration, iron (Fe and ZVI) concentration, PS/iron molar ratio, and pH were studied and optimum conditions were reported. CTC removal was increased with increasing concentration of PS and iron at an equal molar ratio of PS/Fe and PS/ZVI processes. PS/Fe and PS/ZVI oxidation processes at 1:2 (500 μM PS and 1000 μM) molar ratio showed 76% and 94% of 1 μM CTC removal in 2 h. Further increased molar ratio 1:2 onwards, PS/Fe process showed a slight increase in CTC degradation whereas in PS/ZVI process showed similar degradation to 1:2 (PS/Fe) ratio at constant PS 500 μM concentration. Slower activation of persulfate which indirectly indicates the slower generation of sulfate radicals in PS/ZVI process showed higher degradation efficiency of CTC. The detected transformation products and their estrogenicity results stated that sulfate radicals seem to be efficient in forming stable and non-toxic end products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.05.134DOI Listing
September 2018

Removal of Pollutants in Different Landfill Leachate Treatment Processes on the Basis of Organic Matter Fractionation.

J Environ Qual 2018 Mar;47(2):297-305

A combination of processes was required for the proper treatment of old landfill leachate, as it contained a high concentration of pollutants. Humic substances comprised half of the total organic carbon in the raw leachate. Mobility of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and metals could depend on the fate of these substances. Characterization of carbon in raw leachate and effluent of the membrane bioreactor, biofiltration, electro-oxidation, electro-coagulation, and nanofiltration showed complete removal of suspended solids and colloids. Physical processes could not remove the hydrophilic fraction due to its lower molecular weight. However, high removal of the hydrophilic fraction with a molecular weight <500 Da was expected in the biological process. In comparison with fulvic acid, larger sized humic acid resulted in complete removal by physicochemical processes. Because of DEHP partitioning on dissolved organic matter, especially on humic substances, its removal could be correlated with total organic carbon removal. Metals such as iron, aluminum, magnesium, and lead showed removal efficiency >80% in biological processes. Electro-deposition on the surface of an electrode and precipitation by hydroxide resulted in removal efficiencies >90 and >50% in electro-coagulation and electro-oxidation, respectively. Rejection of metals by nanofiltration was >80% and depended on the size and charge of cation. All in all, a combination of membrane bioreactor and nanofiltration seems to be the optimal process configuration for efficient treatment of old landfill leachate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2017.09.0360DOI Listing
March 2018

Performance of a membrane bioreactor in extreme concentrations of bisphenol A.

Water Sci Technol 2018 Mar;77(5-6):1505-1513

Centre de Recherché Industrielle du Québec (CRIQ), 333 rue Franquet, Québec, QC, Canada, G1P 4C7.

In this study, a submerged membrane bioreactor was used to study the effect of low and high bisphenol A (BPA) concentration on the sludge biological activity. The pilot was operated over 540 days with hydraulic retention time and solid retention time of 5.5 hours and 140 days, respectively. As a hydrophobic compound, BPA was highly adsorbed by activated sludge. In lower concentrations, the biodegradation rate remained low, since the BPA concentration in the sludge was lower than 0.5 mg/g TS; yet, at an influent concentration up to 15 mg/L, the biodegradation rate was increasing, resulting in 99% BPA removal efficiency. The result for chemical oxygen demand removal showed that BPA concentration has no effect on the heterotrophic bacteria that were responsible for the organic carbon degradation. In higher concentrations, up to 16 mg of BPA was used for each gram of sludge as a source of carbon. However, the activity of autotrophic bacteria, including nitrifiers, was completely halted in the presence of 20 mg/L of BPA or more. Although nitrification was stopped after day 400, ammonia removal remained higher than 70% due to air stripping. Assimilation by bacteria was the only removal pathway for phosphorus, which resulted in an average 35% of P-PO removal efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2018.011DOI Listing
March 2018

Ciprofloxacin-metal complexes -stability and toxicity tests in the presence of humic substances.

Chemosphere 2018 Jul 20;202:549-559. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Global Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability, P.O. Box 14354, Lenexa, KS 66285, USA.

The co-contamination of ciprofloxacin (CIP) with metal ions results in alteration of CIP mobility, antimicrobial activity and distribution/development of the antibiotic-resistance genes. In this study, the stability of five CIP-Me complexes [Me = Al(III), Co(II), Cu(II), Fe(III), Mg] was investigated in the presence of humic substances (HS) at two temperatures 18 ± 2 °C and 4 ± 1 °C for seven days period. The most stable complexes were CIP-Al, CIP-Cu, and CIP-Co with the stability constants (K) at 18 °C 35.5 ± 1.4 11.5 ± 1.5 and 11.7 ± 1.5 respectively. At lower temperature (4 °C), the stability constants decreased: 1-fold for CIP-Al, 14-fold for CIP-Co and 2-fold for CIP-Cu. The presence of humic substances decreased the stability of complexes. The chemical reactions of Fe in water at circumneutral pH resulted in stability alteration. The formation of CIP-Mg complexes at lower temperatures and in the presence of HS was limited. In ultrapure water, CIP-Me complexes exhibit higher toxicity towards Gram-negative Enterobacter aeruginosa (ranged between 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml). However, the presence of HS reduced the antimicrobial activity of CIP-Me complexes by at least 2-fold. Gram-positive representative, Bacillus subtilis was not affected by the presence of metal ions and/or HS. The toxicity toward B. subtilis for the complexes was equal to toxicity of CIP alone (MIC = 0.25 μg/ml). This suggested the different susceptibility to CIP and its complexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.03.117DOI Listing
July 2018

The pH-based fed-batch for lipid production from Trichosporon oleaginosus with crude glycerol.

Bioresour Technol 2018 Jul 13;259:237-243. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

INRS Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec G1K 9A9, Canada. Electronic address:

In this study, it was found that the optimal pH for the growth of Trichosporon oleaginosus was related to the fermentation medium. A neutral or weak acid pH condition was optimal for the growth of Trichosporon oleaginosus in the extract-peptone-dextrose and wastewater sludge medium. Significant inhibition was observed at neutral pH in the wastewater sludge + crude glycerol medium due to the high soap content of the crude glycerol. By converting the soap to free fatty acid (FFA) at pH 5, the soap inhibition could be prevented. Fed-batch fermentation was employed to produce lipid from Trichosporon oleaginosus at pH 5 controlled by feeding crude glycerol. A remarkably high biomass (65.63 g/L) and lipid (35.79 g/L) concentration were achieved from the pH-based fed-batch fermentation in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.03.045DOI Listing
July 2018
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