Publications by authors named "Patricia Sylla"

73 Publications

SAGES consensus recommendations on an annotation framework for surgical video.

Surg Endosc 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 15 Parkman Street, WAC460, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Background: The growing interest in analysis of surgical video through machine learning has led to increased research efforts; however, common methods of annotating video data are lacking. There is a need to establish recommendations on the annotation of surgical video data to enable assessment of algorithms and multi-institutional collaboration.

Methods: Four working groups were formed from a pool of participants that included clinicians, engineers, and data scientists. The working groups were focused on four themes: (1) temporal models, (2) actions and tasks, (3) tissue characteristics and general anatomy, and (4) software and data structure. A modified Delphi process was utilized to create a consensus survey based on suggested recommendations from each of the working groups.

Results: After three Delphi rounds, consensus was reached on recommendations for annotation within each of these domains. A hierarchy for annotation of temporal events in surgery was established.

Conclusions: While additional work remains to achieve accepted standards for video annotation in surgery, the consensus recommendations on a general framework for annotation presented here lay the foundation for standardization. This type of framework is critical to enabling diverse datasets, performance benchmarks, and collaboration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08578-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Multidisciplinary management of elderly patients with rectal cancer: recommendations from the SICG (Italian Society of Geriatric Surgery), SIFIPAC (Italian Society of Surgical Pathophysiology), SICE (Italian Society of Endoscopic Surgery and new technologies), and the WSES (World Society of Emergency Surgery) International Consensus Project.

World J Emerg Surg 2021 Jul 2;16(1):35. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

UOC Chirurgia Generale - AOU san Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d'Aragona, Università di Salerno, Salerno, Italy.

Background And Aims: Although rectal cancer is predominantly a disease of older patients, current guidelines do not incorporate optimal treatment recommendations for the elderly and address only partially the associated specific challenges encountered in this population. This results in a wide variation and disparity in delivering a standard of care to this subset of patients. As the burden of rectal cancer in the elderly population continues to increase, it is crucial to assess whether current recommendations on treatment strategies for the general population can be adopted for the older adults, with the same beneficial oncological and functional outcomes. This multidisciplinary experts' consensus aims to refine current rectal cancer-specific guidelines for the elderly population in order to help to maximize rectal cancer therapeutic strategies while minimizing adverse impacts on functional outcomes and quality of life for these patients.

Methods: The discussion among the steering group of clinical experts and methodologists from the societies' expert panel involved clinicians practicing in general surgery, colorectal surgery, surgical oncology, geriatric oncology, geriatrics, gastroenterologists, radiologists, oncologists, radiation oncologists, and endoscopists. Research topics and questions were formulated, revised, and unanimously approved by all experts in two subsequent modified Delphi rounds in December 2020-January 2021. The steering committee was divided into nine teams following the main research field of members. Each conducted their literature search and drafted statements and recommendations on their research question. Literature search has been updated up to 2020 and statements and recommendations have been developed according to the GRADE methodology. A modified Delphi methodology was implemented to reach agreement among the experts on all statements and recommendations.

Conclusions: The 2021 SICG-SIFIPAC-SICE-WSES consensus for the multidisciplinary management of elderly patients with rectal cancer aims to provide updated evidence-based statements and recommendations on each of the following topics: epidemiology, pre-intervention strategies, diagnosis and staging, neoadjuvant chemoradiation, surgery, watch and wait strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy, synchronous liver metastases, and emergency presentation of rectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13017-021-00378-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254305PMC
July 2021

Outcomes associated with the use of a new powered circular stapler for left-sided colorectal reconstructions: a propensity score matching-adjusted indirect comparison with manual circular staplers.

Surg Endosc 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Background: This was a retrospective, matching-adjusted indirect comparison of clinical outcomes between patients from a single-arm trial of the ECHELON CIRCULAR™ Powered Stapler (ECP) and those from a historical cohort of patients who underwent left-sided colorectal resection using conventional manual circular staplers, extracted from the Premier Healthcare Database.

Methods: Patients in the ECP trial cohort were propensity score matched to those in the historical cohort through nearest neighbor matching. Outcomes included 30-day readmission rates; length of stay (LOS) for the index admission; rates of anastomotic leak, pelvic abscess, ileus/small bowel obstruction, infection, bleeding, and stoma creation.

Results: The study included 168 patients in the ECP trial cohort and 4544 patients in the historical cohort; 165 ECP trial patients were matched to 1348 historical cohort patients. After matching, conversions were more prevalent in the historical cohort than the ECP trial cohort (4.2% ECP vs. 10.2% historical, p = 0.001). Relative to the historical cohort, the ECP trial cohort had statistically significant lower rates of 30-day inpatient readmission (6.1% vs. 10.8%, p = 0.019), anastomotic leak (1.8% vs. 6.9%, p < 0.001), ileus/small bowel obstruction (4.8% vs. 14.7%, p < 0.001), infection (1.8% vs. 5.7%, p = 0.001), and bleeding (1.8% vs. 9.2%, p < 0.001) during the index admission or within 30 days thereafter. No statistically significant differences in rates of pelvic abscess, stoma creation, or LOS were found between the two cohorts. Three sensitivity analyses to address the difference in conversion rates yielded largely consistent results, with loss of statistical significance for inpatient admission in some cases. This study is limited by its potential for differences in unmeasurable factors between the ECP trial and historical cohorts.

Conclusions: In this study, the ECP trial cohort had lower incidence proportions of several surgical complications as compared with the historical cohort. Further controlled prospective clinical studies are needed to confirm the validity of this finding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08542-7DOI Listing
May 2021

The role of laparoscopic surgery in repeat ileocolic resection for Crohn's disease.

Colorectal Dis 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York, USA.

Aim: Laparoscopic surgery is the preferred approach for primary uncomplicated ileocolic resection (ICR); however, its role for repeat resections is unclear. This study assessed the outcomes of primary and repeated ICRs for Crohn's disease to examine rates of laparoscopy and patient morbidity.

Methods: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was conducted at a tertiary centre between 2013 and 2019. All patients undergoing ICRs for Crohn's disease were included. The cohort was divided into three groups based on number of resections-primary (1R), secondary (2R) and tertiary or more (>2R) groups. The primary outcome was 30-day postoperative morbidity.

Results: Over a 6-year period, 474 patients underwent ICR for Crohn's disease, including 369 primary (1R, 77.8%) and 105 repeat (≥2R, 22.2%) resections. A laparoscopic approach was less common in the ≥2R versus 1R groups (79.0% vs. 93.8%, P < 0.001), but rates of conversion to an open procedure were comparable. Morbidity was higher amongst repeat resections although this was not significant (20.0% vs. 14.1%, P = 0.18). Amongst cases approached laparoscopically (n = 429), rates of conversion and postoperative morbidity did not differ by stage of resection, although operative time was longer for repeat operations. Even in the group undergoing laparoscopy for tertiary or greater resections (>2R, n = 29), the rates of conversion (10%) and morbidity (14%) were relatively low.

Conclusion: In this contemporary series of primary and reoperative ICR for ileal CD, a laparoscopic approach is feasible and safe for the majority of repeat ICRs when performed at a high volume centre.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/codi.15675DOI Listing
April 2021

International Delphi Expert Consensus on Safe Return to Surgical and Endoscopic Practice: From the Coronavirus Global Surgical Collaborative.

Ann Surg 2021 07;274(1):50-56

Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Departments of Surgery and Medical Education, Springfield, Illinois.

Objective: The aim of this work is to formulate recommendations based on global expert consensus to guide the surgical community on the safe resumption of surgical and endoscopic activities.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused marked disruptions in the delivery of surgical care worldwide. A thoughtful, structured approach to resuming surgical services is necessary as the impact of COVID-19 becomes better controlled. The Coronavirus Global Surgical Collaborative sought to formulate, through rigorous scientific methodology, consensus-based recommendations in collaboration with a multidisciplinary group of international experts and policymakers.

Methods: Recommendations were developed following a Delphi process. Domain topics were formulated and subsequently subdivided into questions pertinent to different aspects of surgical care in the COVID-19 crisis. Forty-four experts from 15 countries across 4 continents drafted statements based on the specific questions. Anonymous Delphi voting on the statements was performed in 2 rounds, as well as in a telepresence meeting.

Results: One hundred statements were formulated across 10 domains. The statements addressed terminology, impact on procedural services, patient/staff safety, managing a backlog of surgeries, methods to restart and sustain surgical services, education, and research. Eighty-three of the statements were approved during the first round of Delphi voting, and 11 during the second round. A final telepresence meeting and discussion yielded acceptance of 5 other statements.

Conclusions: The Delphi process resulted in 99 recommendations. These consensus statements provide expert guidance, based on scientific methodology, for the safe resumption of surgical activities during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8189258PMC
July 2021

Assessment of a circular powered stapler for creation of anastomosis in left-sided colorectal surgery: A prospective cohort study.

Int J Surg 2020 Dec 8;84:140-146. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai Hospital, 5 E 98th St 14th Fl, Ste D, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Background: Circular staplers perform a critical function for creation of anastomoses in colorectal surgeries. Powered stapling systems allow for reduced force required by surgeons to fire the device and may provide advantages for creating a secure anastomosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of a novel circular powered stapler in a post-market setting, during left-sided colectomy procedures.

Materials And Methods: Consecutive subjects underwent left-sided colorectal resections that included anastomosis performed with the ECHELON CIRCULAR™ Powered Stapler (ECP). The primary endpoint was the frequency in which a stapler performance issue was observed. Secondary endpoints included evaluation of ease of use of the device via a surgeon satisfaction questionnaire, and monitoring/recording of procedure-related adverse events (AEs).

Results: A total of 168 anastomoses were performed with the ECP. Surgical approaches included robotic-assisted (n = 74, 44.0%), laparoscopic (n = 71, 42.3%), open (n = 20, 11.9%), and hand-assisted minimally invasive (n = 3, 1.8%) procedures. There were 22 occurrences of device performance issues in 20 (11.9%) subjects during surgery. No positive intraoperative leak tests were observed, and only 1 issue was related to a procedure-related AE or surgical complication, which was an instance of incomplete surgical donut necessitating re-anastomosis. Postoperative anastomotic leaks were experienced in 4 (2.4%) subjects. Clavien-Dindo classification of all AEs indicated that 92.0% were Grades I or II. Participating surgeons rated the ECP as easier to use compared to previously used manual circular staplers in 85.7% of procedures.

Conclusion: The circular powered stapler exhibited few clinically relevant performance issues, an overall favorable safety profile, and ease of use for creation of left-sided colon anastomoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.11.001DOI Listing
December 2020

Aggressive Colorectal Cancer in the Young.

Clin Colon Rectal Surg 2020 Sep 3;33(5):298-304. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Despite the steady decline in the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancer-related mortality in Americans of 50 years and older over the last few decades, there has been a disturbing trend of steadily rising incidence in early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC), defined as CRC in those younger than 50 years. With the incidence of EOCRC increasing from 4.8 per 100,000 in 1988 to 8.0 per 100,000 in 2015, and with the decreased rates in those older than 50 years largely attributed to improved screening in the older population, new screening recommendations have recently lowered the age for screening average-risk individuals from 50 to 45. EOCRC has been found to present differently from late-onset CRC, with a higher proportion of patients presenting with left-sided and rectal cancer, more aggressive histological features, and more advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. This article reviews the most recent evidence from population-based studies and institutional series, as well as the newest screening guidelines, and provides an up-to-date summary of our current understanding of EOCRC, from clinical presentation to tumor biology and prognosis, and future directions in treatment and prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1713747DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7500960PMC
September 2020

Recycling of Precolectomy Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Agents in Chronic Pouch Inflammation Is Associated With Treatment Failure.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jul 12;19(7):1491-1493.e3. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Despite improvements in medical management, 10%-15% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) require total proctocolectomy (TPC) with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) for refractory disease. Acute pouchitis is the most common post-IPAA inflammatory condition, with cumulative incidence of 45% at 5 years. Up to 20%-30% of patients develop chronic pouch inflammation (CPI), categorized as antibiotic responsive, antibiotic refractory, or Crohn's disease-like (CDL)..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.07.008DOI Listing
July 2021

Infection Is a Rare Cause of Infectious Pouchitis.

Inflamm Intest Dis 2020 Jun 19;5(2):59-64. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

The Henry D. Janowitz Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Introduction: The true incidence of infection (CDI) in patients with an ileal pouch is unknown, and there is little published on its associated risk factors.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the rate and risk factors of CDI in pouch patients.

Methods: This was a retrospective review conducted at a single tertiary care inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) center. All ulcerative colitis or IBD-unspecified (IBD-U) patients who underwent total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis for medically refractory disease or dysplasia between 2008 and 2017 were identified. Symptomatic patients tested for CDI were included. Demographic, disease, and surgical characteristics were collected. Nonparametric methods were used to compare continuous outcomes, and χ2 and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare patients with and without CDI as appropriate.

Results: A total of 154 pouch patients had postoperative stool testing for symptoms of fever, urgency, increased stool frequency, hematochezia, incontinence, and abdominal and/or pelvic pain. CDI was diagnosed in 11 (7.1%) patients a median of 139 days (IQR 34-1,170) after the final surgical stage. Ten patients (90.9%) received oral vancomycin for 10 days and 1 patient (9.1%) received oral metronidazole for 2 weeks. Ten patients (90.9%) reported improvement in symptoms at completion of therapy. Nine patients (81.8%) were retested for CDI for recurrent symptoms and found to be negative. No patient had CDI recurrence. There was no significant difference in demographic and surgical characteristics, previous antibiotic or proton pump inhibitor use, or previous hospital admission among the patients with and without CDI.

Conclusions: CDI is a rare cause of infectious pouchitis and treatment with oral vancomycin improves symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000505658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315207PMC
June 2020

SAGES primer for taking care of yourself during and after the COVID-19 crisis.

Surg Endosc 2020 07 20;34(7):2856-2862. Epub 2020 May 20.

Miami Cancer Institute At Baptist Health, Miami, FL, USA.

COVID-19 is a pandemic which has affected almost every aspect of our life since starting globally in November 2019. Given the rapidity of spread and inadequate time to prepare for record numbers of sick patients, our surgical community faces an unforeseen challenge. SAGES is committed to the protection and care of patients, their surgeons and staff, and all who are served by the medical community at large. This includes physical health, mental health, and well-being of all involved. The fear of the unknown ahead can be paralyzing. International news media have chronicled the unthinkable situations that physicians and other health care providers have been thrust into as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. These situations include making life or death decisions for patients and their families regarding use of limited health care resources. It includes caring for patients with quickly deteriorating conditions and limited treatments available. Until recently, these situations seemed far from home, and now they are in our own hospitals. As the pandemic broadened its reach, the reality that we as surgeons may be joining the front line is real. It may be happening to you now; it may be on the horizon in the coming weeks. In this context, SAGES put together this document addressing concerns on clinician stressors in these times of uncertainty. We chose to focus on the emotional toll of the situation on the clinician, protecting vulnerable persons, reckoning with social isolation, and promoting wellness during this crisis. At the same time, the last part of this document deals with the "light at the end of the tunnel," discussing potential opportunities, lessons learned, and the positives that can come out of this crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07631-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238959PMC
July 2020

Evolution of Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision.

Clin Colon Rectal Surg 2020 May 28;33(3):113-127. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Icahn School Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Minimally invasive techniques continue to transform the field of colorectal surgery. Because traditional surgical approaches for rectal cancer are associated with significant mortality and morbidity, developing less invasive approaches to this disease is paramount. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), commonly known as "no incision surgery," represents the ultimate minimally invasive approach to disease. Although transgastric and transvaginal approaches for NOTES surgery were the initially explored, a transrectal approach for colorectal disease is intuitive given that it makes use of the resected organ for transluminal access. Furthermore, the transanal approach allows for improved, precise visualization of the presacral mesorectal plane compared with an abdominal viewpoint, particularly in the narrow, male pelvis. Finally, experience with existing transanal platforms that have been used for decades for local excision of rectal disease made the development of a transanal approach to total mesorectal excision (TME) feasible. Here, we will review the evolution of minimally invasive and transanal surgical techniques that allowed for the development of transanal TME and its introduction into clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-3402773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188508PMC
May 2020

taTME: boom or bust?

Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) 2020 Feb 21;8(1):1-4. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Colorectal and Pelvic Floor Diseases, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, P. R. China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gastro/goaa001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034229PMC
February 2020

SAGES masters program: determining the seminal articles for each pathway.

Surg Endosc 2020 04 12;34(4):1465-1481. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) has recently developed and announced its Masters Program that aims to address existing needs of practicing surgeons for lifelong learning and consists of eight clinical pathways each containing three anchoring procedures. The objective of this study was to select the seminal articles for each anchoring procedure of these pathways using a systematic methodology.

Methods: A systematic literature search of Web of Science was conducted for the most cited articles for each of the anchoring procedures of the SAGES Masters pathways. The most relevant identified articles were then reviewed by expert members of the relevant SAGES pathway committees and task forces and the seminal articles chosen for each anchoring procedure using expert consensus.

Results: 578 highly cited articles were identified by the original search of the literature and the seminal articles were selected for each anchoring procedure after expert review and consensus. Articles address procedural outcomes, disease pathophysiology, and surgical technique and are presented in this paper.

Conclusions: We have identified seminal articles for each anchoring procedure of the SAGES Masters program pathways using a systematic methodology. These articles provide surgeon participants of this program with a great resource to improve their procedure-specific knowledge and may further benefit the larger surgical community by focusing its attention to must-read impactful work that may inform best practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07392-zDOI Listing
April 2020

Transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) for rectal cancer: beyond the learning curve.

Surg Endosc 2020 09 10;34(9):4101-4109. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 5 East 98th Street, Box 1259, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Background: Transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) is a surgical approach for low rectal cancer with a learning curve estimated at 40-50 cases. The experience among taTME surgeons beyond their learning curve is limited.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of all taTME cases performed for rectal cancer at two tertiary care hospitals from 2014 to 2019 was conducted. Transanal surgeons had previously performed > 50 taTME cases. Demographic, perioperative, and short-term outcomes were analyzed.

Results: Among 54 taTME patients, 74.1% were male and 27.8% had a BMI ≥ 30. Tumors were stage I (8), II (13), III (29), and IV (4). Complex cases included 4 local recurrences, 4 prior liver resections, and 2 with prior prostate cancer. Thirty tumors were located ≤ 6 cm from the anal verge. On staging MRI, 12 had a positive predicted circumferential radial margin (+CRM), and 4 had internal anal sphincter involvement (+IAS). Forty-seven patients received neoadjuvant therapy. A 2-team approach was used in 51 patients with laparoscopic (83.3%) or robotic (16.7%) abdominal assistance with a 9.2% conversion rate. Low anterior resection with sphincter salvage was achieved in 87% with 8 patients requiring intersphincteric resection. Anastomoses were hand-sewn in 57.4% and all patients were diverted. Median LOS was 5 days with a 42.6% 30-day morbidity rate and 3 postoperative mortalities (ARDS, pulmonary embolism and pseudomembranous colitis). Complete and near complete TME grade was achieved in 94.4% with a 3.7% rate of +CRM. At a median follow-up of 28 months, local and distant recurrence rates were 3.9% and 17.6%, respectively, with no cancer-related mortality.

Conclusion: Indications for taTME at experienced centers have expanded to include complex reoperative cases, local recurrences, metastatic cancer, and tumors with threatened CRM or IAS with evidence of post-treatment tumor regression. In the latter cases, taTME achieves good short-term outcomes and may facilitate R0 resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-019-07172-4DOI Listing
September 2020

Inflammatory Pouch Conditions Are Common After Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis in Ulcerative Colitis Patients.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2020 06;26(7):1079-1086

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Total proctocolectomy (TPC) with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the gold standard surgery for ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with medically refractory disease. The aim of this study was to report the rates and risk factors of inflammatory pouch conditions.

Methods: This was a retrospective review of UC or IBD unspecified (IBDU) patients who underwent TPC with IPAA for refractory disease or dysplasia between 2008 and 2017. Pouchoscopy data were used to calculate rates of inflammatory pouch conditions. Factors associated with outcomes in univariable analysis were investigated in multivariable analysis.

Results: Of the 621 patients more than 18 years of age who underwent TPC with IPAA between January 2008 and December 2017, pouchoscopy data were available for 386 patients during a median follow-up period of 4 years. Acute pouchitis occurred in 205 patients (53%), 60 of whom (30%) progressed to chronic pouchitis. Cuffitis and Crohn's disease-like condition (CDLC) of the pouch occurred in 119 (30%) patients and 46 (12%) patients, respectively. In multivariable analysis, female sex was associated with a decreased risk of acute pouchitis, and pre-operative steroid use and medically refractory disease were associated with an increased risk; IBDU was associated with chronic pouchitis; rectal cuff length ≥2 cm and medically refractory disease were associated with cuffitis; age 45-54 at colectomy was associated with CDLC. Rates of pouch failure were similar in chronic pouchitis and CDLC patients treated with biologics and those who were not.

Conclusions: Inflammatory pouch conditions are common. Biologic use for chronic pouchitis and CDLC does not impact the rate of pouch failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izz227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7456971PMC
June 2020

Endoscopic activity in asymptomatic patients with an ileal pouch is associated with an increased risk of pouchitis.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2019 12 3;50(11-12):1189-1194. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Henry D. Janowitz Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA.

Background: The significance of endoscopic activity in asymptomatic ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with an ileal pouch is unknown.

Aim: To investigate the association of endoscopic pouch activity in asymptomatic patients with the subsequent development of pouchitis.

Methods: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of patients with UC or IBD-unspecified who underwent a total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA). Asymptomatic patients with a Pouchitis Disease Activity Index (PDAI) symptom sub-score of zero who underwent an index surveillance pouchoscopy were included. Endoscopic pouch body activity was graded as 0: normal, 1: mucosal inflammation, or 2: mucosal breaks (ulcers and/or erosions). The primary outcome was primary acute idiopathic pouchitis defined as PDAI score ≥ 7 with symptoms lasting less than four weeks and responsive to standard antibiotics, not otherwise meeting criteria for secondary pouchitis. The secondary outcome was chronic idiopathic pouchitis defined as PDAI score ≥ 7 with symptoms lasting greater than four weeks despite standard antibiotics. Predictors of pouchitis were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) reported.

Results: 143 asymptomatic pouch patients were included. Index endoscopic pouch body activity was 0 in 86 (60.1%) patients, 1 in 26 (18.2%) and 2 in 31 (21.7%). The median length of follow-up after index surveillance pouchoscopy was 3.03 [IQR 1.24-4.60] years. Primary acute idiopathic pouchitis occurred in 44 (31%) patients and chronic idiopathic pouchitis in 12 (8.4%). Grade 2 endoscopic pouch activity was associated with the development of acute pouchitis (HR 2.39, 95% CI 1.23-4.67), although not chronic pouchitis (HR 1.76, 95% CI 0.53-5.87). Histologic inflammation in endoscopically normal pouch mucosa was not associated with acute or chronic pouchitis.

Conclusions: Mucosal breaks are present in nearly a quarter of asymptomatic patients with IPAA and are associated with an increased risk of acute pouchitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7050830PMC
December 2019

Urethral Injury and Other Urologic Injuries During Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision: An International Collaborative Study.

Ann Surg 2021 Aug;274(2):e115-e125

Department of Surgery and Surgical Research, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Objective: To identify risk factors for urethral and urologic injuries during transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) and evaluate outcomes.

Background: Urethral injury is a rare complication of abdominoperineal resection (APR) that has not been reported during abdominal proctectomy. The Low Rectal Cancer Development Program international taTME registry recently reported a 0.8% incidence, but actual incidence and mechanisms of injury remain largely unknown.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of taTME cases complicated by urologic injury was conducted. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, intraoperative details, and outcomes were analyzed, along with surgeons' experience and training in taTME. Surgeons' opinion of contributing factors and best approaches to avoid injuries were evaluated.

Results: Thirty-four urethral, 2 ureteral, and 3 bladder injuries were reported during taTME operations performed over 7 years by 32 surgical teams. Twenty injuries occurred during the teams' first 8 taTME cases ("early experience"), whereas the remainder occurred between the 12th to 101st case. Injuries resulted in a 22% conversion rate and 8% rate of unplanned APR or Hartmann procedure. At median follow-up of 27.6 months (range, 3-85), the urethral repair complication rate was 26% with a 9% rate of failed urethral repair requiring permanent urinary diversion. In patients with successful repair, 18% reported persistent urinary dysfunction.

Conclusions: Urologic injuries result in substantial morbidity. Our survey indicated that those occurring in surgeons' early experience might best be reduced by implementation of structured taTME training and proctoring, whereas those occurring later relate to case complexity and may be avoided by more stringent case selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003597DOI Listing
August 2021

Outcomes After Bowel Resection for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the Era of Surgical Care Bundles and Enhanced Recovery.

J Gastrointest Surg 2020 01 29;24(1):123-131. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Department of Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 5 East 98th St, 15th Floor, Box 1259, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Objective: To compare 30-day postoperative complications in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) undergoing colorectal resection before and after implementation of a hospital-wide surgical care bundle (SCB) to prevent surgical site infection (SSI) followed by enhanced recovery protocol (ERP).

Background: Perioperative SCBs to prevent SSI after colectomy have evolved to include ERPs demonstrating reduced rates of SSI, ileus, and length of stay in colorectal surgical patients. IBD patients often present with more risk factors for postoperative complication like malnutrition or immunosuppression, and the impact of SCBs and ERPs in this population is understudied.

Methods: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients undergoing elective bowel resection at a tertiary-level referral center from 2013 to 2018 were retrospectively evaluated. Postoperative complications at 30 days including SSI, ileus, and anastomotic leak were compared between pre-SCB/ERP, post-SCB, and post-SCB + ERP time periods using institutional ACS-NSQIP data. Pediatric (age < 18 years) and emergent cases were excluded.

Results: Out of 977 patients, 224 were pre-SCB/ERP, 517 post-SCB, and 236 post-SCB + ERP. Gender (P = 0.01), race (P = 0.02), body mass index (P = 0.04), immunosuppressant use (P = 0.01), wound classification (P < 0.001), malnutrition (P < 0.001), duration of procedure (P = 0.04), and procedure performed (P = 0.01) were significantly different between the three cohorts. A significant decrease in the rates of SSI (14.7% to 5.5%), ileus (20.1% to 8.9%), and anastomotic leak (4.7% to 0.0%) was demonstrated after implementation of SCB and ERP (P ≤ 0.01). On multivariable regression, the risk for postoperative SSI and ileus decreased significantly post-SCB + ERP (OR 0.39, CI 0.19-0.82 and OR 0.45, CI 0.24-0.84, respectively).

Conclusion: SCB and ERP implementation was associated with decreased rates of postoperative SSI, ileus, and anastomotic leak for IBD patients undergoing elective bowel resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-019-04362-2DOI Listing
January 2020

Portomesenteric Venous Thrombosis in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Medically Refractory Ulcerative Colitis.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2020 01;26(2):283-288

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine.

Background: Portomesenteric venous thrombosis (PMVT) is an under-recognized complication of colorectal surgery. The aim of this study was to describe the rate and risk factors for PMVT in patients undergoing surgery for medically refractory ulcerative colitis (UC).

Methods: A retrospective review of medically refractory UC patients who underwent surgery between January 2010 and December 2016 at a single tertiary care center was conducted. PMVT was defined as thrombus within the portal, splenic, superior, or inferior mesenteric vein on postoperative abdominal computed tomography scans. Factors associated with PMVT on univariable analysis were tested in multivariable analysis. Clinical relevance of risk factors was examined with receiver operating characteristic curves and Kaplan-Meier curves.

Results: A total of 434 patients were identified. Postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis was administered to 428 (98.5%) inpatients for a mean duration of 7.7 ± 0.17 days. PMVT developed in 36 (8.3%) patients a mean interval of 55.3 ± 10.8 days after index surgery. The majority of PMVT occurred after subtotal colectomy, and the most common initial symptom was abdominal pain. Preoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) was associated with PMVT (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.02; P = 0.01), and the optimal predictive CRP threshold was 45 mg/L. The rate of PMVT development was greater for patients with CRP >45 mg/L (P = 0.01).

Conclusions: PMVT can present as abdominal pain and occur multiple weeks after discharge. Further studies are needed to identify the appropriate postoperative outpatient thrombosis prophylaxis regimen for at-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izz169DOI Listing
January 2020

Feasibility of transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) using the Medrobotics Flex® System.

Surg Endosc 2020 01 26;34(1):485-491. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 5 East 98th Street, Box 1259, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Background: The use of transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) for treatment of rectal cancer is growing, but anatomic constraints prevent access to the proximal rectum with rigid instruments. The articulated instrumentation of current surgical robots is promising in overcoming these limitations, but the bulky size of current platforms inhibits the proximal reach of dissection. Flexible robotic systems could overcome these constraints while maintaining a stable platform for dissection. The goal of this study was to evaluate feasibility of performing taTME using the semi-robotic Flex® System (Medrobotics Corp., Raynham, MA) in human cadavers.

Methods: taTME was performed by two surgeons in six fresh human cadaveric specimens using the Flex® System, with or without transabdominal laparoscopic assistance. Both mid- and low-rectal lesions were simulated. Metrics including quality of visualization, maintenance of pneumorectum, maneuverability of instruments, effectiveness of pursestring suture placement, and dissection in an anatomically correct plane were evaluated.

Results: The semi-robotic endoluminal platform allowed for excellent visualization, insufflation, and dissection during taTME. Adequate pursestring occlusion of the rectum was achieved in all six cases. In cadavers with simulated mid-rectal lesions (N = 4), dissection and anterior peritoneal entry was achieved in all cases, with abdominal assistance utilized in two of four cases. In cadavers with simulated low-rectal lesions (N = 2), dissection was incomplete and aborted due to difficulty maneuvering instruments in close proximity to the rigid transanal port.

Conclusions: Use of the Flex® system for taTME is feasible for mid-rectal dissection. Advantages over the traditional multi-armed robot include longer reach of instruments with the ability to dissect up to 17 cm from the anal verge, as well as tactile feedback. The current design of the flexible platform does not permit safe dissection in the distal rectum, although this constraint may be resolved with future adjustments to the equipment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-019-07019-yDOI Listing
January 2020

EAES and SAGES 2018 consensus conference on acute diverticulitis management: evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice.

Surg Endosc 2019 09 27;33(9):2726-2741. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Department of Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Acute diverticulitis (AD) presents a unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for general surgeons. This collaborative project between EAES and SAGES aimed to summarize recent evidence and draw statements of recommendation to guide our members on comprehensive AD management.

Methods: Systematic reviews of the literature were conducted across six AD topics by an international steering group including experts from both societies. Topics encompassed the epidemiology, diagnosis, management of non-complicated and complicated AD as well as emergency and elective operative AD management. Consensus statements and recommendations were generated, and the quality of the evidence and recommendation strength rated with the GRADE system. Modified Delphi methodology was used to reach consensus among experts prior to surveying the EAES and SAGES membership on the recommendations and likelihood to impact their practice. Results were presented at both EAES and SAGES annual meetings with live re-voting carried out for recommendations with < 70% agreement.

Results: A total of 51 consensus statements and 41 recommendations across all six topics were agreed upon by the experts and submitted for members' online voting. Based on 1004 complete surveys and over 300 live votes at the SAGES and EAES Diverticulitis Consensus Conference (DCC), consensus was achieved for 97.6% (40/41) of recommendations with 92% (38/41) agreement on the likelihood that these recommendations would change practice if not already applied. Areas of persistent disagreement included the selective use of imaging to guide AD diagnosis, recommendations against antibiotics in non-complicated AD, and routine colonic evaluation after resolution of non-complicated diverticulitis.

Conclusion: This joint EAES and SAGES consensus conference updates clinicians on the current evidence and provides a set of recommendations that can guide clinical AD management practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-019-06882-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6684540PMC
September 2019

Role of Minimally Invasive Surgery in the Reoperative Abdomen or Pelvis.

Clin Colon Rectal Surg 2016 Jun;29(2):168-180

Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Laparoscopy has become widely accepted as the preferred surgical approach in the management of benign and malignant colorectal diseases. Once considered a relative contraindication in patients with prior abdominal surgery (PAS), as surgeons have continued to gain expertise in advanced laparoscopy, minimally invasive approaches have been increasingly incorporated in the reoperative abdomen and pelvis. Although earlier studies have described conversion rates, most contemporary series evaluating the impact of PAS in laparoscopic colorectal resection have reported equivalent conversion and morbidity rates between reoperative and non-reoperative cases, and series evaluating the impact of laparoscopy in reoperative cases have demonstrated improved short-term outcomes with laparoscopy. The data overall highlight the importance of case selection, careful preoperative preparation and planning, and the critical role of surgeons' expertise in advanced laparoscopic techniques. Challenges to the widespread adoption of minimally invasive techniques in reoperative colorectal cases include the longer learning curve and longer operative time. However, with the steady increase in adoption of minimally invasive techniques worldwide, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is likely to continue to be applied in the management of increasingly complex reoperative colorectal cases in an effort to improve patient outcomes. In the hands of experienced MIS surgeons and in carefully selected cases, laparoscopy is both safe and efficacious for reoperative procedures in the abdomen and pelvis, with measurable short-term benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0036-1580637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5477556PMC
June 2016

Transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) for rectal cancer: a training pathway.

Surg Endosc 2016 09 10;30(9):4130-5. Epub 2015 Dec 10.

Department of Surgery, Center for the Future of Surgery, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

Background: With increasing interest in natural orifice surgery, there has been a dramatic evolution of transanal and endoluminal surgical techniques. These techniques began with transanal endoluminal surgical removal of rectal masses and have progressed to transanal radical proctectomy for rectal cancer. The first transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) was performed in 2009 by Sylla, Rattner, Delgado, and Lacy. The improved visibility and working space associated with the taTME technique is intriguing. This video manuscript outlines the training pathway followed by pioneers in the taTME technique, the process of implementation into clinical practice, and initial case report.

Methods: A double board-certified colorectal surgeon with expertise in rectal cancer, minimally invasive total mesorectal excision, transanal endoscopic surgery (TES), and intersphincteric dissection, underwent taTME training in male cadaver models. Institutional review board (IRB) approval for a phase I clinical trial was achieved. The entire operative team including surgeons, nurses, and operative staff underwent taTME cadaver training the day prior to the first clinical case. The case was proctored by an expert in taTME.

Results: A 66-year-old male with uT3N1M0 rectal cancer located in the posterior distal rectum, underwent taTME with laparoscopic abdominal assistance, hand sewn coloanal anastomosis, and diverting loop ileostomy. The majority of the TME was performed transanally with laparoscopic assistance for exposure, splenic flexure mobilization, and high ligation of the vascular pedicles. Operative time was 359 min. There were no intraoperative complications. Pathology revealed a ypT2N1 moderately differentiated invasive adenocarcinoma, grade I TME, 1 cm circumferential radial margin, and 2/13 positive lymph nodes.

Conclusion: Implementation of taTME into practice can be achieved by surgeons with expertise in minimally invasive TME, TES, pre-clinical taTME training in cadavers, case observation, proctoring, and ongoing mentorship. IRB peer review process and participation in a clinical registry are additional measures that should be employed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-015-4680-1DOI Listing
September 2016

Shifting Paradigms in Minimally Invasive Surgery: Applications of Transanal Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery in Colorectal Surgery.

Clin Colon Rectal Surg 2015 Sep;28(3):181-93

Division of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Since the advent of laparoscopy, minimally invasive techniques such as single port laparoscopy, robotics, endoscopically assisted laparoscopy, and transanal endoscopic surgery continue to revolutionize the field of colorectal surgery. Transanal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) represents a further paradigm shift by combining the advantages of these earlier techniques to reduce the size and number of abdominal incisions and potentially optimize rectal dissection, especially with respect to performance of an oncologically adequate total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal cancer. Since the first experimental report of transanal rectosigmoid resection in 2007, the potential impact of transanal NOTES in colorectal surgery has been extensively investigated in experimental models and recently transitioned to clinical application. There have been 14 clinical trials of transanal TME (taTME) for rectal cancer that have demonstrated the feasibility and preliminary oncologic safety of this approach in carefully selected patients, with results comparable to outcomes after laparoscopic and open TME, including cumulative intraoperative and postoperative complication rates of 5.5 and 35.5%, respectively, 97.3% rate of complete or near-complete specimens, and 93.6% rate of negative margins. Transanal NOTES has also been safely applied to proctectomy and colectomy for benign indications. The consensus among published series suggests that taTME is most safely performed with transabdominal assistance by surgeons experienced with laparoscopic TME, transanal endoscopic surgery, and sphincter-preserving techniques including intersphincteric resection. Future applications of transanal NOTES may include evolution to a pure endoscopic transanal approach for TME, colectomy, and sentinel lymph node biopsy for rectal cancer, with a potential role for robotic assistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1555009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4593916PMC
September 2015

Effect of Coexisting Pelvic Floor Disorders on Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scores: A Prospective, Survey-Based Study.

Dis Colon Rectum 2015 Nov;58(11):1091-7

1 Massachusetts General Hospital Pelvic Floor Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts 2 Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland 3 University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota 4 Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts.

Background: The association between an objective measure of fecal incontinence severity and patient-reported quality of life is poorly understood.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients with various degrees of fecal incontinence to determine whether their quality of life as measured by the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale is affected by coexisting pelvic floor disorders.

Design: This was a prospective, survey-based study.

Settings: The study was conducted at a tertiary pelvic floor disorders center.

Patients: Included patients were all of those presenting between January 2007 and March 2014.

Main Outcome Measures: Survey data were analyzed to determine the association between Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale, as well as scores from the Constipation Severity Instrument, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, Pelvic Organ Distress Inventory, and Urinary Distress Inventory.

Results: A total of 585 patients reported fecal incontinence ranging from none (n = 191) to mild/moderate (n = 159) to severe (n = 235). As expected, patients with severe fecal incontinence have worse scores on all fecal incontinence quality-of-life subscales (lifestyle, coping/behavior, depression/self-perception, and embarrassment) and worse colorectal/anal symptoms than those with mild/moderate or no fecal incontinence (p < 0.0001). Patients with severe fecal incontinence also have worse bladder/urinary symptoms (p ≤ 0.0001). Pelvic organ prolapse and constipation symptoms were similar between groups (p ≥ 0.61). After correcting for baseline differences in patient comorbidities and bladder/urinary symptoms, a significant association persisted between Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and all of the subscales of the fecal incontinence quality-of-life instrument (p < 0.0001). However, urinary distress scores also remained significantly associated with all of the fecal incontinence quality-of-life subscales except for embarrassment after risk adjustment (p < 0.01).

Limitations: Nongeneral population and a lack of patient data on previous medical management of fecal incontinence were limitations of this study.

Conclusions: The Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale correlates strongly with instruments measuring both fecal and urinary incontinence. This underscores the importance of quantifying the presence or absence of coexistent urinary leakage in studies where a drop in fecal incontinence quality of life is considered a primary end point.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000000459DOI Listing
November 2015

Transanal endoscopic resection with peritoneal entry: a word of caution.

Surg Endosc 2016 May 12;30(5):1816-25. Epub 2015 Aug 12.

Department of Surgery, Mount Sinai Hospital, 5 East 98th Street Box 1249, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Background: Peritoneal entry during transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) can usually be managed transanally with full-thickness suture closure by experienced operators. The preliminary safety of transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) has been demonstrated, but the reported experience with upper rectal tumors is limited. The incidence and management of peritoneal entry during transanal endoscopic surgery across various platforms have not been previously evaluated.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database of all transanal endoscopic resections performed at a single institution between January 2008 and December 2014 was conducted. Cases with and without peritoneal entry were evaluated with respect to transanal platform used, surgical indication, size, location and distance from the anal verge, and incidence of postoperative complications.

Results: A total of 78 transanal endoscopic procedures were performed on 76 patients using the rigid transanal endoscopic operation (TEO, 65.4 %), TEM (26.9 %), and TAMIS platform (7.7 %). The most common surgical indication included endoscopically unresectable adenomas (50 %). The average distance of lesions from the anal verge (AV) was 9.6 cm (range 4-20 cm). Peritoneal entry occurred in 22 cases (28.2 %). Platform used (TAMIS vs. rigid, p < 0.05), mean distance from the AV (p < 0.0001), location along the rectum (p = 0.01), and mean specimen size (p = 0.01) were associated with a higher likelihood of peritoneal entry. All rectal defects associated with peritoneal entry were successfully closed transanally except for two (TEM and TEO) cases that required conversion to laparoscopic low anterior resection and laparoscopic Hartmann's, respectively. There were four TAMIS cases that required conversion to TEO platforms.

Conclusion: In this high-risk TEM, TEO, and TAMIS series (one-third of rectal lesions located in the upper rectum), 91 % of all peritoneal entries were managed transanally without increased morbidity. TAMIS for upper rectal lesions was associated with a high risk of complicated peritoneal entry requiring conversion to a rigid platform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-015-4452-yDOI Listing
May 2016

Does active smoking induce hematogenous metastatic spread in colon cancer?

Am J Surg 2015 Nov 16;210(5):930-2. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, 15 Parkman Street 02114, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: No consensus exists on the influence of active smoking on the baseline staging of colon cancer patients.

Methods: A cohort of colon cancer patients treated surgically at Massachusetts General Hospital (2004 to 2011) was reviewed.

Results: Of 1,071 patients, 563 reported ever smoking, among which 128 (12%) patients were current smokers. Ex-smokers and never smokers had similar rates of nodal (relative risk [RR] .9, P = .19) and metastatic disease (RR .96, P = .72), leading to comparable colon cancer-related mortality (RR 1.01, P = .95). Current smokers had similar rates of lymph node disease (RR 1.01, P = .88), but had significantly higher stage-adjusted odds of metastatic disease at presentation (odds ratio 2.57, 95% confidence interval 1.36 to 4.98, P = .005), in addition to higher stage-adjusted all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.44, P = .017).

Conclusions: Active smoking was a stage-independent risk factor for baseline hematogenous metastasis and mortality. As this link was not present in former smokers, a potential healthcare benefit may be achieved in terms of baseline colon cancer presentation and outcomes through smoking cessation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2015.03.034DOI Listing
November 2015

Association of Radial Margin Positivity With Colon Cancer.

JAMA Surg 2015 Sep;150(9):890-8

Division of General Surgery and Gastrointestinal Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston.

Importance: In colon cancer, radial margin positivity (RMP) is defined as primary disease involvement at the cut edge of the mesentery or nonserosalized portions of the colon. Although extensively studied for rectal malignancies, RMP has unclear prognostic implications for tumors of the colon.

Objective: To determine the effect of RMP on perioperative outcomes as well as survival and disease-free survival in colon cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A retrospective cohort study including all patients with surgically treated colon cancer at a tertiary care center from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2011. The cohort was retrospectively extracted from an institutional patient data repository and included in a data repository maintained prospectively starting June 1, 2011, to April 1, 2014. Participants included 984 patients with surgical colon cancer in the given period, excluding patients with intramucosal tumors (n = 47), palliative resections (n = 24), and patients where radial margin status was not assessable (n = 16).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Surgical characteristics, postoperative staging, and long-term outcomes, including recurrence and disease-free survival.

Results: Of the 984 included cases, 52 (5.3%) had an involved radial margin. Patients with RMP had much higher rates of multivisceral resection (40.4% vs 12.8%; relative risk, 3.16 [95% CI, 2.18-4.58]; P < .001) and conversion (50.0% vs 13.7%; relative risk, 3.78 [95% CI, 1.56-9.18]; P = .01). All patients with RMP had American Joint Committee on Cancer stage II cancer or higher, with higher rates of node positivity (86.5% vs 38.8%; relative risk, 2.23 [95% CI, 1.95-2.55]; P < .001), metastasis (34.6% vs 6.7%; relative risk, 5.20 [95% CI, 3.34-8.11]; P < .001), extramural vascular invasion (76.9% vs 28.4%; relative risk, 2.71 [95% CI, 2.26-3.24]; P < .001), and high-grade tumor (45.1% vs 18.2%; relative risk, 3.01 [95% CI, 2.44-3.88]; P < .001). In patients without baseline metastasis, metastatic disease in follow-up was considerably higher in patients with RMP (37.5% vs 12.5%; relative risk, 3.32 [95% CI, 2.79-3.95]; P < .001), especially peritoneal (18.8% vs 2.6%; relative risk, 7.24 [95% CI, 2.40-21.8]; P < .001) and liver (18.8% vs 6%; relative risk, 3.10 [95% CI, 1.08-8.92]; P = .04) metastasis. In multivariable Cox regression, the hazard ratio for survival adjusted for baseline staging, age, comorbidity, smoking, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy was higher (hazard ratio, 3.39; 95% CI, 2.41-4.77; P < .001) compared with metastasis adjusted for baseline staging, smoking, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.43-2.89; P < .001). The median follow-up duration for patients alive on April 1, 2014, was 51 months (interquartile range, 33-76 months).

Conclusions And Relevance: An involved radial margin leads to high rates of conversion and multivisceral resection. Although occurring infrequently, RMP is an important stage-independent outcome predictor strongly associated with recurrence, risk of death, and shorter survival. Preoperative assessment, especially imaging, could play a key role in the timely identification of potential patients with RMP to take adequate preparatory surgical and therapeutic measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2015.1525DOI Listing
September 2015

Variations in Metastasis Site by Primary Location in Colon Cancer.

J Gastrointest Surg 2015 Aug 2;19(8):1522-7. Epub 2015 May 2.

Division of General and Gastrointestinal Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 15 Parkman Street, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Objective: The purpose of this paper is to determine whether sites of distant recurrence are associated with specific locations of primary disease in colon cancer.

Methods: A cohort including all patients (n = 947) undergoing a segmental colonic resection for colon cancer at our center (2004-2011) comparing site-specific metastatic presentation and recurrence rates, as well as their respective multivariable American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage-adjusted hazard ratios (mHR).

Results: Right-sided colectomies (n = 557) had a lower overall metastasis rate (24.8% vs. 31.8%; P = 0.017; mHR = 1.24 [95% CI: 0.96-1.60]; P = 0.011) due to significantly lower pulmonary metastasis in follow-up (2.7% vs. 9%; P < 0.001; mHR = 0.32 [95% CI: 0.17-0.58]; P = 0.001) and lower overall liver metastasis rate (15.6 vs. 22.1%; P = 0.012; mHR = 0.74 [95% CI: 0.55-0.99];P = 0.050). Left colectomies (n = 127) had higher rates of liver metastasis during follow-up (9.4% vs. 4.8%; P = 0.029; mHR = 1.64 [95% CI: 0.86-3.15]; P = 0.134). Sigmoid resections (n = 238) had higher baseline rates of liver metastasis (17.1% vs. 11.3%; P = 0.015) and higher cumulative rates of lung (12.2% vs. 5.4%; P < 0.001; mHR = 2.26 [95% CI: 1.41-3.63]; P = 0.001) and brain metastases (2.3% vs. 0.6%; P = 0.033; mHR = 4.03 [95% CI: 1.14-14.3]; P = 0.031). Other sites of metastasis, including the (retro) peritoneum, omentum, ovary, and bone, did not yield significant differences.

Conclusions: Important variations in site-specific rates of metastatic disease exist within major resection regions of colon cancer. These variations may be important to consider when evaluating options for adjuvant treatment and surveillance after resection of the primary disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-015-2837-9DOI Listing
August 2015
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